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17 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Mediate Inference
2 premises leads to conclusion.
Immediate Inference
1 premise leads to conclusion.
Major Term
- Predicate of conclusion.
- Also in major premise.
Minor Term
- Subject of conclusion.
- Also in minor premise.
Middle Term
- In both premises but not the conclusion.
Standard Form
- Major premise first, minor premise second, conclusion last.
- Exactly 2 premises & a conclusion.
- Exactly 3 terms (major, minor, middle).
- Form of the major premise, form of minor premise, form of conclusion, in that order.
- Indicate the position of the middle term.
- Order is always from P to M to M to S.
Distribution of Terms
Distributed vs. Undistributed
- Distribution means all members of a class while undistributed means some members of the class.
Rules for Syllogistic Validity: Terms
- There must be exactly three unambiguous categorical terms.
- Violation: Fallacy of four terms (quaternio terminorum).
Rules for Syllogistic Validity: Middle Term
- The middle term must be distributed in at least one premise.
- Violation: Fallacy of the undistributed middle.
Rules for Syllogistic Validity: Distribution
- Any term distributed in the conclusion must also be distributed in its premise.
- Violation #1: Fallacy of the illicit major.
- Violation #2: Fallacy of the illicit minor.
Rules for Syllogistic Validity: Affirmative Premises
- At least one premise must be affirmative.
- Violation: The fallacy of exclusive premises.
Rules for Syllogistic Validity: Negative Premises
- If either premise is negative, the conclusion must also be negative.
- Violation: the fallacy of drawing an affirmative conclusion from negative premises.
Rules for Syllogistic Validity: Universal Premises
- If both premises are universal, then the conclusion must also be universal.
- Violation: Existential Fallacy