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25 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Two things data determine
1. Graphs
2. Summaries
Categorical Data
Graphs: bar graphs, pie charts
Summaries: counts or percentages
Quantitative Data
Graphs: dotplot,stemplot,histograms, boxplots
Summaries: mean,median,quartiles, standard deviation
Bar graphs vs pie charts
Bar graphs are better as comparing bars is easier to comparing wedges in pie chart
Dotplot procedure
1. Over a number line put a dot on the value provided
2. Put an additional dot on a repeated value and stack in on top of a prior noted dot/value.
Stemplot procedure
1. Determine stems and leaves
2. Arrange stems on left and leaves on right
Further on stemplots
1. stems (tens place)
2. leaves (ones place)
3. We can divide stems into two lines
4. on two line stems 0-4 leaves are on the first line and 5-9 are on the second line.
Leaf Unit (LU)
***LU of 1 means that stems=tens & leaves=units
***LU of 10 means that
stems=hundred & leaves=tens
Two things data determine
1. Graphs
2. Summaries
Categorical Data
Graphs: bar graphs, pie charts
Summaries: counts or percentages
Quantitative Data
Graphs: dotplot,stemplot,histograms, boxplots
Summaries: mean,median,quartiles, standard deviation
Bar graphs vs pie charts
Bar graphs are better as comparing bars is easier to comparing wedges in pie chart
Dotplot procedure
1. Over a number line put a dot on the value provided
2. Put an additional dot on a repeated value and stack in on top of a prior noted dot/value.
Stemplot procedure
1. Determine stems and leaves
2. Arrange stems on left and leaves on right
Further on stemplots
1. stems (tens place)
2. leaves (ones place)
3. We can divide stems into two lines
4. on two line stems 0-4 leaves are on the first line and 5-9 are on the second line.
Leaf Unit (LU)
***LU of 1 means that stems=tens & leaves=units
***LU of 10 means that
stems=hundred & leaves=tens
historams
1. Choose the interval width and starting point for first inerval
2. Count number of observations in each interval
3. Display no.of observations in each interval with a vertical bar.
more on histograms
histograms are not unique as you can change them by:
1.changing width of interval(more values of x axis are included as a larger interval value, see applet)
2.changing starting point
comparing dotplots, stemplots and histograms
1.dotplots and stemplots for SMALL data sets
2. histograms for LARGE data sets.
3. stemplots help in identifying outliers as they are like histograms.
4. stemplot vs dot plot is personal preference.
5. histograms usu require computers
Shape
*it is the general pattern of distribution
look for: symmetery vs skewness & tails vs peaks
e.g
bell shaped, left and right skewed, bimodal (two peaks),flat
Center
*midpoint on x axis
look for: half data above and half data below
spread
*variablilty of data in a distribution
look for: min and max
outliers
*fall outside overall pattern of distribution.
note: a small break in a histogram may not mean that there is an outlier.
Bar Charts v Histograms
*(These are properties of bar charts)
1. Horizontal axis is categorical
2.spread,center and shape have no meaning
3. bars have breaks
Histograms v Bar Charts
*(These are properties of histograms)
1. x axis is quantitative
2. described by spread, shape and center
3. bars are adjacent