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105 Cards in this Set

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The influenza virion belongs to the _____ family of viruses.
Orthomyxoviridae
_____ surrounds each helix
capsid
______ surrounds the core of segments
matrix protein
_____ surrounds matrix protein
envelope
Projecting from the envelope is a series of spikes that contain ______
glycoprotein
H spike stands for ____
hemaglutinin
what does the H spike do?
facilitates the attachment of influenza viruses to ciliated epithelial cells
What does N spike stand for?
Neuraminidase
What does Neuraminidase do?
assists the entry of the virion into the host cell for replication and exits from the host cell when replication is complete. (entry/exit). snips sialic acid (your own cells) from carbohydrate on cell membrane.
Neuraminidase snips ______ from carbohydrate on cell membrane
sialic acid
Three strains of influenza virus are recognized: A, B, C. THese types are based on ____
Hemaglutinin (H) and Neuraminidase (N)
Name one type of influenza
A(H3N2)
_____ changes are responsible for recurring flu epidemics
antigenic
How is the influenza virus transmitted?
airborne droplets
What happens after H binds to epithelial cell receptors and N assists entry?
viral envelope fuses with host cell membrane and the virus enters host cell
After H binds epithelial cell receptor and N assists entry, viral envelope fuses with host cell membrane and the virus enters host cell. What does the virus then do?
Virus then replicates, assembles, buds, spreads to nearby cells in about 6 hours
After H binds epithelial cell receptor and N assists entry, viral envelope fuses with host cell membrane and the virus enters host cell. Virus then replicates, assembles, buds, spreads to nearby cells in about 6 hours. Then what?
Infected cells die, slough off and destroy mucosal escalator.
After an incubation period of 2 days, what symptoms appear?
Body aches, chills, high fever, nasal congestion, tight chest b/c of viral invasion of trachea/bronchi
THe Influenza virus is usually a _____ disease (7-10 days)
self-limiting
One complication of influenza is secondary infections. Name three opportunistic bacteria that cause this.
Staphylococcus aureus
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Haemophilus influenzae
Name two syndromes which are serious complications of influenza
Guillain-Barre Syndrome
Reyes Syndrome
The Guillain-Barre syndrome is characterized by what three things?
paralysis
nerve damage
coma
Reyes Syndrome is related to ____ and ___
kids and aspirin
What is REyes Syndrome characterized by?
elevated fever, lots of vomiting, lethargy. kids are glassy-eyed and incoherent
Instead of using aspirin, use ______ with kids
acetaminophen
Both Guillain-Barre Syndrome and Reyes Syndrome are not a direct result of the virus. They are a side effect of ____
immune response
What is the drug used to treat influenza that interferes with the uncoating of virus?
amantadine (symmetrel)
What two drugs that are neuraminidase inhbitors are used to treat influenza? They block the relase of virus from host cell.
Zanamivir (Relenza)
Oseltamivir (Tamiflu)

*These drugs target the neuraminidase spikes projecting from the influenza virus envelope and block the release of influenza A and B virus particles from infected cells.
What is the best prevention of influenza?
vaccine
Vaccine is _____/______ viruses
inactivated/attenuated
The influenza viruses are cultivated on ____
eggs
______ requires new vaccination every year
antigenic variation
The Respiratory Syncytial (RS) virus is an enveloped single-stranded RNA virion of the _____ family
Paramyxoviridae
The Respiratory syncytial virus is helical, (s) ssRNA, enveloped virus that is transmitted by airborne droplets. It infects cells of ______
bronchioles/air sacs
Respiratory syncytial virus infects cells of bronchioles/air sacs. The bronchioles/air sacs cells fuse and form giant multinucleate cells called _____ that function abnormally, die, and slough off
syncytia
What happens after syncytia are formed and sloughed off?
inflammation results-blocking bronchioles and causing wheezing
The common cold is caused by many different viruses. Name the two main ones and 4 others
1) Rhinoviruses
2) Adenoviruses

coxsackie
corona
echoviruse
reoviruses
Rhinoviruses have what shape?
icosahedral
Rhinoviruses are icosahedral viruses of what family?
picornaviridae
Rhinoviruses are a group of ____ viruses with >115 distinct serotypes
ssRNA
What does the rhinovirus target and why?
nose a target because temperature lower than the rest of the body
What shape does the adenoviruses have?
icosahedral
Adenoviruses are icosahedral viruses of what family?
adenoviridiae
Adenoviruses are a group of ____ viruses with >45 distinct serotypes
dsDNA

*DOUBLE STRANDED
Rhinoviruses and adenoviruses both cause _____ or ____
common cold or head cold
What are the common symptoms of the common cold or head cold?
headache, chills, dry scratchy throat, runny nose
What symptoms are characteristic of the adenovirus infection?
high fever, swollen lymph nodes, and gunk on throat surface
In rhinovirus infections, are fevers less substantial than in adenovirus infections?
yes
How does the body fight infections of the common cold?
interferons and specific immune response
Adenovirus targets the lungs. It is a vehical for gene therapy patients with _____
cystic fibrosis
How have adenoviruses developed a more positive image?
THey have become vectors (carriers) for genes during gene therapy experiments. Researchers made adenoviruses incapable of replication, then reengineered them with a collection of genes to help control cystic fibrosis (CF). The genetically altered viruses ferried the helpful genes into the respiratory cells of CF patients, where they encoded proteins to help clear away the mucus and sticky material accumulating in the airways.
Name 5 things for 'cures' and prevention
1) block the door knob
2) decoy
3) killer kleenex
4) vitamin C
5) wash hands!
block the door knob. identify receptors in nose and make ______
antibodies to receptors and block viral attachment
decoy. make copies of receptors to ____
bind viruses before binding receptors on nose
What is killer kleenex?
tissue sandwich with acid substance in the middle that kill viruses on contact
Vitamin C stimulates ____, strengthens _____, prevents _____
stimulates interferon production, strengthens collagen, prevents infection of neighboring cells
What does SARS stand for?
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
Scientists have identified in SARS patients a previously unrecognized coronavirus, which they named the SARS coronavirus. How is this abreviated?
SARS-CoV

coronavirus is something that normally cuases the common cold
SARS-CoV is a _____ (- or +; ss or ds; RNA or DNA) virus
+ssRNA
SARS-CoV is a coronavirus (+)ssRNA virus of what family?
coronaviridiae
How is SARS transmitted?
airborne transmission, close contact with patient, fomites
What are the symptoms of SARS?
fever greater than 38oC, headache, malaise. after 2-7 days, SARS patients may develop a dry cough and have trouble breathing
Since SARS is a newly emerging disease, treatment options remains unclear. What are two treatments that have been tried?
antivirals
steroids
What are the 4 pneumotropic diseases?
1) influenza virus (+ guillain Barre Syndrome and Reyes Syndrome)
2)Respiratory Syncytial Disease
3)Common Cold
4)SARS
The Herpes Simplex Viruses belong to what family?
Herpesviridae
The Herpes Simplex Viruses are _____(+,-; ss,ds;RNA,DNA) icosahedral virions enveloped with spikes.
+ dsDNA
What is characteristic of Type I Herpes Simplex Viruses?
Cold sores, above the waist
What is characteristic of Type II Herpes Simplex Viruses?
results in genital herpes, below the waist
How is Herpes SImplex VIruses transmitted?
by contact
Describe the pathogenicity of the Herpes Simplex Viruses
- Virions bind to receptors on epithelial cells.
- infect and multiply
- infected cells die, creating sores and blisters.
VIrions ind receptors on epthelial cells. Infect and multiply. Infected cells die, creating sores and blisters. Afterwards, virus becomes latent and retreats into ____
nerves
After Herpes Simplex virus becomes latent and retreats into nerves, it can be reactivated by what?
stress, sunburn, fever, emotional upset
Physicians recognize many manifestations of herpes simplex infection, including cold sores, the unsightly lesions that form around the ____ and ____
lips and nose
a series of cold sores of the throat
gingivostomatitis
infection of cornea. major cause of blindness in young adults.
herpes keratitis
disorder of olfactory nerves, results in brain disease. mental impairment, blindness, convulsions, can be fatal.
herpes encephalitis
herpes encephalitis transmitted to newborn, can be fatal. C-section/vidarabine recommended for pregnant women with herpes.
neonatal herpes
sores below the waist
genital herpes
a guanine derivative and a base analog that interferes with viral replication
acyclovir
Mechanism of acyclovir. _______ from virus converts nucleoside to nucleotide, or acyclovir to false nucleotide
thymidine kinase
thymidine kinase adds ____
phosphate
What doesn't acyclovir have?
acyclovir doesn't have the proper chemical group to attach any more nucleotides; thus; elongation of DNA comes to a halt
Describe the mode of action of acyclovir
Acyclovir interferes with the replication of herpesviruses. (a) The enzyme thymidine kinase functions by combining phosphate groups with sugar-base combinations (nucleosides) to form nucleotides. Acyclovir resembles nucleosides, and the enzyme mistakenly adds phosphate groups to the acyclovir to form a false nucleotide. (b) During viral replication, another enzyme, DNA polymerase attaches the false nucleotide onto a developing DNA molecule. However, the false nucleotide lacks an attachment point for the next nucleotide. The elongation of DNA thus comes to a halt, and viral replication stops.
Chickenpox is from what family?
Herpesviridae
Chickenpox is a _____(+-;ds,ss;RNA,DNA) icosahedral enveloped virion
dsDNA
Varicella means what?
little vessel
How is chickenpox transmitted?
respiratory droplets or skin contact with pox
How long is the incubation period for chickenpox?
two weeks
Chickenpox begins the respiratory tract, resulting in general _____
malaise
Chickenpox begins the respiratory tract, resulting in general malaise. Viruses then pass into the bloodstream and localize in the ______and ____
peripheral nerves and skin.
Chickenpox begins the respiratory tract, resulting in general malaise. Viruses then pass into the bloodstream and localize in the peripheral nerves and skin. Multiplies in cutaneous tissue. Little 'vessels' appear. Pox are itchy and full of viruses. Can be treated with _____
topical acyclovir
Chickenpox can be prevented with ____
attenuated virus vaccine
What is the causative agent of chickenpox?
varicella-zoster virus
What is possible after being infected with zoster virus?
naturally acquired active imunity possible after being infected
After getting chickenpox, virus can still be present in _____
nerve ganglia
Latent infection of varicella zoster virus will become active with ______
emotional or physical stress
Zoster virus migrates down nerves, replicates and produces painful shingles on ____
trunk, mid-thoracic and waist region
It is possible to give someone else chickenpox, particularly patients with ___
AIDS
What is the cause of warts?
HPV- human papilloma virus
WHat is unique about HPV- human papilloma virus
non-enveloped DNA viruses
What small tumors are papillomas or warts?
Small clusters of infected cells that overgrow and bulge
There are 5- different viruses with different _____, they don't cross-infect
target tissues
A small percent of warts can become cancerous. HPV infection is associated with ____ cancer
cervical
Warts usually disappear or can be removed by ____
freezing
HPV can survive on inanimate objects such as ____
wrestling mats, shower stalls, towels