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35 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Liberation theology
Started in Brazil. Has a bottom-up approach to liberating the poor.

Rooted in Catholicism.

Concerned with situations of destitution and injustice in the world
Theological reflection within community
Reflection from one’s concrete life experience
Starts with the human experience - social, political, economic, cultural.
Encounter between God and social evil and injustice
God and vulnerability
Concerned with the particularity of situations
Theology as a social act
Theology speaks in and through context
The context influences the content of theology
Feminist theology
Concerned with:
Women’s oppression/struggle for liberation
Women’s invisibility: search for women’s dignity
The oppressed: fight against sexism and racism
Unmasking androcentric scholarship and biases/ conscientization
Feminization of poverty
Empowers women to define theological issues for themselves
Struggles with male-manufactured women invisibility/marginality
Unmasking androcentric scholarship and biases/ conscientization
Womanist theology
Womanist Theology

Concerned with Faith, Survival and Freedom of the African-American Women and their communities.
Challenge injustice: exploitation resulting from unequal opportunities
Identifies and Critiques Black ‘Male’/ ‘White’ Feminist Liberation Theology
Privilege: male privilege/white privilege
Themes and issues in Womanist Theology
Triple-barreled threat: poverty, blackness and femaleness (Color, gender and class)
Survival: Celebration of survival – dance
Struggle to survive individually and collectively- community
Vulnerability: economic, political, social, disease - death
Celebration of survival – dance
Counter pain
God: Christology, Bible Stories, Church
Womanist theology
Literary tradition (why write?)
Derogatory stereotypes resisted and rejected through the literary tradition.

Chronicle of black women’s survival

Mirror black reality

Dig out the positive in the black community
Sources of Womanist Theology
Slave narratives: slave ships - slave auctions - slave women as breeders -freedom.
Traditional church doctrines,
African American fiction and poetry,
Nineteenth-century black women leaders,
Poor and working class women
Stories of black church women
Black women’s literary tradition
Womanist Theology
Forms of expression
Methodology/ Expression

Story telling

Cultural expressions: tales, songs - spirituals, prayers, dreams, visions.



Black women’s literary tradition: Literature, Poetry, Criticism
Hermeneutics of suspicion
a lens
for examining historical texts

a hermeneutic which involves a fundamental
philosophical reorientation

A hermeneutics of suspicion may be said to occupy a mediate horizon as distinguished
from the immediate and the ultimate, where the immediate involves only
a literal reading of the text and the ultimate a deeper meaning intended by the

While the “hermeneutics of suspicion” also seeks to determine a non-evident
meaning, such a hermeneutics focuses on a meaning which is different from
the author’s intention, whether evident or hidden.
Hermeneutics of remembrance
Through searching for the meaning of a text we often end up re-evaluating previous interpretations. This history of understanding shows the living meaning of a text several generations, and while we want to remember the foundational events, we also discover their critical and spiritual meaning through time. Seeking what happened, we generally find what was remembered and how it was remembered.
Ordinary readers
They engage in an exegesis with the text. They understand the text in the context of their culture.

They are the subjects of study for trained readers.
Liberal feminism
also known as "main stream feminism," hopes to assert the equality of men and women through political and legal reform. It is an individualistic form of feminism and theory, which focuses on women’s ability to show and maintain their equality through their own actions and choices.
Socialist Feminism
a branch of feminism that focuses upon both the public and private spheres of a woman's life and argues that liberation can only be achieved by working to end both the economic and cultural sources of women's oppression[1].

A dualist theory that broadens Marxist feminism's argument for the role of capitalism in the oppression of women and radical feminism's theory of the role of gender and the patriarchy.
Trained readers
Educated people who take a scholarly approach to studying to studying theology. Can pull from a variety of channels to let the ordinary reader understand the text.
Body Theology
questioning the androcentric, male centered bible. Done by trained readers to pass info to ordinary readers. --> consciousness. --> solidarity between all people.
Third World Theologies
Triple Barrel Threat: color, gender, class.

deals with the invisibility of women. Deals with reality, real-life experiences. Need to understand the specifics of each locale. God is part of any injustice in the world.
Very connected with community.

Trying to attack injustices through hermeneutics.

Study --> redefine --> write.
Compare/contrast of women in Asia, Africa and Latin America
Asian societies: religion oppresses women in Asia.

Third world liberation theology started in latin america

Africa: women have a large role in society

All three places have very different religious backgrounds.

Asian theology and African theology have the aspect of colonialism.
Basic Indian Philosophy:
Concentration on the spiritual
Man is spiritual,
relates to a spiritual universe

Religion/philosophy and life
Intimate relationship

Acceptance of authority
One who has realized can teach

Synthetic approach
true religion comprehends all religions
Basic Hindu Belief
Moksha (liberation)
Achieved by works, knowledge, loving devotion.
Liberation from pain suffering, loss, all forms of estrangement.
Union with God
Basic Hindu Belief
Karma (the law of deeds).

All deeds and thoughts has consequences

Continue from life to life in an embodied existence.

Room for growth and gradual perfection.
Social ordering
Fourfold division of society, the caste system.
Religious and social duties are intertwined
Fosters purity, solidarity, and cooperation
Birth is not an accident- ‘I am where I belong’
Live according to your ‘dharma’, social duty
Class division
(a merge of the class and caste)
Upper classes
1.Brahmins: study & teach Vedic, preside over rituals
2. Kshatriya: warrior, and administration of government
3. Vaishya: producer, business people
Lowest Class
4. Shudra: servants of the upper classes, forbidden to hear or study the Vedas (Hindu scripture)
5. No varna (class) Outcastes: live outside the cities, hunters, fishermen, sweepers, handlers of dead bodies.
Birth, jati system of castes
Closed social groups determined by birth
Each jati belongs to one of the five classes
Women’s leadership roles in Hinduism
Male centered society
Subordinate roles in Hindu society
Women divine models in great goddesses, Devi (the energizing power of all gods)
Women guru and spiritual leaders

Indira Gandhi (1917-1984)
Rose to the highest political and moral leadership
Made women’s lives and leadership more central
Changed modern Indian law on the untouchables.
Mahatma Gandhi (1869 - 1948) took care of the untouchables in an effort to reform India
Hindu social ordering
Positive Aspects
Provides a sense of security and identity
People know where they belong
No competition for higher places
No bitterness since one’s caste is determined by one’s past karma
(563 B.C.- 483B.C.)

A few obtain ‘nirvana’
Sri Lanka, Burma, Thailand

All enter ‘nirvana’
N/E Asia, China Korea, Japan
Buddhism major teachings
Suffering: to live is to suffer, rebirth perpetuates it.
Cause of suffering/life: desire, craving
Ending suffering: eliminating all desire
Eliminating desire: Follow the ‘noble path’, path to nirvana
ie. right views, right intent/aim, right speech, right conduct/action, right means of livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right meditation/contemplation.
Existential awakening to egolessness attained through liberation from craving.
awakened, Enlightened, made aware.
Enlightenment as dynamic spiritual awareness

Enlightenment is the purpose of all study, morality & self development

Begins with great renunciation

Happen during deep meditation
Confucianism is based on the moral, social, political, and religious teachings of Confucius based on the ancient Chinese traditions.
characteristics of Ancient Chinese Religions

The mountains, rivers, land , the heavens, the sun, moon, and stars spirited

Heaven-god, T'ien (Heaven) , Ti (Lord), or Shang-ti (Supreme Lord) reigns supreme

T'ien upholds moral laws

He punishes evil calamities and early death

Ancestor veneration
Confucius, The Teacher
Confucius, K’ung-tze, 551- 478 B.C
Confucian understanding of faith:
The Way (Tao) is the foundation of the cosmos and human existence.
The essentials of the Way have been recorded in the classics.
The Way of the classics is revealed through learning and practise.
Power and force cannot apply the Way to our lives
Faith is not directed to one single object of worship
No original sin, no grace
Human transcendence
It is achieved through human efforts in family, community and society

By means of rituals, ethics and politics

Through the guidelines of the classics
Harmony and Equilibrium
It is the essence of the universe and of human existence.

Links the sacred with the secular.

Social harmony leads to spiritual transcendence

'The Great Harmony is called the Way'
Ivone Gebara
Ivone Gebara is a Brazilian Sister of Our Lady (Canoneses of St. Augustine) and one of Latin America’s leading theologians, writing from the perspective of ecofeminism and liberation theology. For nearly two decades Gebara has been a professor at the Theological Institute of Recife. The author of Longing for Running Water: Ecofeminism and Liberation, Gebara articulates an ecofeminist perspective that combines social ecofeminism and holistic ecology, promoting an “urban ecofeminism” shaped by her experiences of working with poor women in Brazilian favelas (slum neighborhoods). Gebara claims that ecofeminism is born of “daily life” and thus considers garbage in the street, inadequate health care, and other daily survival crises faced by poor women as they provide for family sustenance, to be central issues in ecofeminist liberation theology. Gebara proposes a new theological anthropology, model for God, trinitarian language, Christology, and “religious biodiversity” from the perspective of Latin American ecofeminism.
Nickel and Dimed
There are hidden costs (security deposits)

there is little assistance for the working poor

related to liberation theology and theology from below: raises consciousness of
Longing for Running Water
relates to feminine theology and feminist theology

male-centered christianity, need to abandon it.

knowledge dominated by men was considered "true" knowledge. women have experiential knowledge, not real knowledge.

human-centeredness destroys the environment.

Gebara believes that relatedness/God needs to be the center of the universe, it the primary, foundationational reality.