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184 Cards in this Set

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How do WBC's exit circulation
WBC's stick to endothelial cell surface, squeeze b/w endothelial cells of capillaries via pseudopodia
Through what mechanism are WBC's attracted to inflammatory sites?
Attracted via chemotaxis via cytokine release
What is a cytokine
anything that can attract or modify the behavior of antoehr cell
How are WBC's categorized
Categorized as granulocytes (w/ granules) or agranulocytes (w/o granules). Note: this def refers only to 2' granules
Primary granules are possessed by which granulocytes?
1' granules are possed by ALL WBC's
How do 1' granules stain?
Stain blue-purple
What is the name of 1' granules
azurophilic granules
What do 1' granules contain? Give an example.
Lysosomal enzymes (E.g. acid hydrolases)
What are the specific granules possessed by granulocytes?
2' granules (absent in agranulocytes
What do 2' granules contain?
lsozyme & alkaline phosphatases
How do 2' granules stain?
Variable colors
What are the types of granulocytes
Basophils, eosinophils and neutrophils ("BEN")
What characteristics do all granulocytes have in common?
All have single, multi-lobed nucleus & prominent cytoplasmic granules
What are neutrophils
granular WBC that stains with both basic and acidic dyes
What is the most common WBC?
Neutrophils
What are the histological characteristics of neutrophils?
Multi-lobed nucleus (3-5)
What is another name for neutrophils
Polymorphonuclear cells
How long do neutrophils live
Several hours
How do neutrophils derive energy?
anaerobic glycolysis (contain few mitochondria)
What do the 1' granules of neutrophils contain? What is it's function?
Neutrophils contain MYELOPEROXIDASE; an antimicrobial
How do neutrophilic's 2' granules stain?
Stain either basophilic or eosinophilic - overall NEUTRAL
What do neutrophilic 2' granules contain
Inflammatory mediators, complement activators, proteases and lysozyme (antibacterial compounds)
During what type of rxn are neutrophilic 2' granules released?
Inflammation rxn
How many different granule types do neutrophils contain
Three (3)
What do neutrophilic 3' granules contain? Function?
Gelatinase. Breaks down ECM collagen allowing passage of neutrophil to inflammatory site
Neutrophils are associated with what medical condition
Acute inflammation
Define length of acute, subacute and chronic inflammations.
Acute (< week). Subacute (~1wk - 10days). Chronic (> 10 days)
What are the cardinal signs of of inflammation
Rubor, tumor calor, et dolore (redness, swelling, heat and pain)
How do basophils stain? Eosinophils? Neutrophils?
Whereas basophilic white blood cells stain dark blue and eosinophilic white blood cells stain bright red, neutrophils stain a neutral pink
Are neutrophils mobile?
Yes, highly motile
How are neutrophils attracted?
Attracted to BACTERIA and damaged tissue by chemotactic factors
What is the primary function of neutrophils?
PHAGOCYTOSIS
What occurs after neutrophilic phagocytosis?
Neutrophil becomes a PHAGOSOME which then fuses with lysosome to form PHAGOLYSOSOME to digest bacteria
What processes enhances phagocytosis? How?
Opsonization - coats bacteria with Ab and complement
Define respiratory burst. What leukocyte is it associated with?
Bacterial killing by generating H2O2 and hypochlorous acid (assoc. w/ neutrophils)
What are stab cells?
immature neutrophils
How do you identify stab cells?
Distinctive horeshoe shaped nucleus
What are basophils
granualar WBC that stains with basic dyes
What is the least common WBC
Basophils
Which leukocyte is the equivalent of a mast cell?
Basophil
What is a mast cell that has left the bloodstream and entered tissue
Basophil
How is a basophil identified on microscope
Highly granulated cell that stains dark blue
What do basophilic 2' granules contain?
Heparin sulfate, histamine, leukotriens, eosinophlic chemotactic factor (ECF)
What is the function of heparin sulfate
anticoagulant
What is the function of histamin
Vasodilation and increases vascular permeability
Which signaling molecule increases vascular permeability?
Histamine
What is the function of leukotrienes?
slow reacting substance of anaphylaxis (severe, whole body allergic reaction)
Which signaling molecule is associated with an asthma attack? How does it cause an attack
Leukotrienes. Cause smooth contraction of branchiloles
Basophils are associated with what medical condition
Hypersensitivty reaction (e.g. asthma or allergies)
What other type of WBC do basophils attract? How?
Eosinophils; through release of eosinophilic chemotactic factor (ECF)
What are eosinophils
granular WBC that stains with acidic dyes
What is the function of eosinophils
ameliorate/counteract inflammatory rxn of basophils
How is an eosinophil identified on microscopy
Bilobed (mickey mouse) nucleus that stains blue; cell looks like a raspberry
How long do eosinophils remain in circulation before entenig tissue
3-6 hours
How long do eosinophils survive in tissue
8-12 days
What surface receptor is found on eosinophils
IgE
What do eosinophilic 2' granules contain
Hydrolyic enzymes - histaminase, eosinophil peroxidase and major basic protein
What is the function of histaminase? What cell releases it?
neutralizes histamine; eosinophil
What is the function of major basic protein? What cell releases it? How does it function?
Neutralizes heparin AND kills parasites
Which WBC is capable of killing parasites? How does it do this?
Eosinophils. Releases major basic protein --> destroys antibody-antigen complexes
Which WBC is capable of killing bacteria
Neutrophil
How are eosinophils attracted to basophils and mast cells
chemotactically via ECF
What is the function of eosinophil derived inhibitor?
inhibits basophil and mast cell degranulation?
If an acidic dye were applied to WBC's, which granulocyte would be stained?
Eosinophil
If a basic dye were applied to WBC's, which granulocyte would be stained? What color?
Basophil
What are the agranulocytes?
Monocytes and lymphocytes
What characteristics do agranulocytes share?
have single, unlobed nucleus and lack 2' granules
If a leukocyte has a single, unlobed nucleus, it must be a …
agranulocyte
If a leukocyte has a multi-lobed nucleus it must be a …
granulocyte
Do agranulocytes contain granules
YES!!! They lack 2' (specific) granules but do have 1' (azurophilic granules)
What are the largest white blood cells?
Monocytes
How can a monocyte be identified
kidney bean shaped nucleus; abundant gray-blue cytoblasm
What does a monocyte become once it has entered tissue?
A macrophage
How long is a macrophage's lifespan
Several months
How can macrophages by classifed
On motility. Some are fixed in tissue, others are mobile
What are the main functions of macrophages?
Phagocytosis and antigen presenting
What is the main enzyme macrophages contain
Phagocytic - abundant hydrolytic enzymes
Moncytes/Macrophages are associated with what medical conditions?
Asctive in both subacute and chronic infections
What cell functions to "wall off" an injury? How does it do this?
Macrophages fuse together to become a multinucleate epitheliod giant
What is a lymphocyte
a mononuclear, agranular leukocyte
Lymphocytes are associated with what medical conditions?
Subacute and chronic infections
What is the lifespan of a lymphocyte
Days to years
What are the cellular characteristics of lymphocytes
Round, denslely staining nucleus with thin rim of cytoplasm
What is an immunocompetent cell
Lymphocytes
What is the primary cell of the immune system?
Lymphocytes
What are the types of lymphocytes
B and T cells
What is the % of each B and T cells
10% B-cells, 90% T-cells
Which leukocyte is associated with viral infections?
lymphocytes
What is the main function of B cells
produce antibodies in HUMORALLY mediated immune response
What occurs when a B-cell encounters an antigen?
B-cell undergo multiple divisions to prodce clone of antibody producing plasma cell
What processes are associated with B-cells?
amplification or "clonal expansion"
How to identifiy B-cell
pale crescent next to nucleus; more cytoplasm than other lymphocytes
How do WBC's exit circulation
WBC's stick to endothelial cell surface, squeeze b/w endothelial cells of capillaries via pseudopodia
Through what mechanism are WBC's attracted to inflammatory sites?
Attracted via chemotaxis via cytokine release
What is a cytokine
anything that can attract or modify the behavior of antoehr cell
How are WBC's categorized
Categorized as granulocytes (w/ granules) or agranulocytes (w/o granules). Note: this def refers only to 2' granules
Primary granules are possessed by which granulocytes?
1' granules are possed by ALL WBC's
How do 1' granules stain?
Stain blue-purple
What is the name of 1' granules
azurophilic granules
What do 1' granules contain? Give an example.
Lysosomal enzymes (E.g. acid hydrolases)
What are the specific granules possessed by granulocytes?
2' granules (absent in agranulocytes
What do 2' granules contain?
lsozyme & alkaline phosphatases
How do 2' granules stain?
Variable colors
What are the types of granulocytes
Basophils, eosinophils and neutrophils ("BEN")
What characteristics do all granulocytes have in common?
All have single, multi-lobed nucleus & prominent cytoplasmic granules
What are neutrophils
granular WBC that stains with both basic and acidic dyes
What is the most common WBC?
Neutrophils
What are the histological characteristics of neutrophils?
Multi-lobed nucleus (3-5)
What is another name for neutrophils
Polymorphonuclear cells
How long do neutrophils live
Several hours
How do neutrophils derive energy?
anaerobic glycolysis (contain few mitochondria)
What do the 1' granules of neutrophils contain? What is it's function?
Neutrophils contain MYELOPEROXIDASE; an antimicrobial
How do neutrophilic's 2' granules stain?
Stain either basophilic or eosinophilic - overall NEUTRAL
What do neutrophilic 2' granules contain
Inflammatory mediators, complement activators, proteases and lysozyme (antibacterial compounds)
During what type of rxn are neutrophilic 2' granules released?
Inflammation rxn
How many different granule types do neutrophils contain
Three (3)
What do neutrophilic 3' granules contain? Function?
Gelatinase. Breaks down ECM collagen allowing passage of neutrophil to inflammatory site
Neutrophils are associated with what medical condition
Acute inflammation
Define length of acute, subacute and chronic inflammations.
Acute (< week). Subacute (~1wk - 10days). Chronic (> 10 days)
What are the cardinal signs of of inflammation
Rubor, tumor calor, et dolore (redness, swelling, heat and pain)
How do basophils stain? Eosinophils? Neutrophils?
Whereas basophilic white blood cells stain dark blue and eosinophilic white blood cells stain bright red, neutrophils stain a neutral pink
Are neutrophils mobile?
Yes, highly motile
How are neutrophils attracted?
Attracted to BACTERIA and damaged tissue by chemotactic factors
What is the primary function of neutrophils?
PHAGOCYTOSIS
What occurs after neutrophilic phagocytosis?
Neutrophil becomes a PHAGOSOME which then fuses with lysosome to form PHAGOLYSOSOME to digest bacteria
What processes enhances phagocytosis? How?
Opsonization - coats bacteria with Ab and complement
Define respiratory burst. What leukocyte is it associated with?
Bacterial killing by generating H2O2 and hypochlorous acid (assoc. w/ neutrophils)
What are stab cells?
immature neutrophils
How do you identify stab cells?
Distinctive horeshoe shaped nucleus
What are basophils
granualar WBC that stains with basic dyes
What is the least common WBC
Basophils
Which leukocyte is the equivalent of a mast cell?
Basophil
What is a mast cell that has left the bloodstream and entered tissue
Basophil
How is a basophil identified on microscope
Highly granulated cell that stains dark blue
What do basophilic 2' granules contain?
Heparin sulfate, histamine, leukotriens, eosinophlic chemotactic factor (ECF)
What is the function of heparin sulfate
anticoagulant
What is the function of histamin
Vasodilation and increases vascular permeability
Which signaling molecule increases vascular permeability?
Histamine
What is the function of leukotrienes?
slow reacting substance of anaphylaxis (severe, whole body allergic reaction)
Which signaling molecule is associated with an asthma attack? How does it cause an attack
Leukotrienes. Cause smooth contraction of branchiloles
Basophils are associated with what medical condition
Hypersensitivty reaction (e.g. asthma or allergies)
What other type of WBC do basophils attract? How?
Eosinophils; through release of eosinophilic chemotactic factor (ECF)
What are eosinophils
granular WBC that stains with acidic dyes
What is the function of eosinophils
ameliorate/counteract inflammatory rxn of basophils
How is an eosinophil identified on microscopy
Bilobed (mickey mouse) nucleus that stains blue; cell looks like a raspberry
How long do eosinophils remain in circulation before entenig tissue
3-6 hours
How long do eosinophils survive in tissue
8-12 days
What surface receptor is found on eosinophils
IgE
What do eosinophilic 2' granules contain
Hydrolyic enzymes - histaminase, eosinophil peroxidase and major basic protein
What is the function of histaminase? What cell releases it?
neutralizes histamine; eosinophil
What is the function of major basic protein? What cell releases it? How does it function?
Neutralizes heparin AND kills parasites
Which WBC is capable of killing parasites? How does it do this?
Eosinophils. Releases major basic protein --> destroys antibody-antigen complexes
Which WBC is capable of killing bacteria
Neutrophil
How are eosinophils attracted to basophils and mast cells
chemotactically via ECF
What is the function of eosinophil derived inhibitor?
inhibits basophil and mast cell degranulation?
If an acidic dye were applied to WBC's, which granulocyte would be stained?
Eosinophil
If a basic dye were applied to WBC's, which granulocyte would be stained? What color?
Basophil
What are the agranulocytes?
Monocytes and lymphocytes
What characteristics do agranulocytes share?
have single, unlobed nucleus and lack 2' granules
If a leukocyte has a single, unlobed nucleus, it must be a …
agranulocyte
If a leukocyte has a multi-lobed nucleus it must be a …
granulocyte
Do agranulocytes contain granules
YES!!! They lack 2' (specific) granules but do have 1' (azurophilic granules)
What are the largest white blood cells?
Monocytes
How can a monocyte be identified
kidney bean shaped nucleus; abundant gray-blue cytoblasm
What does a monocyte become once it has entered tissue?
A macrophage
How long is a macrophage's lifespan
Several months
How can macrophages by classifed
On motility. Some are fixed in tissue, others are mobile
What are the main functions of macrophages?
Phagocytosis and antigen presenting
What is the main enzyme macrophages contain
Phagocytic - abundant hydrolytic enzymes
Moncytes/Macrophages are associated with what medical conditions?
Asctive in both subacute and chronic infections
What cell functions to "wall off" an injury? How does it do this?
Macrophages fuse together to become a multinucleate epitheliod giant
What is a lymphocyte
a mononuclear, agranular leukocyte
Lymphocytes are associated with what medical conditions?
Subacute and chronic infections
What is the lifespan of a lymphocyte
Days to years
What are the cellular characteristics of lymphocytes
Round, denslely staining nucleus with thin rim of cytoplasm
What is an immunocompetent cell
Lymphocytes
What is the primary cell of the immune system?
Lymphocytes
What are the types of lymphocytes
B and T cells
What is the % of each B and T cells
10% B-cells, 90% T-cells
Which leukocyte is associated with viral infections?
lymphocytes
What is the main function of B cells
produce antibodies in HUMORALLY mediated immune response
What occurs when a B-cell encounters an antigen?
B-cell undergo multiple divisions to prodce clone of antibody producing plasma cell
What processes are associated with B-cells?
amplification or "clonal expansion"
How to identifiy B-cell
pale crescent next to nucleus; more cytoplasm than other lymphocytes