Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

138 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the 5 leukocytes?
1. Neutrophils
2. Monocytes
3. Eosinophils
4. Basophils
5. Lymphocytes
What are the 3 cell types that are considered granulocytes?
Neutrophilic, eosinophilic and basophilic lineages
What stimulates granulopoiesis?
Colony stimulating factors such as GM-CSF, G-CSF & IL-3
Where do most lymphocytes originate from?
The bone marrow or thymus or bursa in birds, but they leave and mature in lymphoid tissue like the thymus
What is the first line of defense against invading organisms in the body?
Neutrophils-they contain granules with microbiocidal activity
What are the 6 different stages of neutrophil maturation?
Band neutrophil---->
Segmented neutrophil---->
Hypersegmented neutrophil
How are the different stages of neutrophils named?
Based on their nuclear shape
-As neutrophils mature the nucleus shrinks down in size
What does the presence of band and metamyelocyte neutrophils in circulation indicate?
Accelerated granulocytic response on the part of the bone marrow
-Sort of like reticulocyte count indicates accelerated RBC production and release during anemia
What stage of neutrophil maturation has a kidney bean shaped nucleus?
What stage of neutrophil maturation is this cell?
What stage of neutrophil maturation is the cell at the bottom?
Metamyelocyte- kidney shaped nucleus
What are the 2 compartments in the bone marrow for neutrophils?
Proliferating compartment
Maturation/storage compartment
-Not physically different compartments
What are the neutrophils doing in the proliferating compartment?
Dividing & maturing at the same time
How long do neutrophils normally spend in the proliferating compartment of the bone marrow?
2 1/2 days
True or false. About 80% of neutrophils are in the storage compartment of the bone marrow
True or false. Neutrophils are no longer maturing when in the storage compartment of the bone marrow.
False, they are still maturing and can be released on demand
When does a "left shift" occur?
The early response to neutrophil demand- neutrophils are released from the storage compartment
What is the "orderly" release process of neutrophils?
Most mature neutrophils are released first and in greatest numbers w/ the next most mature neutrophils produced and released in the next greatest numbers
What is the function of neutrophils?
-Attracted to site of inflammation
-Binds to endothelium, then migrate thorugh to tissues
-In tissues, phagocytize and release granule constituents like degradative enzymes and antimicrobicidal agents
Neutrophils in the blood are divided up into what two "pools"?
Marginal (or marginated) pool
Circulating pool
What "pool" of neutrophils are you testing when you take a blood sample from a vein?
Circulating pool-NOT marginated pool they stick to small vessels
What is the average transit time of neutrophils i.e how long are neutrophils in circulation?
About 10 hours
Where do neutrophils go to die?
Most are destroyed in tissues or in the spleen, liver, or bone marrow, but some are lost through excretions or secretions
What is the specie variation in neutrophils?
Not much, bovine neutrophil cytoplasm stains a little pinker
What is different about neutrophils in amphibians, birds, reptiles, fish, and some mammals?
Have heterophils instead of neutrophils
True or false. Monocytes are stored in the bone marrow, like neutrophils.
False. not stored in the bone marrow they are released when mature
When are monocytes called macrophages?
Once they leave circulation and go to the tissues
What is the function of monocytes?
-Phagocytize and digest foreign material -Includes some types of micro-organisms and dead cells
-Antigen presenting cells (present antigen to lymphocytes)
How long does it take monocytes to mature?
24-36 hours
How long do monocytes circulate?
24 hours, then exit into tissues where become macrophages
What leukocyte tends to be the largest on a blood smear?
What does the nucleus of a monocyte look like?
Can be pretty much any shape
What are the characteristics of monocytes?
Sometimes vacuoles
Cytoplasm is greyish blue
No granules
Can have projections from cytoplasm-pseudopodia
True or false. Monocytes look the same in all species.
What kind of cell is this?
-Usually about 4 Xs the size of a RBC
What kind of cell is this?
How is basophil production similar to neutrophil production?
Both are stimulated by IL-3
What is the function of eosinophils?
Kill parasites
Contribute to allergic reactions
How long does eosinophil production take?
Produced in bone marrow in 2-6 days
How long do eosinophils circulate?
Briefly (an hour) then go to tissues
What leukocytes vary the most in appearance amongst species?
How do the eosinophilic granules appear on a bovine blood smear?
Small and evenly distributed
How do eosinophilic granules appear on a canine blood smear?
Granules are pinkish/salmon colored, sometimes small and indistinct and sometimes granules clump and together
How do eosinophilic granules appear on a feline blood smear?
Granules are linear and pinkish/salmon color
How do eosinophilic granules appear on an equine blood smear?
Very distinct raspberry like cells w/ orange granules
What kind of cell is this?
Canine eosinophil
What kind of cell is this?
Bovine eosinophil
What kind of cell is this?
Equine eosinophil
What kind of cell is this?
Feline eosinophil
What kind of cell is this?
Equine eosinophil
How long does it take the bone marrow to produce a basophil?
2 1/2 days
What is the main stimulant for basophil production?
What is the function of basophils?
Mainly hypersensitivity
Also inflammation-especially in immediate and delayed hypersensitivity
What do basophil granules contain?
Inflammatory mediators such as histamine
True or false. Basophils and mast cells are derived from the same progenitor cell.
False, similar functions but derived from different progenitor cells
How long do basophils circulate?
About 6 hours
How long can basophils live in the tissues?
Up to 2 weeks
How do basophils appear on histology?
Distinct purple granules, lobulated nucleus
How can you tell the difference b/w a mast cell and basophil on histology?
Basophil has lobulated nucleus but mast cells have a round nucleus
-Both have similar granules
What basophil is from a canine, equine, feline, bovine?
What are lymphocytes derived from?
Pluripotent stem cell in bone marrow then migrate to lymphoid tissues to mature
What is the function of lymphocytes? T cells? B cells?
-Crucial in acquired immune response
-T cells: function in cell-mediated immunity
-B cells: function in humoral immunity
-Both types produce cytokines
How long do lymphocytes live?
Weeks to years
What is different about the circulation of lymphocytes?
They can recirculate-go from blood to tissues to blood
What is the basis for vaccines that provide life long immunity?
Production of memory cells
What kind of cell is this?
What are the characteristics of lymphocytes on histology?
Smallest of the leukocytes
Generally a little bigger than a RBC
Mostly nucleus (Generally round) with a sliver of cytoplasm
How do reactive lymphocytes appear on a blood smear?
Bigger and bluer -cell is making proteins
What does it mean if there's a lot of reactive lymphocytes on a blood smear?
Just means that there is an antigen present that's stimulating lymphocytes-could be from a vaccine or could be due to an infectious agent or self antigens like w/ immune mediated hemolytic anemia
What do plasma cells look like on histology?
Blue cytoplasm, clear perinuclear area=golgi apparatus
What does it mean when there's lymphoblasts in circulation?
ABNORMAL-usually associated w/ leukemia
What do lymphoblasts look like?
Very big irregular nucleus, but still mostly nucleus, more blue than usual and has a nucleolus
What type of cell is this?
Reactive lymphocyte
What kind of cell is this?
Lymphoblast-abnormal, usually happens with leukemia
**What is different about ruminant lymphocytes?
Often have medium and large lymphocytes in addition to the standard small lymphocytes
What does a large granular lymphocyte look like?
Appears more magenta than pink
Little bigger than neutrophil granules and tend to be in one area of cytoplasm
Are large granular lymphocytes abnormal?
No, they are normal in some animals
What is leukocytosis?
General increase in WBCs
How do you calculate an absolute WBC count?
Total WBCs x Percentage
e.g. 10,000/ul x 0.5 (% of neutrophils)
How do you do a differential cell count?
Make a blood smear and stain, then count 100 leukocytes and classify them, then change into the absolute count.
What is leukocytosis?
General increase in WBCs
What are the cells shown above?
1. Lymphocyte
2. Basophil
3. Eosinophil
4. Segmented neutrophil
5. Band neutrophil
6. Monocyte
True or false. Nucleated RBCs are included in the leukocyte count when performed by automatic analyzers.
When do you use the correction formula for the presence of nucleated RBCs?
When there's more than 5 per 100 WBCs
What is a left shift?
When the number of immature neutrophils (usually band neutrophils) exceeds the reference range, but is still less than the number of mature neutrophils.
How can you differentiate b/w an immature neutrophil and a monocyte?
If look really closely can see the neutrophil will have light pink cytoplasm and monocytes have no granules and blue cytoplasm.
What is a degenerative left shift?
Band neutrophils outnumber mature neutrophils OR there's a significant left shift with neutropenia-bone marrow can't keep up with body's demand
What is the prognosis for a degenerative left shift?
Poor prognosis because the bone marrow can't keep up, except for cattle
Why is a degenerative left shift not a poor prognosis in cattle?
They have small marrow storage pools so at first (around 24 hours) there is a neutropenia, but then immature neutrophils are release as a normal response to inflammation so may look like a degenerative left shift
What is a right shift?
Hypersegmentation of neutrophils
What causes a right shift?
Usually artifact (happens if blood sits) but can happen with severe immunosuppression
What is a leukamoid reaction?
Means there is a "leukemia-like" response with marked neutrophilia and left shift -hard to distinguish from leukemia
-A severe inflammatory response
What are the 5 types of neutrophilia?
1) Physiologic neutrophilia
2) Corticosteroid-induced neutrophilia
3) Inflammatory neutrophilia
4) Neutrophilia induced by hemorrhage or hemolysis
5) Neutrophilia from myeloproliferative disease
True or false. Blood work of an animal with physiologic neutrophilia will have an increase in mature neutrophils but no left shift.
What causes physiologic neutrophilia?
Epinephrine release causes marginated neutrophils to get into circulation increases the neutrophil count
What animal commonly gets physiologic neutrophilia?
True or false. Even after the stimulus is removed, physiologic neutrophilia will remain.
False, after the stimulus is removed neutrophil numbers go back to normal.
Corticosteroid-induced neutrophilia is associated with a __________ leukogram.
Stress leukogram
What is a stress leukogram?
-Lymphopenia (big component)
-Monocytosis (especially in dog)
Why causes a stress leukogram?
Decreased migration to tissues, release of marginated neutrophils, increased marrow release
True or false. Stress leukograms are not very common.
False, very common
What's one big difference b/w corticosteroid-induced and physiologic neutrophilia?
Physiologic neutrophilia is acute and due to epinephrine release, corticosteroid-induced neutrophilis is a long term chronic problem and associated with corticosteroid release
Does inflammatory neutrophilia have mature neutrophilia or a left shift?
May be mature neutrophilia or a left shift-depends on duration and intensity
What would you see in the blood work of an animal with inflammatory neutrophilia and a stress leukogram?
Neutrophilia (with both) with a left shift (inflammation), lymphopenia, eosinopenia, monocytosis (most variable)
What is neutrophilia induced by hemorrhage or hemolysis probably due to?
Both inflammation and endogenous corticosteroid effects
What is neutrophilia from myeloproliferative disease most often due to?
Neoplastic proliferation of neutrophils
What are 5 causes of neutropenia?
1) Neutropenia due to increased margination
2) Neutropenia due to excessive tissue demand
3) Immune-mediated destruction of neutrophils
4) Neutropenia due to decreased production
5) Neutropenia due to maturation arrest in bone marrow
True or false. Increased margination is not a true neutropenia.
What is increased margination most commonly due to?
How does excessive tissue demand result in neutropenia?
Neutrophils migrate into tissues faster than they're put out by the bone marrow
What can be seen on a blood smear of an animal with neutropenia due to excessive tissue demand?
Often see a left shift and toxic neutrophils
With a normal bone marrow how long does it normally take for the neutrophil count to return to normal with neutropenia due to excessive tissue demand?
48-72 hours
What are 4 causes of neutropenia due to decreased production?
1) Drugs
2) Viral (e.g. parvovirus)
3) Ehrlichia spp.
4) Myelophthisis
True or false. Immune-mediated destruction of neutrophils is common.
False, uncommon
Neutropenia due to maturation arrest in the bone marrow is most commonly caused by what two things?
1. Viral infection
2. Myelodysplasia
What are 2 causes of monocytosis?
1. Chronic or acute inflammation (chronic is more common)
2. Stress leukogram
What are 2 common causes of eosinophilia?
1. Parasitic infection
2. Hypersensitivity
What are 3 less common causes of eosinophilia?
1. Idiopathic
2. Tumor-related
3. Hypoadrenocorticism
What specie of eosinophil is being shown?
What causes eosinopenia?
Part of stress leukogram
What's the difference b/w a basophil and a mast cell?
Nucleus is different:
Mast cell=round
What are the causes of basophilia?
Similar to eosinophilia-parasitic infections, hypersensitivity
True or false. It's common to not find basophils on a differential cell count.
What are 3 causes of lymphocytosis?
1) Physiologic
2) Antigenic stimulation
3) Bovine leukemia virus
What causes physiologic lymphocytosis?
Epinephrine response-similar to neutrophilia
True or false. Acute antigenic stimulation results in lymphocytosis.
False, chronic antigenic stimulation results in lymphocytosis
What type of diseases cause antigenic stimulated lymphocytosis?
Rickettsial disease-ehrlichiosis, others
True or false. Bovine leukemia virus always results in leukemia.
False, not always, about 30% of cattle get lymphocytosis that's not neoplastic and not leukemia (circulating abnormal lymphocytes)
Bovine leukemia virus is associated with persistent _________.
What are 4 causes of lymphopenia?
1. Stress leukogram
2. Immunosuppression by drugs
3. Loss of lymph (uncommon)
4. Immunodeficiency
True or false. Toxic neutrophils are associated with toxins or toxemia.
False, not necessarily related to toxins
What are toxic neutrophils?
Neutrophils that have some abnormal morphologic features because they are formed in the face of an inflammatory influence on the bone marrow. The intense inflammatory influence causes an increase in the rate of neutrophil formation and the cells end up having increase amounts of some type of organelles that are usually only present in earlier stages of neutrophil development
When are toxic neutrophils formed?
In the face of intense inflammatory influence
What are 5 changes that may be seen in toxic neutrophils?
1) Cytoplasmic basophilia: due to retention of RNA and ribosomes
2) Dohle bodies-aggregates of RER, greyish blue
3) Vacuolated, "foamy" cytoplasm-retained RNA and ribosomes
4) Toxic granules- retained primary granule
5) Giant neutrophils, bands, or metamyelocytes bc they aren't maturing in sync
What causes hyposegmented band neutrophils with no left shift?
A feature of Pelger-Huet anomaly: inherited or secondary
True or false. The Pelger huet anomaly (hyposegmented neutrophils with mature-looking, condensed chromatin) implies inflammation.
False, it is NOT a left shift and does not imply inflammation
What causes hypersegmentation of neutrophils?
Artifact or poodle bone marrow dyscrasia
What are 4 organisms that live in leukocytes?
1) Bacteremia
2) Distemper inclusions
3) Ehrlichia spp.
4) Hepatozoon americanum