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14 Cards in this Set

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Argument
A group of propositions with one of them being affirmed by the others.
Conclusion
A statement supported by the premises.
Inference
A psychological process of bringing about the conclusion of an argument.
Premise
A reason for believing the conclusion.
Logic
Principles and methods used to distinguish between correct and incorrect reasoning.
Philosophy
Fundamental assumptions and beliefs and arguments to support those beliefs.
Proposition
A true or false statement.
Sound Argument
Has a valid form and premises are true.
Three Major Branches of Philosophy
1. Metaphysics
2. Epistemology
3. Ethics
Metaphysics
Study of nature of reality
Epistemology
study of nature of knowledge

(logic falls under this)
Ethics
morality
3 Major Theories of Epistemology
1. Empiricism - acquire knowledge through the senses

2. Rationalism - knowledge is based on reasoning alone

3. Skepticism - all so-called knowledge is subject to doubt.
Valid Form
An argument is valid when, if its premises are ture, then its conclusion MUST be true; otherwise, the argument is invalid.

Deals with the form of the argument: is it possible for the conclusion to be false at the same time the premises are true? If so, the argument is invalid.