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78 Cards in this Set

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Name three components of blood
- serum
- clotting agents
- cells
Serum is the liquidy portion of blood. It contains what 5 things?
minerals, salts, glucose, proteins, water
clotting agents contain what two things?
fibrinogen and prothrombin
what two things make plasma?
serum + clotting agents = plasma
serum + clotting agents = ?
plasma
Name the 3 cell types
erythrocytes (red blood cells)

platelets (helps w/ clotting)

leukocytes (white blood cells)
Name the two types of leukocytes (white blood cells).
PMN (polymorphonuclear)

Mononuclear cells
What three cells make up PMN (polymorphonuclear) cells or granulocytes?
Neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils
What two cells make up Mononuclear cells?
Monocytes (become macrophages)

Lymphocytes (T cells, B cells (major players in immune system)
Name the two lyphocytes
T cells

B cells

(major players in immune system)
Antigen
Macromolecule that elicits immune response (protein, polysaccharide) are antigens.
Macromolecule that elicits immune response (_____, _____) are antigens.
protein, polysaccharide
Name an antigenic determinant.
Epitopes

Epitopes are antigenic determinants taht are subsets of antigens
The particular unique ____ (6-8amino acid, or monosaccharide unit) on an antigen that elicits a specific immune response.
chemical group
The particular unique chemical group(______, or ______) on an antigen that elicits a specific immune response.
6-8amino acid, or monosaccharide unit
Antibodies. ______ that are produced in response to foreign antigens.
soluble proteins
Antibodies are soluble proteins that are produced in response to foreign antigens. They ____ and _____ epitopes of antigens.
recognize and bind
B lymphocytes are found in ______ immunity
antibody-mediated
B lymphocytes produce _____
antibodies that provide resistance to disease
Cytotoxic T lymphocytes are used in ______ immunity
cell-mediated
Cytotoxic T lymphocytes provides reistance through _______
direct cell-to-cell contact.

cytotoxic T cells bind to cells that have been affected and kills them.

perforin (pops the cell)
granzyme
Immune Response. In order for B cells and T cells to destroy invading organisms that are free in body solutions or hiding in cells, they must be taught what to attack--they must be presented with a ____
target
What are the three key words to remember with immune response?
recognize, eradicate, remember
'See' part of an invader (antigen) in order to ______
destroy the entire invader

*seeing involves protein-protein interaction
MHC: major histocompatibility complex proteins. On all cells (define 'self'). Enormous variety (____different genes, ____ forms of each gene)
20
50
There are two classes of MHC proteins. Class I MHC is found on what?
virtually all cells of the body
Class III MHC is found on?
B-lymphocytes, macrophages
Class I MHC binds _____
CD8+
Class II MHC binds _____
CD4+
Antibody-mediated or cell-mediated immunity begins with ______
phagocytosis
______ or _______ immunity begins with phagocytosis
antibody-mediated or cell-mediated immunity
Antigens are broken down by phagocytosis. Epitopes are displayed on the surface of APC (antigen presenting cells) in context of MHC. Transport to ____
lymphoid organs
Helper T cells have a _____ coreceptor and binds MHC class ____
CD4
Class II MHC
Cytotoxic T cells have a _____coreceptor and binds MHC class ____.
CD8
Class I MHC
1st step to cell-mediated immunity: Antigen displayed on APC (antigen presenting cell) in context of MHC II to ________
effector T
2nd step to cell-mediated immunity: Helper T (CD4+) binds MHC II on _____. Helper T secretes _____.
macrophage
IL-2 (interleukin-2)
3rd step to cell-mediated immunity: IL-2 stimulates effector T to become _______ (for now) or ______ (for later)
cytotoxic T
memory T
4th step to cell-mediated immunity: cytotoxic T uses _____ receptor to recognize antigen displayed in MHC___.
CD8
MHC I
5th step in cell-mediated immunity: cytotoxic T secretes ______ and zaps virus infected cell
perforin

also: granzyme
CLonal Selectioni is the process of _____
picking out the right antibody
Goal of Antibody-mediated immunity.
produce antibodies that reacts with toxins, antigens on microbial surfaces, microbial structures
In clonal Selection, there are many B cells, but each B cell only makes one type of ____
antibody
Only B cell with complementary ____binds antigen
receptor
In Clonal selection, B cells are ____ and _____out
activated and selected out
Give a general summary of clonal selection.
1) Antigens enter the lymphoid organ
2) Lymphoid organs conatin many B cells with different surface receptors (antibody molecules)
3) When the epitope of the antigen binds to the correct B cell, it is "selected out." The cell undergoes division and enlarges to become a clone of activated B cells.
4) The activated B cells then interact with helper T lymphocytes. T cells secrete cytokines that cause B-cell division and differentiation into plasma cells and memory B cells.
5) Plasma cells secrete the antibodies that function in antibody-mediated immunity. The antibodies recognize the same epitope originally bound to B-cell receptors.
Antibody-Mediated Immunity. Antigen Presenting Cell displays antigen in context of ____ to ____
MHC II to helper T
APC display antigen in context of MHC II to helper T. Binding activates helper T with assistance of ____.
IL-1
Activated helper T binds _______ in antibody-mediated immunity.
B lymphocytes
B-cells differentiate into antibody secreting _____
plasma cells
Describe the process of antibody-mediated immunity
1) The antigen-receptor complex has been taken into the selected B lymphocyte, and the antigen peptide is now displayed on the B cell's surface within the class II MHC protein.
2) Meanwhile, an antigen-presenting macrophage has activated a helper T lymphocyte. Interleukin-1 from the macrophage assists the activation.
3) A clone of activated helper T cells results from the activation.
4) The activated helper T cells bind with the selected B cells. The binding takes place at the MHC II/peptide complex.
5) The binding spurs the B cells to enlarge and divide into a clone of plasma cells and memory cells.
6) The plasma cells secrete antibodies that enter the body's circulation and find their way to antigen-bearing microorganisms. Interaction with the microorganisms lead to their destruction and a specific immune defense.
After the initial antigenic stimulation, IgM is the first antibody to appear in the circulation. Initially, it is the principal component of the primary antibody response. Later, IgM is supplemented by IgG. On a second or ensuing exposure to the same antigen, what happens?
The production of IgG is more rapid, and the concentration in the serum reaches a higher level than previously. Thus, the IgG antibody is more concentrated in the secondary anitbody response.
The antibody molecule is a protein consisting of _______: two light chains and two heavy chains connected by _____ (S-S) linkages. The heavy chains bend at a hinge point
four polypeptide chains
disulfide
variable region
The variable region is where the amino acid compositions of various antibodies differ
constant region
in the constant region, the amino acid compositions are similar in different antibodies
On treatment with _____ enzyme, cleavage occurs at the hinge point, and three fragments result: two identical Fab fragments and one Fc fragment
papain
On treatment with papain enzyme, cleavage occurs at the hinge point, and three fragments result. What are they?
Two identical Fab fragments and one Fc Fragment

Fab= fragment antibody binding
Fc= fragment crystalline
IgM
macroglobulin
1st to appear in circulation, primary response
IgG
gamma globulin

Secondary response, upon re-infection, IgG made by memory cells
IgA
found in bodily secretions (colostrum) protection in body cavities possibly by inhibiting attachment of parasites. prevent illness.

When mother has baby, premilk is colostrum. It contains IgA antibody that protects baby.
IgE
role in allergic rxns
IgD
membrane antibody. function unclear
What are the five types of antibodies?
IgM
IgG
IgA
IgE
IgD

MGAED
(My guman ate every day)
What are the four heavy chain proteins?
V, D, J, C

v= variable
d= diversity
j= joining
c= constant
What are the four light chain proteins?
V, J, C
There are two heavy chains and two light chains for antibodies. Generate antibody diversity by a process called ____
somatic recombination
how many diffferent antibodies can be generated by somatic recombination?
200 million
What are the five mechanisms by which antibodies interact with antigens?
- viral inhibition
- neutralization
- opsonization
- agglutination
- precipitation
The five mechanisms by which antibodies interact with antigens all enhance ____
phagocytosis.

opsonins encourage phagocytosis by forming a bridge between parasites and receptor sites on the phagocyte
viral inhibition
antibodies react with molecules at the viral surface and prevent the viral attachment to cells.
neutralization
antibodies called antitoxins combine specifically with toxins, thereby neutralizing them
opsonization
antibodies (called opsonins) coat bacteria, preventing bacterial attachment to cells
agglutination
agglutinins combine with antigens on the cell surface and bind the cells together or restrict movement
precipitation
precipitins combine with dissolved antigens to form lattice-like arrangements that precipitate out of solution
In the classical pathway of complement activity, what happens first? (antibody molecules attach to the antigens on the pathogen's _____)
cell membrane
In the classical pathway of complement activity, what happens second? (______ link two antibody molecules together)
complement proteins
In the classical pathway of complement activity, what happens third? (Activated complement proteins attach to the pathogen's membrane in step-by-step sequence, forming a _____)
membrane attack complex
In the classical pathway of complement activity, what happens last? (The attack complex results in _____ in the membrane causing ____ by water loss)
pores
cell lysis
Describe the classical pathway of complement activity.
1) Antibody molecules attach to the antigens on the pathogen's cell membrane.
2) complement proteins link two antibody molecules together.
3) activated complement proteins attach to the pathogen's membrane in step-by-step sequence, forming a membrane attack complex
4) the attack complex results in pores in the membrane causing lysis by water loss