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63 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
which class of levers is ALWAYS at a mechanical disadvantage?
third class levers
which class of levers is ALWAYS at a mechanical advantage?
second class levers
what are fascicles?
bundles of skeletal muscle fibers (cells) within a muscle
what is another name for the agonist?
prime mover
what muscle helps the prime mover (or agonist) work more efficiently?
synergist
what is an everyday example and a
body example of a 1st class lever?
1st class - fulcrum in the middle -
a seesaw, and the head on the neck
Using the biceps brachii as an example of a 3rd class
lever in the body, what would be the fulcrum?
the elbow joint
Using the biceps brachii as an example of a 3rd class
lever in the body, what would represent the "effort"?
the contraction of the biceps brachii muscle
Using the biceps brachii as an example of a 3rd class
lever in the body, what would represent the "load"?
the weight of the hand and the forearm
Within a fascicle, all the muscle fibers are
parallel to one another? true or false
true
what is an everyday example and a body example of a 2nd class lever?
2nd class - load in the middle -
a wheelbarrow,
and standing on tip toes
what is an everyday example and
a body example of a 3rd class lever?
3rd class - 3ffort in the middle
a pair of tweezers,
and most muscles in our bodies
(biceps brachii moving the forearm)
which type of lever has
the fulcrum in the middle?
1st class lever
which type of lever has
the load in the middle?
2nd class lever
which type of lever has
the effort in the middle?
3rd class lever
which class of lever is the
most common in the body?
3rd class lever system
what are other names for joints?
articulation
arthrosis
the point of contact between 2 bones, bone and cartilage,
or bone and teeth is called what?
joint or articulation
what is the study of joints called?
arthrology
joints are classified how?
by structure (anatomy)
and function (type of movement)
what are the structural classifications of joints?
fibrous
cartilaginous
synovial
what are the functional classifications of joints?
synarthrosis (immoveable)
amphiarthrosis (partialy moveable)
diarthrosis (freely moveable)
what is another name for synovial joints?
diarthrotic joints
which type of joint has no movement?
synathrotic
which type of joint has a little movement?
amphiathrotic
which type of joint is freely moving?
diarthrotis or synovial
what are 3 types of synarthrotic joints?
suture
synchondrosis
gomphosis
structurally, what type of joint is a suture?
fibrous
what is the name of a fibrous joint composed
of a thin layer of dense fibrous connective tissue
that unites skull bones?
suture
what is a cartilaginous joint in which the
connecting material is hyaline cartilage.
(see hint)
synchondrosis
An example is an epiphyseal plate, rib cage, and sternum.
structurally, what type of joint is a gomphosis?
fibrous
what are the types of amphiarthrotic joints?
syndesmosis
symphysis
What is the functional classification and joint type (name)
of a ligament or interosseous membrane?
amphiarthrotic (syndesmosis)
what type of cartilaginous joint has a disc
of fibrocartilage as connecting material?
symphysis
the intervertebral discs are an example of
what type of joint? (name)
symphysis
what are the 2 layers of the articular capsule?
the outer fibrous capsule (which may contain ligaments)
the inner synovial membrane (which secretes synovial fluid)
what type of joint is 2 flat surfaces articulating with one another,
allowing for side-to-side and back & forth movements?
gliding or planar joints
what type of joint is the convex surface of one bone
articulating into a concave surface of another.
hinge joint
what type of joint is a rounded surface of one bone articulating with a ring.
pivot joint
What type of joint is an oval shaped surface
fitting into a depression of another bone?
condyloid
what type of synarthrosis is the rib cage?
synchondrosis
what is the structural difference between a
synchondrosis and a symphasis?
they are both cartilagenous,
but a symphasis has connective tissue made of fibrocartilage
while synchondrosis has connective tissue made of hyaline cartilage
the bones at a synovial joint are covered
by a layer of hyaline cartilage called what?
articular cartilage
what does articular cartilage do?
reduces friction between bones
and helps to absorb shock
the structural classification of a joint is based on 2 criteria.
what ?
1. the presence or absence of a space between the articulating bones.
2. the type of connective tissue that binds the bones together
articulations are supported by what 3 things?
ligaments
joint capsules
surrounding muscles
what type of joints are
intercarpal and intertarsal joints?
gliding or planar joints
what type of joint has movement in 1 plane
and is typically extension/flexion?
hinge joint
elbow or knee
which type of joint allows for movement in 1 plane
and would rotate about a long axis?
pivot joint
What two types of diarthrotic joints
are mono-axial?
hinge joint
pivot joint
What types of diarthrotic joints are multi-axial?
saddle joint
ball & socket joint
Name the 6 types of diarthrotic joints,
and weather they move in 1, 2, or 3 planes.
hinge & pivot joints = 1 plane
condyloid & gliding joints = 2 planes
saddle & ball/socket joints = 3 planes
what type of muscle tension occurs
(isometric or isotonic)
when tension develops
but the load is not moved
isometric
what type of muscle tension occurs
(isometric or isotonic)
when the tension developed overcomes
the load and muscle shortening occurs
isotonic
what are the connective tissue wrappings of muscle
from outer layer to inner layer?
epimysium
perimysium & fascicles
endomysium
an overcoat of dense irregular connective tissue
that surrounds the whole muscle
epimysium
what are fascicles?
within each skeletal muscle, the fibers are grouped
into fascicles (resembles a bunch of sticks)
what surrounds the fascicles?
perimysium
within each fascicle, each muscle fiber is surrounded
by a fine sheath of connective tissue consisting mostly
of reticular fibers called?
endomysium
what kind of fascia separates muscle from skin?
superficial fascia
what kind of fascia lines the body wall and limbs
and holds muscle together?
deep fascia
what accessory connective tissue
covering connects muscle to bone
tendon
what accessory connective tissue covering is a
ribbon like band which connects muscle to muscle
aponeurosis