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100 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the 4 compartments of the leg?
Anterior, Lateral, Deep posterior, Superficial posterior.
Where does the short/small saphenous vein end? What vein does it dump into? What does it originate from?
It ends in the region of the knee and dumps into the popliteal vein. It originates from the venous arch on the foot.
What nerve runs with the short saphenous vein? WHat is its function?
The sural nerve runs with short saphenous, it is sensory and subcutaneous.
Match common fibular nerve and tibial nerve with medial/lateral.
Common fibular courses laterally
Tibia stays medial
On what aspect of the knee do the semimembranosous and semitendonosous cross the knee joint?
Medial aspect of the head.
WHere does the gastrocnemius take origin?
Both condyles of the femur. The heads unite though
What muscles form the popliteal fossa?
Gastrocnemius inferiorly, Biceps femoris long head laterally, semimembranosous and semitendonosous medially.
Describe the depth of the popliteal artery, vein and nerve.
Popliteal AV are very deep while the nerve is more superficial.
Which vessels pass through the adductor hiatus.
Popliteal artery and vein. Nerve does NOT.
Where does the saphenous nerve come from?
Femoral nerve
Where does the sural nerve come from?
From the tibial nerve. It courses down between the heads of the gastrocnemius muscle
What arteries supply the collateral circulation in the knee joint?
The Genicular arteries.
Where do the genicular arteries arise from?
THe popliteal artery and sometimes the femoral artery.
How can you feel a pulse in the popliteal fossa?
Need to flex the knee to release the crural fascia that is very tight over the popliteal fossa.
Where is the femoral artery located with respect to bony landmarks?
IT is half way between the ASIS and the pubic symphysis.
What compartment is gastrocnemius in?
The superficial posterior compartment.
Where does the tendon of gastrocnemius attach?
To the calcaneus
What is the action of gastrocnemious.
Plantar flexion and weak knee flexion.
What is it called when you point your foot upwards?
What is it called when you point your foot downwards?
Where are the muscles required for plantar flexion located?
In the posterior compartment of the leg.
WHat are the bones of the ankle? (3)
Lateral/medial malleolus and the talos bone of the foot.
What will a person who ruptures gastrocnemius experience?
A gun shot like sound. They feel like someone has kicked them in the leg. Their leg looks like a ball of muscle in it.
What muscle runs just under gastrocnemius?
Plantaris muscle.
What does the plantaris muscle originate from?
From the lateral condyle of the femur.
Where is the insertion of the plantaris muscle?
In the calcaneous.
What muscle attaches with the gastrocnemius to the calcaneous?
The soleus.
If the plantris ruptures what will its symptoms be similar to?
A rupture of gastrocnemius.
Do you do anything for a planaris muscle rupture?
NO only treat for pain.
What is another name for plantaris? Why is it called this?
It is called the freshman nerve because it looks like a nerve (uniform along its entire length)
What muscle is a great source for tendon for transplant?
Plantaris tendon.
What is the origin of the soleus muscle?
From the tibia and the fibia as well as the soleal line on the posterior aspect of the tibia.
What muscle makes up the majority of the "fleshiness" of the leg?
What is the action of the soleus muscle?
Plantar flexion.
What tendon do both gastrocnemius and soleus make?
Tendon calcaneus or Archilles tendon.
What nerve innervates soleus, plantaris and gastrocnemius?
Tibial nerve branches.
What artery supplies soleus, plantaris and gastrocnemius?
Popliteal arteries.
What are the 4 muscles in the deep posterior compartment of the leg?
Flexor Hallucis longus, Flexor digitorum longus, Tibialis posterior
Poplitius muscle
What side do the 3 parallel running muscles of the deep posterior compartment cross the ankle?
ON the medial side.
What is the most lateral of the deep posterior muscles?
Flexor Hallucis longus.
WHat is the action of flexor hallucis longus?
It is a flexor of the big toe.
WHat is the most muscular muscle of the deep posterior compartment of the thigh?
Flexor hallucis longus.
Where does flexor hallucis longus take origin?
From the tibia and fibula but mostly from the shaft of the fibula.
What is the most medial muscle of the posterior compartment?
Flexor digitorum longus.
Where does the flexor digitorum longus take origin?
Mostly from the shaft of the tibia.
What is the action of flexor digitorum longus?
Responsible for flexing the four lateral toes.
WHen you curl your toes what action are you performing?
What muscle lies between flexor hallicus longus and flexor digitorum longus?
Tibalis posterior.
What does tibialis posterior arise from?
Mostly interosseos membrane.
What do the muscles of deep posterior compart do? Flexor Halicus longus, flexor digitorum longus, and tibialis posterior?
ALl plantar flexors as well as perform inversion inward rotation of the foot. (sole medially/inward)
What is eversion?
Movement of the sole of the foot outwards.
What nerve passes through the origin of soleus?
Tibial nerve.
What nerve innervates the muscles of the deep posterior compartment of the let?
Tibial nerve.
Where does the Tibial nerve and tendons of the deep posterior compartment muscles cross the ankle?
They cross them posterior to the medial malleoulus.
What muscle does the popliteal artery lie on?
The popliteus muscle.
What is the origin of the popliteus muscle?
The lateral condyle of the femur.
Where does the popliteus muscle insert?
To the tibia superior to the soleal line.
What is the action of the popliteus muscle?
5 degree rotation between the femur and the tibia.
What is the importance of the action of popliteus?
It "locks" the knee in place so while standing erect the muscles can relax.
What are the contents of the adductor canal?
Femoral AV, Saphenous N, N to vastus medialis
What vessel does the saphenous nerve course with?
The great saphenous vein.
What vessel does the sural nerve course with?
The short saphenous vein
What does the popliteal artery split into and where?
It splits at the end of the popliteus muscle into the anterior tibial and posterior tibial artery.
What vessel goes through the opening in the interosseous membrane superiorly?
Anterior tibial artery.
What artery sends branches to the fibular artery?
Posterior tibial artery.
What are bound within the retinacula of the ankle?
FH longus tendon, Tibialis posterior tendon, FD longus tendon, Tibial nerve, posterior tibial artery
What supplies the lateral compartment of the leg?
The Fibular artery.
What does the fibular artery lie on?
The fibula.
What compartment does the anterior tibial artery form in?
The posterior compartment.
What is the most medial muscle of the anterior compartment of the leg?
Tibialis anterior muscle
What is the most lateral of the anterior compartment muscles?
Extensor digitorum longus.
What is the muscle between tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum longus in the anterior compartment of the leg?
Extensor hallucis longus.
What is the origin of tibialis anterior?
What is the origin of extensor hallicus longus?
Interosseous membrane
What is the origin of extensor digitorum longus?
What is the inferior attachment of extensor digitorum longus?
Lateral 4 toes plus one to the lateral metatarsal of the little toe called fibularis tertius muscle.
Describe what aspect of the foot EDL, EHL, and Tibialis A enter the foot.
On the anterior surface of the foot.
What are the 3 muscles in the lateral compartment of the foot?
Fibularis longus, fibularis brevis, and fibularis tertius.
Where do all 3 muscles of the lateral compartment of the foot attach?
To the base of the 5th metatarsal, posterior to the lateral malleoulus.
What do the muscles of the lateral compartment do?
plantar flex while the fibularis tertius dorsiflexes and everts foot.
What nerve supples the posterior compartment of the leg?
Tibial nerve
What nerve is very vulnerable do to it being so subcutaneous?
Common fibular nerve (lies on head/neck of fibula)
What 2 branches does the common fibular nerve divide into?
Superficial and deep branches.
What does the superficial portion of the common fibular nerve supply?
First the lateral compartment muscles then it is cutaneous to the lateral leg and the dorsum of the foot.
What does the deep portion of the common fibular nerve supply?
It supplies anterior compartments muscles then it innervates the skin between teh 1st and 2nd toes.
What is intermittant claudication? What muscles is it common in?
It is variable pain that comes and goes. It most commonly occurs in muscles of the postrior region of the leg.
What does intermittant claudication result from?
Usually some vascular disease of the posterior tibial artery. This compromises vasculature and causes anoxia.
What is the cause of anterior tibial syndrome or "shin splints"?
Compression of the anterior compartment of the leg due to the crural fascia being attached to the skin very tightly. Edema in here will increase pressure and compromise blood supply to the superficial fibular nerves.
What is a cure for anterior tibial syndrome?
Slit the crural fascia.
What artery runs through the gap in the fibula/tibial interosseous?
Anterior fibular artery.
What nerve does the anterior tibial artery run with?
Deep fibular nerve.
What nerve innervates teh skin over the anterior compartment?
superficial fibular nerve from the common fibular.
What artery supplies the lateral compartment?
The fibular artery.
What is the "heel" bone?
What are the tarsal bones?
Talus, calcaneus, navicular, cuboid, and 3 cunefirm bones (medial intermediate lateral)
What structures are under the flexor retinaculum?
Tibialis posteior, flexor digitorum longus, posterior tibial artery, tibial nerve
What structures are under the extensor retinaculum?
Tibialis anterior, extensor hallucis longus, extensor digitorum longus, peroneus tertius.
Are the saphenous nerve and great sapheous vein under the extensor retinaculum?
What structrues course in the posterior lateral portion of the ankle?
Sural nerve, small saphenous vein, peroneus brevis and longus, posteriro talofibular ligament.
What structures course in the posterior medial portion of the ankle?
Plantaris tendon.