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51 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
9 Functions of the Respiratory System
1. Gas Exchange
2. Acid-base
3. Defense of the body
4. Filter out particulate matter
5. Conditioning of inspired gas
6. Warm and humidify air
7. Signaling pathways (ACE converts ANG I-->ANGII, blood pressure regulation)
8. Speech
9. Works hand-in-hand with the CV and renal systems
Gas Echange is a component of the Respiratory System which involves:
1. Exchange of O2 and CO2 between blood and environment
2. Diffusion
3. Transport
Cellular Respiration
Requirement of O2 in the final step of electron transport
Anatomy of upper respiratory tract
nose and pharnyx
Anatomy of lower respiratory tract
larnyx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs
What are the 2 functional divisions
1. Conducting Zone
2. Respiratory Zone
Conducting Zone consists of:
nose, pharnyx, larnyx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and terminal bronchioles
What are the functions of the conducting zone:
filter, warm, moisten air, conduct air into lungs
Which functional division consists of the bronchial circulation?
Conducting Zone
Which functional division consists of the pulmonary circulation?
Respiratory Zone
Respiratory Zone consists of:
Respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ductsm alveolar sacs, and alveoli
What is the function of the respiratory zone?
gas exchange
Where is each lung housed?
Each lung is housed in its own pleural cavity in the thorax.
What is the pressure in each lungs and why is this impt.?
Pressure in each is sub-atmospheric which is essential for keeping the lung inflated.
How many lobes are in the right lung?
3 lobes in right lung
How many lobes are in the left lung?
2 lobes in the left lung
How many segments are in the right lung?
10 segments in the right lung
How many segments are in the left lung?
8-10 segments in the left lung
What is another name for lobule?
Secondary acinus
What is the secondary acinus?
It is the volume of lung innervated by a single terminal bronchiole.
What surrounds the 5-10 acini and it's importance?
5-10 acini are surrounded by CT, this CT helps keep the area open so it doesn't collapse.
How large is a typical lung and why is this important?
300-500 million alveoli, total surface area ~75 m2 (about a tennis court). The large surface area provides the blood-gas interface.
Terminal respiratory unit
Alveolar ducts and their associated alveoli merge with pulmonary capillaries.
What is the size of the blood-gas interface at the alveolar-capillary membrane?
It is extremely thin: less than 0.5 microns (1/16 the diameter of a RBC)
Name the 6 structures in the alveolar capillary in a human lung.
1. Alveolar space (AS)
2. Interstitial Space (IS)
3. Basement membrane (BM)
4. Endothelium (E)
5. Continuous epithelium (EP)
6. Erythrocyte (RBC)
What happens to the diaphragm during inspiration when one phrenic nerve is paralyzed?
One side of the diaphragm will go up while the other side is going down during breathing.
What 2 structures are involved during inspriation?
Diaphragm and Accessory Muscles
Which 3 accessory muscles are involved during inspriation?
External intercostals, Scalene muscles, and Sternocleidomastoids
Is normal exhalation an active or passive process?
Normal exhalation is a passive process.
What relaxes during expiration?
The diaphragm relaxes during expiration.
Which 5 muscles are involved during forced expiration?
Internal Intercostals, external obliques, internal obliques, transverse abdominis, and rectus abdominis
What happens during inspiration?
During inspiration, the diaphragm contracts and displaces abdominal contents.
What happens to the abdominal contents during inspiration?
The abdominal contents resist and act as a fulcrum during inspiration.
What happens when the diaphragm contracts during inspiration?
During inspiration when the diaphragm contracts--> the ribs lift up and the throacic cavity is lengthened
What 2 structures are involved during forced inspiration?
During forced inspiration, the diaphragm and the accessory muscles are involved.
What is the function of the external intercostals during forced inspiration?
The external intercostals raise anterior end of rib cage=upward and outward.
Which 2 muscles further increase the thoracic volume during forced inspiration? And, how do they do this?
Scalene muscles and sternocleidomastoids increase thoracic volume by elevating the upper rib cage during forced inspiration.
Which muscles pull the rib cage down during forced expiration?
Internal intercostals: pull the rib cage down during forced expiration
Which 4 muscles are involved in forced expiration by contracting the abdominal wall and what does it cause?
External obliques, internal obliques, transverse abdominis, and rectus abdominus are involved in forced expiration. Specifically, the contract the abdominal wall which pushes the diaphragm upward.
Tidal Volume (VT)
Volume of one breath; ~500 mL
Minute Ventilation(V)
Volume of air inhaled and exhaled per minute; V= 12 breaths/min. x 500mL/breath; V=6L/min
Expired minute ventilation (VE)
VE= VT x f; considered equivalent to minute ventilation
Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV)
Volume of air that can be forcibly inhaled following a normal inspiration
Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV)
Volume of air that can be forcibly exhaled following a normal expiration
Forced Expiratopry Volume in 1 second (FEV1)
Volume of air that can be exhaled in 1 second with maximal effort following maximal inhalation
Residual Volume (RV)
Volume of air remaining in the lungs after a maximal expiration; RV=FRC-ERV
Vital Capacity (VC)
Maximal volume of air that can be forcibly exhaled after maximal inspiration; VC=TV+IRV+ERV
Functional Residual Capacity (FRC)
Volume of air remaining in the lungs at the end of a normal expiration; FRC=RV+ERV
Total Lung Capacity (TLC)
Volume of air in the lungs at the end of maximal inspiration (how much ait out lungs can possible hold); TLC=FRC+TV+IRV=VC+RV
Maximal Volunatry Ventilation (MVV)
Maximum volume of air that can be breathed by voluntary effort in a 15 second interval. This volume is multiplied by 4 and expressed as liters per minute. (this measures strength, endurance, etc...)
Which volume can't be measured by a spirometer test?
Residual volume because you will have to do a test that measures CO2 output. You can estimate it though.