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64 Cards in this Set

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Amylase (ptyalin):

*location(s)
*substrate(S)
*product(s)
*location(s): mouth and pancrease
*substrate(s): carbohydrates
*product(s): maltose
Lingual lipase:

*location
*substrate(s)
*product(s)
*location: mouth
*substrate(s): TG's and fatty acids
*product(s): monoglycerides
Pepsin:

*location
*substrate(s)
*product(s)
*location: stomach
*substrate: proteins
*product(s): peptides
Trypsin:

*location
*substrate(s)
*product(s)
*location: pancreas
*substrate(s): proteins (cleave at C-terminus of Lys and Arg except when followed by Pro)
*product(s): peptides
Chymotrypsin:

*location
*substrate(s)
*product(s)
*location: pancreas
*substrate(s): proteins (cleave at C-terminus of Trp, Tyr, Phe and Met)
*product(s): peptides
Carboxypeptidase

*location
*substrate(s)
*product(s)
*location: pancreas
*substrate(s): proteins (cleave peptide bond at C-terminus)
*product(s): peptides
Elastase:

*location
*substrate(s)
*product(s)
*location: pancreas
*substrate(s): proteins (cleave at C-terminus of Gly, Ala, Val)
*product(s): peptides
Lipase-Colipase:

*location
*substrate(s)
*product(s)
*location: pancreas
*substrate(s): TG's and fatty acids
*product(s): monoglycerides
Phospholipase A2:

*location
*substrate(s)
*product(s)
*location: pancreas
*substrate(s): phospholipids
*product(s): fatty acids and lyso-phospholipids
Cholesterol esterase-nonspecific lipase:

*location
*substrate(s)
*product(s)
*location: pancreas
*substrate(s): cholesterol
*product(s): sterol and fatty acids
Enterokinase:

*location
*substrate(s)
*product(s)
*location: intestine (duodenum)
*substrate(s): trypsinogen
*product(s): trypsin
Maltase:

*location
*substrate(s)
*product(s)
*location: intestine (duodenum)
*substrate(s): maltose
*product(s): alpha-glucose (2)
Sucrase:

*location
*substrate(s)
*product(s)
*location: intestine (duodenum)
*substrate(s): sucrose
*product(s): fructose and glucose
Lactase:

*location
*substrate(s)
*product(s)
*location: intestine (duodenum)
*substrate(s): lactose
*product(s): galactose and glucose
Trehalase:

*location
*substrate(s)
*product(s)
*location: intestine (duodenum)
*substrate(s): trehalose
*product(s): glucose
Isomaltase:

*location
*substrate(s)
*products(s)
*location: intestine (duodenum)
*substrate(s): saccharides
*products(s)
Aminooligopeptidase:

*location
*substrate(s)
*products(s)
*location: intestine (duodenum)
*substrate(s): proteins
*products(s): peptides
Dipeptidase:

*location
*substrate(s)
*products(s)
*location: intestine (duodenum)
*substrate(s): proteins
*products(s): peptides
saliva vs. plasma

[Na]
[Cl]
[K]
[HCO3]
[Na] lower
[Cl] lower

[K] higher
[HCO3] higher

*aldosterone stimulates Na reabsorption and K secretion*
salivary glands are stimulated by
PNS (major) "Rest & Digest"

SNS (minor)

*salivary glands are not stimulated by digestive hormones*
release of kallikrein upon activation of salivary glands results in
production of bradykinin (potent vasodilator)
gastric acid converts ______ to ______
pepsinogen

pepsin
Major regions of the stomach (3)
fundus

body

antrum (pylorus)
Cardiac glands:

*location
*compostion
*location: near esophageal orifice
*compostion: mucous cells
Pyloric glands:

*location
*compostion
*location: aboral (20%) of gastric mucosa
*compostion: mucous cells, D cells, G cells
Oxyntic glands:

*location
*location: ~80% of gastric mucosa (from cardiac region to antral area)
D (delta) cells secrete
somatostatin
G cells secrete
gastrin
gastrin stimulates _____ cells to secrete ______ and _____ cells to secrete ______
parietal cells
HCl

ECL (extrachromaffin-like) cells
histamine
histamine stimulates ______ cells to secrete _____
parietal cells
HCl
parietal cells secrete (2)
HCl

intrinsic factor (complexes with vitamin B12)
parietal cells are stimulated by (3)
ACh

gastrin

histamine
ECL (extrachromaffin-like) cells secrete
histamine
ECL cells are stimulated by
gastrin
mucous neck cells are stimulated by
vagal fibers (cholinergic postganglionic fibers)
chief cells secrete
pepsinogen
pepsinogen is converted to _____ by _____
pepsins

HCl (gastric acid)
lack of intrinsic factor leads to
pernicious anemia (macrocytic anemia - large rbc's)
achlorhydric patients have defective _____ cells and secrete neither _____ nor ______
parietal cells

HCl
intrinsic factor
Na/K ATPase pump is inhibited by
ouabain
H/K ATPase pump is inhibited by
omeprazole
parietal cell secretion vs. plasma

[K]
[H]
[Cl]
[K] higher
[H] higher
[Cl] higher
HCO3 production is inhibited by
carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
HCl secretion during cephalic phase is abolished by
vagotomy
HCl secretion during cephalic phase is decreased moderately by
antrectomy (surgical removal of antrum/pylorus = eliminating G cells = no gastrin secretion)
HCl secretion during cephalic phase is decreased by
atropine (inhibits vagal activation of muscarinic receptors on parietal cells)

*atropine does not block vagally-mediated release of gastrin* (atropine insensitive pathway)
gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) stimulates
release of gastrin from G cells
HCl secretion during cephalic phase is abolished by _____ plus ______
antrectomy

atropine
HCl and pepsinogen secretion during gastric phase is stimulated by
distension of oxyntic or antral regions
HCl and pepsinogen secretion during gastric phase is decreased by _____ or ____
vagotomy

atropine
Gastrin secretion by antral G-cells during gastric phase is stimulated by
amino acids (protein digestion products)
Gastrin secretion by antral G-cells during gastric phase is abolished by
pH < 2
Gastric acid secretion is inhibited by ______ and ______ during the intestinal phase
secretin

gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP)

*secretin and GIP are enterogastrones*
enterogastrone release is stimulated by
presence of food in the duodenum:

acidic chyme - secretin

fat - GIP
secretin is released by the ____ and the _____
duodenum

upper jejunum
secretin inhibits _____ but stimulates _____
HCl secretion

secretion of pepsinogens
GIP decreases _____ and _____
HCl secretion (minor)

gastric motility (major)
Parietal cells are stimulated by (3)
ACh

gastrin

histamine
gastrin is released by G cells in response to
gastrin releasing protein (GRP)
histamine receptor (H2) is blocked by
cimetidine
HCl release:

direct pathway

indirect pathway
direct pathway:
ACh, gastrin and/or histamine stimulate parietal cells

indirect pathway:
ACh and gastrin stimulate ECL cells, resulting in secretion of histamine, which stimulates parietal cells
ACh and gastrin increase [Ca] or cAMP?
[Ca]
histamine increases [Ca] or cAMP?
cAMP
somatostatin and prostaglandins decrease [Ca] or cAMP?
cAMP