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25 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
anxiolytics
antianxiety drugs
psychological components of anxiety
fear
apprehension
dread
uneasiness
physical components of anxiety
tachychardia
palpitations
TREMBLING
dry mouth
sweating
weakness
fatigue
shortness of breath
six classes of primary anxiety disorders
1.Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)
2.panic disorder
3.OCD
4.Phobias
5. PTSD
6. Acute stress disorder
sedatives
-decrease NEURAL activity
-moderate excitement
-CALM the person taking the drug
hypnotics
-drugs that produce DROWSINESS
-facilitate the onset and maintenance of SLEEP
benzodiazepines
(mechanism of action)
increase response to GABA

-entry of Cl-HYPERPOLARIZES the cell making it more difficult to depolarize and therefore reduce neural excitability
benzodiazepines Pharmacokinetics
-lipid soluble
-easily cross the BBB
-generally have RAPID onset of actions
-persist longer in high fat to lean body mass******
-abuse liability
benzodiazepines
(effects of)
-reduction of anxiety and agression
-sedation and sleep
-muscle spasm relaxants
-anticonvulsant
-amnesia
alprazolam
-benzodiazepine
-SHORT term and LONG term
-half life --> 12 hrs
-metabolized by hepatic enzymes
-70% protein bound
-HIGHLY ABUSED ...#1 cause of hospital admissions.
diazepam (valium)
-benzodiazepine
-effective for anxiety (combined with depression or schizo)
-LONG acting 1-3 days
-hepatic metabolism to ACTIVE metab.
-given ORALLY
-used in status epileptcus
lorazepam (Ativan)
-SHORT acting
-half life 10 to 20 hrs
-peak action 2 to 4 hours
-RAPIDLY absorbed
-DOES NOT produce active metabolites
-given IM, PO (oral) and IV
insomnia-
symptoms
-difficulty FALLING asleep
-awakening FREQUENTLY during the night
-waking up too EARLY
Flurazepam
benzodiazepine
-reduces sleep INDUCTION time and NUMBER of awakenings
-increases DURATION of sleep
-effective up to 4 weeks
-2.3 half life
-20-250 h plasma half life
-long half life of its metabolite (47-100h) peak hypnotic effect of flurazepam may be reached afer 2-3 nights of use.
temazepam
- REDUCES FREQUENT wakening
-PEAK effect occurs 2-3 hr after an ORAL dose.
-recommended for SHORT term use of 7 to 10 days
-half life 11+ 6 hrs . (INTERMEDIATE acting)
Triazolam
-benzodiazepines
-induces sleep in patients with recurring INSOMNIA.
-tolerance develops in days
withdrawl..--> insomnia and anterograde amnesia
-used for less than 2-4 weeks
-half life 3 hrs SHORT acting peak action 1-2 hrs
-may cause sever allergic reaction
insomia drugs

properties
less potent benzodiazepines continute to induce sleep after they are stopped

higher potent has higher withdrwal
Zolpidem (Ambien)
-Non benzodiazepiene GABA agonists (inhibitory transmitter)

-hypnotic agent

-treat INSOMNIA

-bind to BZ1 type 1 receptor.
Ezopiclone (Lunesta)
non benzodiazepiene GABA agonist

-hypnotic agent

-treats insomnia

-uknown mechanism of action receptor may be near benzodiazepine receptor
SSRI;s
-inhibitors of serotonin reuptake
-intensify transmission at serotogenic synapse.
-BLOCKAGE occurs QUICKLY --> therapeutic EFFECT is SLOW to develop
-well absorbed
->90% is bound to plasma proteins
SSRI's
(side effects)
sexual dysfunction
weight gain
withdrawl syndrome

***never use with MAOI's
Buspiron
-5HT1A agonist
-not chemically or pharmacologically related to benzodiazepines, barbituates or other sedative/anxiolytic drugs
Buspiron
-different drug from benzodiazepines
-onset of effect requires several days
-NO SEDATION
-NO risk of DEPENDANCE
-does not intensify effects of benzodiazepines alcohol
-SHORT term treatment of anxiety.
Buspiron
better for older poepl than alprezolam (benzodiazepine)
Barbituate
(side effects)
addiction, drowsiness tremors , vertigo, tremors, nausea, enzyme induction