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330 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the largest organ of the human body?
Skin
Matter
anything that has mass and occupies space
What is cell theory?
cells are basic living unit and all cells come from other pre-exsisting cells
Anatomy
Science of body structures and relationships among them.
Describe the two parts of the skin
Epidermis - superficial layer of epithelium (external)
Dermis - deep connective tissue (deep)
Atoms
the smallest stable units of matter, composed of 3 subatomic particles (protons, neutrons, electrons)
What is homeostasis?
balanced internal environment, which allows biochemical mechanisms to function.
Physiology
Science of body functions and how body parts work.
What are the functions of the skin?
Protection, sensation, temp regulation, vit. D production, excretion
Protons
(p+): positively charged particle, in nucleus
Describe prokaryotic cells.
bacteria; no nucleus but a nucliod, no membrane bound organelles.
Organization of the Body
Chemical, celluar, tissue, organ, system, organismal.
What is the epidermis described as?
keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
Neutrons
(n0): uncharged particle, in nucleus
Describe eukarytoic cells.
plants, animals; nucleus, membrane bound organelles
What are merkel cells and where are they found?
epidermis; reception of light touch
Electrons
(e): negatively charged particle; orbits nucleus because they’re attracted to protons
What is a protoplasm?
contents of a living cell; includes organelles, cytoplasm and nucleus
What are langerhans cells and where are they found?
epidermis; immune system
Element
substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by ordinary chemical reactions
What is a cytoplasm?
everything within the cell membrane not including the nucleus.
What waterproofs the skin?
keratin protien.
Which four elements make up 96% of the body?
Carbon, Oxygen, Hydrogen, Nitrogen
What is a nucleoplasm?
the contents of the cell nucleus
What are keratinocytes?
: comprises 90% of all of epidermal cells
What are the important trace elements found in the body?
iodine, copper
Describe the cell membrane.
outside layer of cell, selectivly
What are melanocytes?
produces the pigment melanin. Melanocytes exist in the lower portion of the epidermis and transfer their melanin to keratinocytes by pinocytosis.
Molecule
2 or more atoms held by a chemical bond
What is the cytosol
intracellular fluid
List the five strata of the epidermis.
Stratum:
- cornuem, lucidum, granulosum, spinosum, basale
Compound
2 or more molecules composed of different elements
Describe the function of a Ribosome.
Formed in the nucleus and most numerous of all organelles; produce proteins under the direction of the nucleus, composed of RNA and protein, also are found attached to the ER, free in the cytosol, in mitochondria.
Describe the Stratum Corneum.
consists of 25-30 layers of flat dead squamous cells that are completely filled with keratin. They will be continuously shed and replaced by deeper cells.
Ten most abundant elements in the body?
O, C, H, N, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cl, K, Na
What's the definition of enzyme?
speeds up reactions by lowering the activation energy required
Describe the function of a Endoplasmic Reticulum.
network of internal membranes extending through cytoplasm, attached to the nucleus, smooth and rough
Six basic life processes
Metabolism, responsiveness, movement, growth, differentiation, reproduction
Describe the Startaum Lucidum.
3-5 layers of clear, flat dead cells. Found only on palms and soles of feet.
Metabolism
The sum of all chemical processes in the body. Two phases: 1) catabolism - breakdown 2) anabolism - build up
Oxygen
(O) - a major contributor to both organic and inorganic molecules; as a gas it is necessary for
the production of cellular energy (respiration)
What are the basic building blocks of proteins?
amino acids joined by peptide bonds
Describe the function of a Smooth ER.
lacks ribosomes on outer surface, lipids are made and drugs are detoxified
Metabolism
The sum of all chemical processes in the body. Two phases: 1) catabolism - breakdown 2) anabolism - build up
Describe the Stratum Granulosum.
3-5 layers of cells. Keratin begins to be formed and the nuclei of the keratinocytes begin to degenerate
Carbon
(C) - backbone of all organic molecules (like carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids)
What's the between an essential and non-essential amino acid?
8 are non-essential = supplied
2 are essential = get from diet
Describe the function of a Rough ER.
ribosomes stud outer surface, proteins are made (synthesis) and modified
Homeostasis
Equilibrium in the body's internal environment through negative & positive feedback and the maintenance of the volume & composition of bodily fluids.
Describe the Stratum Spinosum.
8-10 layers of cells where uptake of melanin from melanocytes to keratinocytes occurs
Hydrogen
(H) - found in most organic compounds & energy transfers, influential on pH (make body
fluids more acidic)
What's the formula for glucose?
C6 H12 O6
Describe the function of the Golgi Complex.
stacks of flattened membrane sacs (cisternae) that processes, sorts, and modifies proteins
Feedback systems
A system to regulate the body's internal environment and return it to homeostasis. Positive and negative.
Describe the Stratum Basale.
Singles layer of stem cells that are continually going through mitosis producing new keratinocytes. Melanocytes also found in this area. The cells multiply, produce keratinocytes which push towards the surface of the skin. The nuclei will eventually degenerate because the cell is moving further away from the O2 and nutrient source, the blood. The cells die and become filled with keratin by the time they reach the stratum corneum.
Nitrogen
(N) - component of all proteins and nucleic acids; exists in chlorophyll (plants)
What's the primary source of cellular respiration?
Glucose
Describe the function of the Golgi Apparatus.
is a stack of membrane sacs where proteins are further modified and then shipped to their final destination.
Components of a feedback system
1)Receptor - monitors change & sends input to a control center; 2) Control center - sets a range of values which should be maintained; 3) Effector - receives output from control center and produces a response.
Negative feedback
When a change in one direction triggers a response in the opposite direction. Ex) blood pressure
How long does it take for a cell to be pushed up from the s.basale to the top portion of the s.corneum?
40-56 days
Calcium
(Ca) - structure of bone and teeth, aids in muscle contraction, conducts nerve impulses, blood
clotting, associated with plant cell wall
What would have a greasy oil consistency?
Lipid
Describe the function of Lysosomes.
vesicles that contain digestive enzymes to break down food, cellular waste and bacteria
Positive feedback
When a change in one direction stimulates further change in the same direction. Ex) childbirth
What is a callus?
skin that is under a lot of pressure or friction, the number of layers in the s. corneum increases to offer protection
Magnesium
(Mg) - found in bone and plays an important role in metabolic reactions, activates enzymes,
needed in blood, component of chlorophyll (plants)
Describe the function of Peroxisomes.
(cells w/ lipids) membrane-enclosed organelles containing enzymes that catalyze an assortment of metabolic reactions in which hydrogen is transferred from various compounds to oxygen. (break down lipids)
Compare/contrast positive & negative feedback
Because PF reinforces change in a controlled condition, some event outside the system must shut it off. While NF slows then stops as the controlled condition returns to its normal state. PF are rare while NF is used more often.
What are the three main pigments responsible for skin color?
melanin, carotene and hemoglobin.
Iron
(Fe) - component of hemoglobin (oxygen-transport protein in RBcells), activates enzymes
Describe the function of Mitochodira.
power house of the cell, where ATP is produced by cellular respiration
Anatomical position
Stands erect, facing forward, feet flat, palms forward.
Describe melanin.
This is the most important group of pigments in skin, hair and eyes. Melanin molecules have different colors, ranging from yellow to reddish-brown to black.
Chlorine
(Cl) - most plentiful anion (- charged) major electrolyte of blood and intracellular fluid, aids in
water balance, essential for photosynthesis.
Describe the function of Centrioles.
they occur in pairs, normally found at right angles to each other and are made out of microtubules; important in cell division
Seven major regions of the body
Head, neck, trunk, upper limb, lower limb
What is albinism?
An inherited lack of melanin formation is albinism. Individual has melanocytes and tyrosine but do not produce tyrosinase and therefore are unable to produce melanin. They lack color in their hair, eyes and skin.
Potassium
(K) - most plentiful cation (+ charged), major electrolyte of blood and intracellular fluid,
required for maintenance of pH and osmotic balance necessary for conduction of nerve impulses and muscle contraction
Describe the function of Cillia.
small hair - like structures that will transport material across a surface of a cell, only found on some cells
Anterior
front
How is melanin produced?
Melanin is synthesized from an amino acid, tyrosine, in melanocytes in the presence of an enzyme called tyrosinase
Sodium
(Na) - major electrolyte of blood and intracellular fluid, important in fluid balance, aids in
photosynthesis in plants; necessary for conduction of nerve impulses and muscle contraction
Describe the function of Flagella.
Long hair-like extensions that are responsible for mobility of cell (sperm)
Posterior
back
Describe carotene.
This is a yellowish-orange pigment that accumulates in the stratum corneum and subcutaneous layer.
Atomic Number
# of protons in the nucleus.
Describe the function of the Nucleus.
central to the cellular activities of cell division (mitosis and meiosis), replication and proteins synthesis (transcription and translation)
Proximal
toward the origin
Describe hemoglobin.
This is the red pigment found in red blood cells that carries oxygen, In the skin of caucasians, where there is little melanin, the skin appears pink
Atomic Mass
# of protons + neutrons in the nucleus.
Where would you find cilia in the body?
fallopian tubes, trachea
Distal
away from origin
What is the dermis composed of?
connective tissue containing collagen and elastic fibers.
Atomic Mass Unit (AMU)
mass of a single proton or a single neutron.
What organelle is effected when someone has cystic fribrosis?
Golgi Apparatus
Superior
toward the head, upper part of a structure
Define collagen.
a protein that gives connective strength and pliability. The most abundant protein is connective tissue.
Periodic Table
chart of the elements arranged in order by atomic number
What organelle is effected when someone has tay-sachs?
Lysosomes
Inferior
away from the head, lower part of the structure
Define Elastin.
a protein that gives skin stretchability
Isotopes
atoms of the same element whose nuclei contain the same number of protons, but different numbers of neutrons
What are antioxidants and what do they help fight?
Antioxidants are substances that inactivate oxygen-derived free radicals.
Cranial
top
How is the dermis categorized?
more superficial papillary region and the deeper reticular region; and the structures like hair follicles, glands, nails
Radioisotopes
isotopes that emit radiation when they decay
Distinguish the characteristics of Mitosis vs. Meiosis.
MI: Asexual, div of somatic cells, 1 div, IPMAT, 2N to 2N, 1 cell to 2
ME: Sexual, div of gametes, 2 div, I(PMAT)2, 2N to N, 1 cell to 4 haploids
Caudal
bottom
What are sebaceous glands?
These are oil glands that are located in the dermis and usually connected to hair follicles. The sebum from these glands prevents the hair from becoming brittle and breaking and maintains the moisture of the skin.
Describe energy levels.
1st shell can hold only 2 electrons; 2nd shell can hold 8 electrons; 3rd shell can hold 18 electrons; Outer-level filled: non-reactive, inert / Outer-level unfilled: reactive, H+ is most reactive
Which organelle will be found in high numbers when looking at white blood cells?
....
Medial
nearer to the midline
What are sudoriferous glands?
These are sweat glands located throughout the body. There are 2 types:
1. Merocrine (eccrine) - Most abundant; the sweat from these glands is very watery and they are responsible for temperature homeostasis
2. Apocrine - mostly found in the axillary and groin areas; they become active at time of puberty. The sweat from these glands is viscous and is produced during stress or excitement. Bacteria grow rapidly on this secretion and the breakdown of the sweat by the bacteria can lead to body odor. Influenced by sex hormones.
Chemical Bond
a region that forms when electrons from different atoms interact with each other; the electrons that participate in chemical bonds are the valence electrons, found in the outermost shell
What organelle absorbs nutrients in the small intestine?
....
Lateral
Farther from the midline
What are ceruminous glands?
These are modified sweat glands that are found only in the outer ear. They produce a waxy secretion called CERUMEN, which offers protection from some debris.
Types of Chemical Bonds?
Covalent & Ionic
What's being produced during Mitosis?
2 identical haploid cells (2N)
Superficial
surface
What are mammary glands?
These are modified sweat glands located in the breasts that, under the control of hormones, produce milk.
Covelant Bond
Strong bond - Two atoms share the outermost electrons thus filling the valence.
Non Polar - Shared equally
Polar - Shared unequally, causes partial positive and partial negative charge
What's being produced during Meiosis?
4 haploid cells (N)
Deep
deep
What are nails?
These are plates of tightly packed, hard, keratinized cells that lie over epidermis of the dorsal, distal portion of digits. Nails grow from the base and do not have a resting period, grows 1mm/week
Ionic Bond
Weak bond – electrons are given away or taken. In the formation of an ionic bond:
One atom (the electron donor) loses one or more electrons and becomes a cation, with a positive (+) charge.
o Another atom (the electron acceptor) gains those same electrons and becomes an anion, with a negative (-) charge.
What's the shape of DNA?
Two polynucleotide chains associated as double helix
Dorsal
back
What is the laluna?
a thickened area of the nail that covers the matrix, the mitotically active and is white due to thickened stratum basale
Ion
atoms, molecules that carry an electric charge, either + or --
Protons – value of charge, +1
Electrons – value of charge, -1
# of protons = # of electrons, an atom is electrically neutral
How does DNA Replicate?
Semi-conservation Replication- process by which a double helix gives rise to two double helices, each with an old strand and a newly synthesized strand, each strand serves as template for new strand.
Ventral
front
What is the eponychium?
the cuticle
Organic Compound
No Carbon or Hydrogen in the primary structure. 4 Major in the body: Carbon Dioxide, Oxygen, Water, Acids/bases/salts
What is a Leading Strand?
strand of DNA that is synthesized continuously growing toward r.fork
Sagittal Plane
divides left and right
What is hair composed of?
A hair is composed of columns of dead keratinized epithelial. cells
Carbon Dioxide
by-product of cell metabolism
What is a Lagging Strand?
strand of DNA that is synthesized as a series of short fragments growing away from r.fork
Transverse Plane
divides top and bottom (horizontal)
What does the arrector pilli muscle do?
a smooth muscle that will lift the hair when it contracts, and causing “goose bumps” in humans.
Oxygen
gas required for metabolic function
What are the steps to protein synthesis?
Transcription and Translation
Frontal Plane
divides front and back (coronal)
What is lanugo?
By the 5th month of fetal development, the fetus’ body is covered by un-pigmented hair
Water
70% of total body weight, 85% in brain cells, 20% in bones
How does DNA Replicate?
See page 12 of notes for explanation.
Midsagittal plane
divides EQUALLY between right and left
What is the function of hair?
protection, decrease in friction (in pubic region during sexual intercourse) and odor retention associated with sexual arousal.
Hydrophilic
water loving
Describe Transcription.
See page 12 of notes for explanation.
Two Major Body Cavities
dorsal and ventral
Describe superficial wound healing.
An epidermal wound is like an abrasion. The central portion of the wound usually extends to the dermis whereas the edges experiences only slight injury to the epidermis. The healthy epidermal cells that are adjacent to the scrape will enlarge and migrate to the center of the wound. They will stop, due to CONTACT INHIBITION and proliferate
Hydrophobic
water fearing
Describe Translation.
See page 12-13 of notes for explanation.
Dorsal Cavity
along back, includes cranial and vertebral cavities
How does the skin regular body temp?
One of the functions of the skin is to help maintain the homeostasis of the body temperature at 37 C. If the environment’s temperature is high, heat receptors in the skin will send impulses to the brain.
The brain then sends impulses to the sweat glands to produce perspiration. As this fluid evaporates from the surface of the skin, the skin is cooled off and returns to normal. Also, more blood will be circulated to the skin and will release heat to the outside of the body.
Cohesion
when water molecules stick to each other
Where does replication, transcription and translation occur?
replication & transcription: nucleus
translation: cytoplasm
Ventral Cavity
in front, separated by the diaphragm into thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities
What is a burn?
tissue damage due to heat, electricity, radioactivity or strong chemicals that denature proteins in the exposed cells. Generally, the systemic effects of a burn are greater than the local effects.
Adhesion
ability to stick to many other kinds of substances
Describe codons as they relate to translation
See page 12-13 of notes for explanation.
Cranial cavity
formed by cranial bones and contains the brain
What is a first degree burn?
involves only the surface epidermis. Mild pain and redness, no blisters. Typical sunburn.
Capillary Action
the tendency of water to move in narrow tubes, even against the force of gravity ex) blood
Define Mutation.
any changes in DNA; either rearrangement of genes, change in nucleotide pairing, or chromosomal change
Vertebral Cavity
formed by the vertebral column (backbone) and contains the spinal cord
What is a second degree burn?
destroys all of the epidermis and may destroy some of the papillary region of the dermis. Redness, blisters, edema and pain. No injury to accessory skin structures.
Surface Tension
phenomenon at the surface of a liquid caused by intermolecular forces ex) dew
What are microvilli?
minute projections of the plasma membrane that increase surface area; concerned with absorption and secretion; intestine, kidneys
Thoracic cavity
chest cavity; contains plueral, pericardial cavities, mediastinum
What is a third degree burn?
destroys epidermis, dermis and epidermal derivatives. Skin functions are lost. Person usually dies if burn exceeds over 70% of body.
Difference between potential and kinetic energy?
Potential: resting energy
Kinetic: energy of motion
What does the Light Microscope look at?
uses light, living specimen
Abdominopelvic cavity
subdived into abdominal and pelvic cavities
What is a skin graft?
If the germinal portion of the epidermis is destroyed on a large area of the body, a skin graft may be necessary. This involves the transplantation of a segment of skin from a donor to a recipient.
Define heat.
total amount of kinetic energy
What does the Electron Microscope look at?
uses electrons; dead cells, ultrastructures of cells
Pleural cavity
each surrounds a lung; the sereous membrane of the pleural cavity is the pleura
What is an autograft?
o If the donor and recipient is the same person
Define temperature.
a measure of the average kinetic energy of particles
What is a free radical?
an electrically charged atom or group of atoms with an unpaired electron in itgs outermost shell
Pericardial cavity
surrounds the heart; the sereous membrane of the pericardial cavity is the pericardium
What is a isograft?
If the donor is an identical twin to the recipient,
Define heat of vaporization.
the amount of heat energy required to change 1 g of a substance from the liquid phase to the vapor phase
Vitamins A, C, E
A-vision
C-immune
E-cell membrane integrity
Mediastinum
is a broad, median partition between the lungs that extends from the sternum to the vertebral column, it contains all contents of the thoracic cavity except the lungs.
Whats the major cause of death in burn victims?
infection
What is a calorie?
amount of heat energy (4.184 j) required to raise the temperature of 1 g of water 1 degree c.
What is apoptosis?
programmed cell death
What's included in the mediastinum?
heart and great vessels, esophagus, trachea, thymus
Define Basal cell carcinoma.
Accounts for 75% of all skin cancers. Tumors arise from s. basale of epidermis. Usually slow metastasis.
Define specific heat.
the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of water. Spec. Heat of H2O is 1 cal/g of water per degree Celsius.
What is necrosis?
uncontrollable cell death
Abdominal cavity
stomach, spleen, liver, gallbladder, small intestine, most of large intestine; serious membrane is called the peritoneum
Describe Squamous cell carinoma.
Arise from s. spinosum. Usually slow metastasis
What are acids, bases and salts?
compounds held together partially or completely by ionic bonds
What is caspases?
enzymes that catalyze apoptosis by cutting up vital compounds in the cell.
Pelvic cavity
bladder, portions of the large intestine, reproduction
Describe malignant melanoma.
life threatening cancer arising from melanocytes, many times found within a preexisting mole. Metastasize rapidly. Watch areas that change in pigment, size and irregular borders.
Define ionize.
is the potential of water to dissociate into hydrogen ions (H+) and Hydroxide ions (OH-)
What is the job of Mitosis
growth and repair
Diaphragm
dome-shaped muscles that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominopelvic cavity
What is a decubitus bedsore?
pressure sore, caused by prolonged deficiency of blood to tissues overlying a bony projection. The deficiency results in a breakdown of the skin cracking, infection and deep damage. Seen in patients that are bedridden for a long time, usually on buttocks, sacrum and heels. Turning is necessary.
Define acid.
a substance that dissociates in solution to yield hydrogen ions (H+) and an anion. (proton donor)
Describe Interphase.
carries all life process except division, double of DNA centrosome
G1, G0, S, G2
Parietal membrane
covers the wall of a cavity
What is psoriasis?
chronic skin condition in which the skin cells divide 7x more frequently than normal. This leads to excessive cell accumulation, seen as scaly reddened patches on skin surface
Define base.
commonly a substance that dissociates to yield a hydroxide ion (OH-) and a cation when dissolved in water. (proton acceptor)
Describe G1 of Mitosis
longest phase, cytoplasmic increases, growth and normal metabolism, synthesis of proteins and organelles
Visceral membrane
covers an internal organ
What is vitilago?
the development of patches of white skin due to abnormal or lack of melanocytes in that area. May be an autoimmune response.
Define electrolytes.
ions that conduct electrical current (Na, K, Mg)
Describe G0 phase of mitosis.
is when the cells that are not dividing usually become arrested in this part of the cell cycle (simply a state of being)
Upper Right Quadrant
liver, gallbladder, r. kidney
What is pH, it's range, and how do you distinguish an acid from a base?
pH - the degree of a solution’s acidity on a scale from 0 to 14
(pH=7), acidic (pH= 1-7), basic (pH= 7-14)
Describe S phase of mitosis.
DNA replicates and histone is synthesized, as the cell makes duplicate copies of its chromosomes
Upper Left Quadrant
stomach, spleen, l. kidney
What are buffers?
a substance or combo of substances that resists changes in pH when an acid/base is added. A common buffer is citric acid.
Describe G2 phase of mitosis.
cytoplasmic growth; increased protein synthesis occurs and the final steps in the cell’s preparation for division take place
Lower Right Quadrant
appendix, cecum, r. ovary
What happens when a strong acid and a strong base come in contact?
strong acid + strong base = salt + water)
Describe Early Prophase.
nuclear envelope begins to disappear. Nucleolus disappears. Long fibers of chromatin become evident and begin to condense as visible chromosomes
Lower Left Quadrant
sigmoid colon, l. ovary
What are organic compounds and give examples.
Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids.
Describe Late Prophase.
chromosomes continue to shorten and thicken. Spindle forms between centrioles, which have to move to the poles of the cell. Kinetochores begin attaching to microtubules from chromosomes
Nine regions of the body (abdomen)
In Order from Top to Bottom:
R/L - hypochondriac, lumbar, iliac
Epigastric, umbilical, hypogastric
Functions of carbohydrates?
source of energy (metabolic processes)
Describe Metaphase.
spindle fibers attach to the kinetochores of the chromosomes, which line up along the cell’s midplane
Define starch.
typical form of carb used for energy storage in plants
Describe Anaphase.
Cleavage furrow appears, sister chromatids separate at centromeres and move toward opposite poles. Unpaired spindle fibers attach to one other and help push the poles/chromosomes apart
Define cellular respiration
its what cells do to break up sugars into a form that the cell can use as energy.
Describe Telophase.
begins as soon as chromatid movement stops; the identical sets of chromosomes at opposite poles of the cell uncoil and revert to their threadlike chromatin form, microtubules disappear or change form, a new nuclear envelope forms, new nucleoli appear, and the new mitotic spindle eventually breaks up.
Why is glucose so important?
It’s the starting material in cellular respiration.
Describe Cytokinesis.
the division of a parent cell’s cytoplasm and organelles at the end of telophase. The process begins in late anaphase or early telophase with the formation of a cleavage furrow
Describe cellular respiration.
see notes pg. 6
What is chromosome number?
Human somatic cells contain 46 chromosomes or 23 pairs of chromosomes
Functions of lipids?
structure, protection, energy reserves
What is a diploid cell?
A cell with a full set of chromosomes (2N)
Describe granulocyte.
category of WBC characterized by the presence of granules in their cytoplasm, 3 lobed. Types: Neutrophil,
Eosinophil, Basophil
Classes of Lipids?
Fatty acids, triglycerides, phospholipids, carotenoids, steroid lipids, prostaglandins
What is a haploid cell?
A cell with only one chromosome from each pair (N)
Describe agranulocyte.
category of WBC characterized by the absence of granules in their cytoplasm, round. Types: Lymphocytes,
Monocytes
Define lipid.
water insoluble; soluble in ether & chloroform; fats (solid), oils (liquid) waxes (hard solid); consisting mainly of C and H)
Describe Mitosis on a scale of 12 hours
interphase would be 11.5 hours (G1 would be 5 hours, G0 would be seconds, S would be 4.5, G2 would be 2 hours) and M phase would be 30 minutes!
Define Biopsy.
the process of removing tissue samples from patients surgically or with a needle for diagnostic purposes
Who types of fatty acids?
Saturated - contain the maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms; Unsaturated - not fully saturated with Hyd.
Describe Interphase in Meiosis.
interphase preceding meiosis; DNA replicates.
Define Autopsy.
examination of the organs of a dead body to determine the cause of death or to study the changes caused by a disease.
Define triglycerides.
the main storage form of fat in organisms, consists of a molecule of glycerol combined with three fatty acids; Type: glyercol
Describe Prophase 1 in Meiosis.
Synapsis of homologous chromosomes to form tetrads; nuclear envelope breaks down
Define phospholipids.
structural components of cell membranes.
Describe Metaphase 1 in Meiosis.
tetrads line up on cell’s midplane. Tetrads held together at chiasmata (sites of prior crossing-over)
Describe Mesoderm.
middle layer, forms tissues such as muscle, bone, and blood vessels
Define caroteniods.
orange and yellow plant pigments which are insoluble in water and have an oily consistency. Note: most animals convert carotenoids to vitamin A, which can then be converted to retinal, visual pigment.
Describe Anaphase 1 in Meiosis.
Homologous chromosomes (not chromatids!) move to opposite poles, cleavage furrow appears.
Describe Ectoderm.
outer layer, forms the skin, and a portion of the ectoderm, called neuroectoderm, becomes the nervous system
Define steriod lipids.
Cholesterol, bile salts, and certain hormones are important steroids.
Describe Telophase 1 in Meiosis.
one of each pair of homologous chromosomes is at each pole. Cytokinesis occurs.
Describe Labile Cells.
cells divide throughout life and can undergo regeneration
Define prostoglandins.
lipids that promote inflammation and smooth muscle contraction
Describe Prophase 2 in Meiosis.
Chromosomes condense again following a brief period of interkinesis; DNA does not replicate again
Describe Stable Cells.
cells do not ordinarily divide after growth is complete but can regenerate if necessary.
Functions of protiens?
structural support, movement, transport, buffering, metabolic regulation, coordination, defense
Describe Metaphase 2 in Meiosis.
Chromosomes line up along cell's midplane.
Describe Permanent Cells.
cells cannot replicate. If killed, permanent tissue is repaired by replacement.
What are Enzymes?
catalysts that speeds up reactions by lowering the activation energy required.
Describe Anaphase 2 in Meiosis.
Sister chromatids (not identical, just share a centromere) separate, and chromosomes move to opposite poles, cleavage furrow appears.
Define Tissue
a group of cells that usually have a common embryological origin and function together to carry out a specific function. There will be communication between these cells that allows them to function as a unit.
Difference between essential and non essential amino acids?
essential = get from diet
non-essential = supplied
Describe Telophase 2 in Meiosis.
Nuclei formed at opposite poles of each cell. Cytokinesis occurs.
What are Neural Crest Cells?
group of cells that break away from the neuroectoderm during development which give rise to parts of the peripheral nerves, skin pigment, medulla of the adrenal gland, and many tissues of the face.
What is a peptide bond?
the covalent carbon-to-nitrogen bond linking two amino acids toghether
Describe are cancer cells?
They can divide without receiving a signal from a growth factor. This makes it very difficult for the body to stop cancer cells from dividing and spreading
Describe epithelial tissue.
covers surfaces, lines inside of organs and body cavities and forms glands. Epithelial cells are found above a basement membrane
What is a polypeptide?
a chain a amino acids
What is a benign tumor?
mass of essentially normal cells, can be removed by surgery
Describe connective tissue.
protects and supports body, binds organs together, provides immunity.
Define Nucleic Acid.
they transmit heredity information and determine what proteins a cell manufactures
What is a malignant tumor?
mass of cancerous cells, some of which may break free and travel to other sites in the body
Describe Muscle tissue.
movement and generation of heat
Two types of nucleic Acids?
DNA
RNA
Define metastasis.
spread of cancer cells from their original site
Describe Nervous tissue.
initiate and transmits impulses (action potentials) that control and coordinate the functioning of the body
Describe DNA
comprises the genes, the heredity material of the cell, and contains instructions for making all the proteins, double stranded
What is a carcinoma?
cancer of the skin or intestinal lining
What are the general characteristics of Epithelial Tissue?
Apical surface (free) and a basal surface (connected to a basement membrane);
Arranged close together in the tissue
Arranged in sheets that are either single or layered to form the tissue
Many gap junctions occur
Avascular tissue (no blood vessels); cells rely on diffusion of O2 and nutrients from nearby vessels
Has a nerve supply
High rate of mitosis due to location causing wear and tear
Describe RNA
function mainly in protein synthesis, transfers genetic code out to the ribosome
What is a sarcoma?
cancer of the bone or muscle
Describe endocrine glands.
secretions (hormones) do not go through a duct; ex) pituitary, adrenal gland
What is a nucleotide?
molecule consisting o one or more phosphate groups, 5 carbon sugar (ribose or deoxyribose) and a nitrogenous base (purine or pyrimidine)
What is leukemia/lymphoma?
cancer of the bone marrow, spleen, lymph nodes
Describe excorine glands.
glands in which the secretions that are produced flow onto through a tube-like passageway (duct) to get to the surface; ex) mucus, digestive glands
What are the pyrimidine bases?
CTU
What does DNA consist of?
Regular polymer of nucleotides (A,G,C,T); Backbones
What are the characteristics of connective tissue?
cells are scattered, not located on surfaces; has a nerve supply (exception: cartilage); Highly vascularized (exceptions: cartilage and tendons); connective tissue is derived from embryonic tissue called mesenchyme
What are the purine bases?
AG
What four elements is DNA composed of?
H, O, C, P
Define epithelial membrane
Epithelial Membrane - A membrane is a thin sheet of tissue that covers a structure or lines a cavity. Most membranes are composed from epithelium and connective tissue under it. The skin is the external membrane of the body. Types are: Serious, Mucous, Synovial.
What is a template strand?
single strand of DNA 5’ -> 3’ or 3’ -> 5’
Describe characteristics of Nervous tissue.
Neurons carry impulses from one place to another, offering coordination to the body. includes: nucleus, cellular organelles, dendrites, axons, axon branches
Neuroglia (glial) - more abundant than the neurons and don’t carry impulses
What is a purine?
adenine and guanine; components of nucleic acids
Describe characteristics of muscular tissue.
Skeletal Muscle - This tissue is under voluntary control, containing multinucleated cells that have striations in the cytoplasm.
Cardiac Muscle - This type of muscle is found only in the walls of the heart. It is involuntary and functions in the flow of blood through the heart chambers. It contains areas where the membranes of 2 cardiac cells overlap each other, called intercalated discs. These appear as dark perpendicular lines. Lying parallel to the discs are lighter lines called the striations. These cells are uninuclear – 1 nucleus per cell.
Smooth Muscle - This is involuntary muscle found in the walls of the viscera. The cells do not have any striations in the cytoplasm (hence the label “smooth”), are uninuclear and are spindle shape. They tend to exist in sheets.
What is a pyrimidine?
thymine, cytosine, and uracil; components of nucleic acids
What is inflammation?
response is to isolate injurious agents from the rest of the body and to attack and destroy the injurious agent.
What is a phosphodiester linkage?
covalent linkage between two nucleotides in a strand of DNA/RNA
What 5 symptoms does inflammation produce?
redness, heat, swelling, pain, and disturbance of function
What are chargaff's rules?
base paring A-T (2 hydro bonds)
base pairing G-C (3 hydro bonds)
Describe the three stages of inflammation.
1) inflammatory (72 hours)- Bleeding and swelling make the area red, hot and painful 2) proliferation (48-6wks) Repair and regeneration depend on three major factors: elimination of debris, the regeneration of endothelial cells, and the production of fibroblasts, which compose connective tissue throughout the body and form the basis of scar tissue. 3) maturation (3wks-9mon)The protein fibers of the scar orient themselves in the direction in which pressure is applied. The protein matures and the number of cells in the tissue decreases. It may take several months for the scar to fully mature and achieve its full strength.
Define semi-conservative replication.
process by which a double helix gives rise to two double helices, each with an old strand and a newly synthesized strand, each strand serves as template for new strand
Describe Primary healing vs. secondary healing.
Primary healing: healing by first intention takes place in an injury that has even and closely opposed edges, such as a cut or incision. With this type of injury if the edges are held in very close approximation, a minimum of granulation tissue is produced.
Secondary healing: healing by secondary intention, results when there is a gaping lesion and large tissue loss, leading to replacement by scar tissue. External wounds such as lacerations commonly heal by secondary intention.
What is DNA Helicase?
opens up DNA molecule, double helix unwinds, strands replicate at replication fork
What is topoisomerase?
prevents tangling and knotting.
What is DNA polymerase?
the enzyme that synthesizes the new DNA by adding nucleotides matched to the template strand.
What are Okazaki fragments?
segment of DNA, 100 to 1000 nucleotides long that must be joined by DNA ligase to form that lagging strand in DNA replication
What is DNA Primase?
synthesizes short RNA primers on the lagging strand.
What is DNA Ligase?
enzyme that catalyzes the joining of the 5’ and 3’ ends of two DNA fragments.
What is a telomere?
region of repetitive nucleotide sequences at the end of a chromosome, which protects the end of the chromosome from deterioration or from fusion with neighboring chromosomes.
What is telomerase?
enzyme that maintains telomere length and possibly to resist apoptosis
What is DNA mutations?
any changes in DNA
Define protein synthesis.
the process that describes how proteins are made from DNA. Steps include: transcription, RNA processing, and translation
What role does RNA play in protein production?
the copier/processor of DNA
Define Transcription.
process in which DNA molecules are used as a template to create RNA
What happens in transcription?
A RNA polymerase makes a copy of the DNA sequence into (mRNA). It replaces T with U (Uracil), a helper base, making it clear that the mRNA is a copy. The bases (A, T, G, C) on one strand of the DNA specify the order of bases on the new strand of mRNA (A, U, G, C). The DNA stays inside the nucleus, but the mRNA travels out into the cytoplasm.
Define Translation.
Process where ribosomes in the cytoplasm read the mRN strand and link amino acids together to form a protein. Happens in three stages: Initiation, Elongation, Termination
What happens in Initiation during Translation?
ribosome reads a group of three nucleotides at a time, or triplets (called a codon).Looks for the start codon, AUG, and there it beings to build the amino acid chain.
What happens in Elongation during Translation?
the amino acids are transferred to the ribosome by tRNA using anticodons; is temporarily binded it into place; continues down the mRNA strand (5’3’ direction), the first tRNA falls off, leaving it is amino acid behind growing a long polypeptide chain.
What happens in Termination during Translation?
When the ribosome reads one of three stop codons (UAA, UAG, & UGA). This indicates the end of the gene. The last tRNA falls of the ribosome and the ribosome falls of the mRNA strand