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14 Cards in this Set

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Explain how you determine whether an organism should use either the manipulative or cooperative strategy.
Hamilton's rule:
r(N-1)delta R + delta S >0
if this inequality is satisfied, M is favored over C

N = # of individuals in a social group
r= avg relatedness to manipulator
delta R= change in output
delta S= manipulator's change in output
What conditions predict that a POTENTIAL conflict will occur?
Delta R <0 and Delta S > 0
This potential conflict may not result in actual confluct if...(3)
1) policing by other group memebers sufficie4ntly reduces Delta S
2)the genetic relatedness (r) is sufficiently high
3)Delta R is sufficiently negative (and R>0)
What's the definition of actual conflict?
The expression of manipulative and counter-manipulative strategies within a group.
What is the first example of policing?
Naked mole rats: shoving by queen
What are the 3 hypotheses for why queens shove?
1. Mate choice hypothesis
2. Deters Reproductive Challenges (Threat Reduction Hypothesis)
3. Activates lazy workers (Activity incitation hypothesis).
What are strong shoving trends (3)?
1) closer kin shoved at lower rate
2) larger animals get shoved more frequently
3) shove rate same for males and females (control for relatedness and body size)
What are the 3 important conclusions of shoving?
1) Queen's shoving does function to incite colony--makes them become more active
2)shoving more directed toward intrinsically lazier (larger, less related) individuals.
3) The "work conflict" underlying shoving behavior is context specific (ex: usually happens in satiated environments)
The other example of policing is in_____________.
Paper wasps
Describe the context of how paper wasp colonies work and how cheating/policing fits.
In paper wasps, there is a distinct division of labor BUT the queen sometimes lets workers reproduce just to keep them around longer.
the idea of policing is that
a selfish act (cheating) plus another selfish act (policing) = harmony
sooo what prevents reproductive cheating amoung foundresses?
social supression via punishment
Explain why there's a mother-fetus conflict in humans.
b/c fetus and mother not genetically identical, there are genetic conflicts over how much nutrition the fetus requires. Mom wants a more equal distribution of nutrition for future pregnancies (r to kids = 1/2). But the fetus is very selfish (r to itself is 1).
What are 3 pieces of evidence that support this mother-fetus conflict theory?
1)high maternal blood pressure (can lead to kidney failure)
2) vasoconstrictors (fetus)and vasodilators (mom) are both elevated during pregnancy
3) placenta produces cytotoxins that damage arteries of mom-->maternal bl pressure --> blood flow to placenta