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216 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What type of tissue is blood?
Connective tissue
What protein is responsible for osmotic pressure?
Albumen
What protein is responsible for immunity?
Antibodies (immunoglobulin)
What would be the immunoglobulin in body secretion?
IgA
What immunoglobulin would be the first to rise in titer? (primary response)
IgM
What is the immunoglobulin in secondary response?
IgG
If you were coming down with the flu which immunoglobulin would rise first?
IgM
Which immunity would be important if you had a viral infection?
Hemoral immunity
Which immunity would be important if you had a parasitic infection or a transplant? What does this tell you about this type of immunity?
-Cell mediated
-The larger the structure, the more likely it is cell mediated
Various forms of immunodeficiency disorders associated with the retrovirus (different forms of lymphoma) are usually due to a problem with which lymphocyte?
Helper T cells
What type of immunity is formed if given an antitoxin
Passive
What type of immunity is formed if given mother's milk
Passive
What type of immunity is formed if given a vaccine
Active
What is released mostly by basophils and what does it increase?
Histamines which increase vascular permeability
Which WBC counters the activities of the basophil and what does it increase?
Eosinophil which increases an allergic response
Inflammatory responses are what type of immunity?
Nonspecific
What type of antigen does blood type A, B, AB, O have?
A = 'B' antigen
B = 'A' antigen
AB = no antigen
O = 'A' + 'B' antigen
If the blood agglutinates from Anti-A serum, which blood type do you have
blood type A
If the blood agglutinates from Anti-B serum, which blood type do you have
blood type B
If the blood agglutinates from Anti-Rh serum, which blood type do you have
Positive blood
Which WBC would rise most rapidly in the presence of abscesses
Neutrophils
What type of immunity would probably be affected if the thymus was damaged early in life?
Cell mediated
What is you blood type determined by?
Antigen on the surface of the cell
What type of cell would have MHC I?
normal nucleated body cells
MHC II includes what cells?
WBC, dendritic cell, antigen presenting cell, macrophage, and T-helper cell
What is complement 1? what is it's function?
Opsonization: enhancing phagocytosis of antigens
What is complement 2? what is it's function?
Chemotaxis: attracting macrophages and neutrophils
What is complement 3? what is it's function?
Cell lysis: rupturing membranes of foreign cells
What is complement 4?
Clumping of antigen0bearing agents
Can the antigen/antibody complex lead to opsonization
Yes
What can complement 3 also lead to?
opsinization, inflammation, increase vascular permeability, and activation of the complement 5-9 which causes the porphyrin holes in infected cell’s membrane
Could agglutination lead to precipitation? How?
Yes; if you bind antigens to antibodies, they may become large enough that they precipitate out
What region is at the end of the heavy and light chain of an antibody?
Variable region
What can bind at the variable region at the end of the heavy/light chain of an antibody?
Specific antigen which it must bind with or an antigen that is similar enough to it so that it can bind with it
What type of cell is a natural killer cell? What type of immunity is it? What is it responsible for?
-Lymphocyte
-Nonspecific immunity
-Responsible for immunosurveillance
What has been removed from the plasma to make it a serum?
The clotting factor
What produces heparin? What does heparin do?
Mast cells: Reduces blood or platelet activity and therefore prevents coagulation
What does mast cells produce?
Histamine and heparin
What marks a cell so that it is easily detected by phagocytes?
Opsin
What is another name for an immunoglobulin?
Antibody
What is the most common WBC?
Neutrophils
What WBC has multisegmented nuclei
Neutrophils
What organ is lymphoidal?
Spleen
Where are the lymphoidal nodules found in the intestine?
Peyer's patch
Where are the lymphoidal nodules found in the pharynx?
Tonsils
The spleen has in capsule areas of both what and what?
Red pulp hemopoetic tissue and white pulp
What does severe liver disorder cause?
Jaundice
What are reticulocytes?
immature RBC
Is it normal to have reticulocytes in circulation?
Yes
What does an elevated count in reticulocytes mean?
blood loss
If blood flow to the kidney was constricted what would the kidney do that would affect the viscosity of the blood?
Release of erythropoietin, due to the low oxygen level from the constriction, which causes erythropoiesis to occur in the bone marrow
How could the release of renin affect the blood viscosity
Renin would cause the retention of sodium which would make the blood volume go up
Why would living in a highly elevated area cause a person to have polycythemia?
Low levels of oxygen, hypoxia/hypoxemia, causes the increase of hematocrit
What is hypoxemia
Decrease oxygen in the blood
Would someone with leucopenia go and challenge every infectious person to come close?
No due to low numbers of lymphocytes
People who have hemophilia are usually having problems with what factors?
clotting factor 8, most common factor that is damaged
What type of pathway is clotting factor 8?
Intrinsic clotting pathway
What is one of the most important clotting factor of the extrinsic pathway?
Clotting factor 7
Tissue damage usually results in clotting because of what?
Activation of the extrinsic pathway
What could b12 and folic acid deficiency cause?
Anemia
What happens to the blood cells if there is a b12 and folic acid deficiency?
they become very large as a megacytic or megablastic anemia
What type of anemia is characterized by pale cells that are ordinarily small?
Iron deficiency, microcytic anemia
What could damage to the bone marrow cause?
Anemia
How is the production of RBC effected by too much exposure to radiation
Could destroy the cells in the marrow and prevent hemopoiesis
What is aplastic anemia
Lowered cell counts of all three blood cell types
Could anemia be caused by hemorrhaging?
Yes
What is found at the center of a porphyrin ring in hemoglobin? in plants? in other animals?
Hemo: Iron
Plants: Mg
Other: Copper
What characteristic is given to blood when iron binds to oxygen
it becomes red
How many porphyrin rings are there in hemoglobin
4
How many amino acid chains are there in hemoglobin?
4 (2 alpha + 2 betas) (could be 2 thetas, but usually betas)
What is a Thrombocyte
Platelet
What does megakaryocytes produce?
platelets
What is the grandparent stem cell for all blood cells
Hemacytoplast
What organ is usually captures old cells and is more friable and less compliant?
Spleen
What does the spleen do to the broken down erythrocyte before it is sent to the liver
Separates into heme and then into iron, bilirubin and biliverdin
The bilirubin and biliverdin that leaves the spleen is conjugated or unconjugated?
unconjugated
Is bilirubin and biliverdin soluble in the plasma? How is it transported?
Not soluble, can only be transported in the plasma bound to proteins
Is the bilirubin and biliverdin that is bound to the proteins easily filtered by the kidney? Why?
No, too large and can not leave the blood
What can bilirubin and biliverdin accumulation in the blood cause?
Jaundice
What does the liver do to the bilirubin and biliverdin?
Conjugates it and makes it soluble
Are erythrocytes biconvex or biconcaved?
biconcaved
What is the diameter of the erythrocytes at the thinnest part
0.8um
Erythrocytes live a long time and are very active because of the abundance of mitochondria
False, no mitochondria and they eject the nucleus
If fibrin soluble in the blood plasma?
No
What is the function if fibrinogen?
Carries fibrin in the blood plasma so that it doesnt initiate a clot
What is the function of thrombin
Catalyses the fibrinogen to become fibrin
A typical blood pressure is 120/80, How would you find the pulse pressure and what is the pulse pressure?
Difference better systolic and diastolic pressure
-40
Why is it better to have low blood pressure vs high blood pressure
High blood pressure will damage the endothelial lining, tearing it up which leads to plaque build up
How do you calculate the arterial pressure?
1/3 pulse pressure + diastolic pressure
Systemic edema is caused by which heart probably failing? why?
Right heart because it's backing up to the body
If the left heart was failing, where would the edema be? What type of edema would it cause?
In the lungs
Pulmonary edema
What is another name for a heart attack
myocardio infarction
Where would you rather have the occlusion occur that cause you heart attack? L. or R. coronary? Why?
Right bc it is smaller which means better chance of survival
If there was a blockage in the left coronary, would you rather it be in the left circumflex or the left anterior descending? Why not the other?
-Ant. descending bc it is smaller and just goes down the septum which means more likely to have shortness of breath
-Circumflex = probable death
Where would you expect to find the fenestrated capillaries
Small intestine
Where would you find continuous capillaries
skeletal muscles
What probably has the msot rapid effect in regulating blood pressure?
vasoconstriction
What would have to happen to the blood vessels in order to lower the blood pressure
Dilate the blood vessels
What arteries would the vessels that have the biggest impact on blood pressure?
Muscular arteries; include arterials
What would you chronically need to have an elevated systolic/diastolic above in order to have hypertension?
Sys: 140+
Dia: 90+
When you are in a prone position, is your blood pressure high or low
low blood pressure
If you immediately stand up, in order to get the blood to the brain, what mus the arterial diameters do?
Constrict to offer more resistant and raise the pressure which accelerate the blood to the brain
Can a myocardio infarction lead to an arrhythmia?
yes
Is ventricular fibrillation or atrial fibrillation more important to have?
Ventricular because it is pumping the blood to the body
Why does the blood general go from the atria to the ventricle
due to pressure
Describe the communication between the SA and AV node if there is a partial heart block
Delayed, when it reaches the AV node, the SA node has generated a second p-wave; 2 p-waves for every QRS; 2:1 block
Does having angina that you are having a heart attack?
No; if you have a heart attack, you merely have ischemia which means the heart is short of oxygen but isn’t dead
Would the sedimentation rate go up just because of ischemia?
No; erythrocyte sedimentation rate usually go up due to damage tissue and inflammation
Where would you have your blood pressure receptors located so that it could be monitored by the nervous system?
Carotid sinus and aortic arch
What 2 cranial nerve are responsible for receiving the information from the blood pressure receptors?
Vagus and glossopharyngeal
What part of the brain is responsible for regulating heart rate
Medulla oblongata
What is responsible for venous return to the heart?
Skeletal and thoracic pump
What other system restores blood volume besides the venous system? How?
Lymphatic; blood leaves the circulatory system > interstitial space > reclaimed by venous system because of the osmotic pressure generated by albumen
How many liters of fluids is claimed by the lymphatic a day
3-4L/day
The blood flow at the capillary bed is regulated by what 2 forces?
Hydrostatic pressure primarily of the plasma and the osmotic pressure of the plasma
Why do we not need to worry about the hydrostatic and osmotic pressure of the interstitial fluid
The fluids doesn't collect and can go into the lymphatics and the proteins can drain into the lymphatic
What are the 2 of Starling’s forces
Hydrostatic and osmotic forces
What does frank starlings principle say?
Increased venous return is matched by increased cardiac output
Describe how frank starling's principle works
if more blood comes back to the heart, the ventricle stretches which increases the contraction, and therefore ejects a higher fraction of blood, stroke volume goes up, cardiac output goes up
Can an athlete have the same cardiac output as a couch potato but still have a slower heart rate? Why?
Yes due to larger stroke volume
What is the formula for stroke volume
EDV (end diastolic volume) – ESV (end systolic volume)
When the blood leaves the heart, it moves into what kind of arteries first?
Elastic arteries which then divide into muscular arteries
If the heart is stimulated by the vagus, what happens to the heart rate? Why?
Decreases; vagus is parasympathetic which hyperpolarizes the pace maker cell
If you severe the vagus nerve, what would happen to heart rate? Why?
Increase HR because the vagus always has the heart inhibited
What is the vagus inhibiting that keeps the heart rate low
The pace maker cells which causes the heart to beat at 100bpm
What does T-wave represent in an ECG
Ventricular repolarization
What does P-wave represent in an ECG
Atrial contractions
What does QRS represent in an ECG
Ventricular depolarization particularly the Q-wave going to R is the depolarizing of the septum down to the apex of the heart so we can contract from the apex and drive the blood out
What is The first heart sound is due to
Closure of the AV valves
What is The third heart sound is due
filling of the ventricles and the turbulence generated by it
What creates the second heart sound
Closure of the semilunars
What is the term given the point at which all the valves in the heart is shut at the same time due to equal pressure
Isovolumia
-2 types: ventricular relaxation and ventricular contraction
Can edema be due to heart failure
Yes
Can edema be due to lymphatic blockage
Yes
Can edema be Due to poor venous return?
Yes
Can edema be due to liver damage? Why?
Yes; liver is not producing enough albumen = osmotic pressure generated by the albumen is low
When the ventricle is in systole which valve will shut? Which opens?
AV shuts and semilunar opens
In order for blood to go back to the heart, the atria must be in what stage
Diastole
If you are exhaling air form your lung, how does that affect venous return of blood to the heart?
Decrease bc exhaling is raising pressure in your chest to drive the air out, therefore blood cant return either
venous pressure in the arm was around what
40-45mmHg
What is the general range of venous pressure? What does it depend on?
20-90mmHg depending on part of body, lower leg = higher due to hydrostatic pressure of blood pulling
What does a 3:1 blockage mean?
complete blockage, no conduction between atria and ventricle
What is the Pathway of electrical impulses
SA node > Bachmann’s bundle > AV node > Bundle of his/AV bundle > right and left bundle branches > Purkinje fibers
What are the channels in the heart muscles that permit the influx of sodium and calcium, and efflux of potassium all at the same time?
Funny channel
What is flooding into the cytoplasm of a cardiac muscle to cause the plateau in the action potential
Calcium
Will the flooding of calcium into the cytoplasm of a cardiac muscle cause the action potential to be short or long?
Long; as long as the muscle twitch
Can you stimulate the heart muscle with another action potential during its contraction twitch cycle?
No; one stimulus per twitch therefore
What affects the resistance to blood flow?
-Viscosity: higher viscosity = more resist
-Diameter of vessel, constrict vessel = more resist
-Length of vessel, longer = greater resistance
What happens when you put on a pound of fat?
more vessels = more resistance = higher blood pressure
How could the flow be affected by smooth vs rough
rough = cause turbulence =, the nature of the flow is disrupted.
Smooth lamina flow is easier to circulate
You can increase blood flow by increasing the potential difference, What is generating that potential difference
The heart
What vessels are nutrient rich?
Portal vessels
What vessels are oxygen rich?
Pulmonary veins and arteries of the heart
You find valves in what structure?
Veins, lymphatic vessels, and the heart
Baroreceptors tells you that the blood pressure is low or high by doing what?
Low: Firing fewer action potentials
High: fires more rapidly = generate more action potential
The blood plasma is primarily what?
Water
The plasma is around 55% and 45% hematocrit
What is a buffy layer?
WBC, in middle of centrifuge, lighter than RBC but heavier than the plasma
Which vein does not return to the vena cava directly
Left gonadal vein
Where is the zygos vein and where does The azygos vein carries blood up to
-Back of the heart
-Sup. Vena cava
The abdominal aorta bifurcates to form what?
Common iliac
What blood vessel travels up the transverse foramen and feeds the posterior brain
Vertebral
What vessels form the circle of willis
Post/Ant cerebral, Post/Ant communicating
Which of the following are ramifications of the internal carotid?
Middle and anterior cerebral are continuations of the internal carotid
What would be the name of the femoral artery as it passes behind the knee
Popliteal
What carries blood to the glomurulos?
Afferent arterioles
The rH system of blood typing was discovered in
1940
What is the rH for? What is the antigen used to represent it?
-Rhesus factors
-D-antigen
What is the third most common blood type in the world generally?
B
What is the rarest blood type?
AB
Most common blood type
O+
What happens if a person with type A donated a pint of blood to a person with type O
one will be dead, a major histocompatibility has happened
What happens if a person with type O donated a pint of blood to a person with type A blood
both go home happy, a minor histompatibility has happened
What are the 3 PMN?
Neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils
How are the 3 PMN often classified?
by their age, the immature and mature ones
what is the usually word used to describe their age based on the shape of the nucleus
Juvenile, Stab, Segmented. (neutrophil)
counting WBC on the slides (blood smears) and figured out the percentages of neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils, you established what?
Differential white cell count
How do you count WBC the old way using a hemocytometer
count blood cells by dilution; then count the number of WBC on a slide with a grid that allowed you to count the number of cells per grid + dilution factor = number of cells/mL
Eosinophils
WBC that was primarily responsible for detoxifying the blood by removing things like heparin histamine
Monocytes
largest of the WBC that provides nonspecific defenses
Monocytes commonly increase in things like what
carbon tetrachloride poisoning
Myeloblasts
stem cell for all the granulocytes
If a person has Thrombocytopenia, what are they prone to?
easy bleeding and easy bruising
What is Relative polycythemia
illusion of more cells, but cell numbers haven’t increased, fluids have decreased. Relative to fluid volume you have polycythemia
When checking blood pressure, you extend the arm to expose what artery?
Brachial
The First sound you hear when checking blood pressure is the sound of who? What type of pressure?
korotkoff, systolic pressure
When the first sound fades when you are checking the blood pressure When the sound faded out, the second sound is the sound of who? What type of pressure?
korotkoff, diastolic
EKG with biopack, set up your 3 leads both wrist and left ankle to form what?
einthoven’s triangle
What is Poiseuille’s law
Blood flow is inversely proportional to the resistance. Raise resistance, flow goes down, and vice versa.
Where would listen for the mitral valve sound?
Apex of the heart by the left nipple, by 4-5th intercostals space
where would you hear the tricuspid valve
4-5th intercostals space on either side of the sternum
Where would you hear the semilunar valve
near the sternum, left and right around the 2nd intercostals space
When doing an EKG, what is another name for an isoelectric line
Flat line or base line
What is an Isoelectric line
a line without any deflection
During an EKG Is the first deflection positive or negative? What type of wave is it?
Positive and it is a P-wave
what does it mean to have a long P-R interval
potential block
what would happen to the segment when you increase your heart rate.
Heart rate increases therefore intervals are shorter and the segments are shorter
What does the P-R segment represent on the EKG?
Interval between arterial depolarization and ventricular depolarization
Looking at an ECG, and if you wanted to figure out Heart rate, what interval would you look for?
R to R interval
If the R-R, 1 R and then 25mm to the next R and 25mm to the next are after that, what is the heart rate?
60bpm (25mm = 1 sec)
What would you call platelets, red erythrocytes, leukocytes in the blood
Formed elements
What is secondary polycythemia
caused by hypoxia which raise hematocrit
Anoxemia
no oxygen in your blood vessels
If you hold your breath, what happens to the venous return to the heart?
decreases
If you exercise, what happens to the intervals between the P waves, QRS and T waves?
They shorten
When you added pilocarpine to the heart, did it beat faster or slower?
Slower, simulates the effects of the parasympathetic nerve
When you counted the cells in blood, we used a hemocytometer, and you used which grid for the WBC?
W-Grids with 64 boxes
When you counted the cells in blood, we used a hemocytometer, and you used which grid for the RBC?
R-grid with 80 boxes
When you took the pulse, which pulse was more reliable, radial or carotid
Carotid
formula for cardiac output
HR x stroke volume
If you are a couch potato, stroke volume would go down, what needs to happen to keep your cardiac output
raise heart rate
Direct vs indirect immunoassay
Dir: looking for the actual antigen
In: looking for the antibody
How would you know if you have a false positive
If my negative control gave a positive result = contamination, meaning positive controls have to be retested
Why is direct immunoassay more accurate?
if you see antigen, they have the pathogen; if indirect they had to be able to make antibodies. If no antibodies are made they are still negative
What is seroconversion?
Tested negative bc you haven’t made antibodies and then test positive bc now you made antibodies for that pathogen
Average Stroke volume
70mL
What happens if the heart was given Atropine
blocks effect of the neurotransmitter Acetylcholine = blocking vagus inhibition = heart rate will be faster