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54 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
cell wall
provides characteristic shape to cell
protects from osomotic lysis
contribute to pathogenicity
protect cell from toxic substances
composed of peptidoglycan
NAG
N-acetylglucosamine acid
NAM
N-acetylmuramic acid
Gram positive bacteria
thick peptidoglycan layer (penicillin susceptibility)

teichoic acids

lipoteichoic acid
Gram negative bacteria
thin peptidoglycan layer

outer membrane (LPS)

Braun's lipoprotein

more complex than Gram positive
Gram stain steps
1. crystal violet
2. Gram's iodine (mordant)
3. decolorizer (acetone/EtOH)
4. counterstain (Safranin)
teichoic acid
GRAM POSITIVE

large amts

polymers of glycerol or ribitol joined by phosphate

connected to PG
lipoteichoic acid
GRAM POSITIVE

connected to lipids on PM
LPS components
lipid A

core polysaccharide

O antigen
lipid A
buried in outer membrane

toxic (endotoxin)
core polysaccharide
joined to lipid A

e.g. 10 sugars in Salmonella
O antigen
polysaccharide chain

varies in composition depending on bacterial strains
slime layers
diffuse
unorganized
easily removed
polysaccharides
protection
virulence
pili and fimbriae
Gram neg.
not for mobility

fxn: attachment, twitching motility
sex pili
larger than fimbiriae

fxn: bacteiral mating (conjugative factors, sex factors)
cortex
ENDOSPORE

aids in resistence to high temp.
germ cell wall
ENDOSPORE

made of PG
becomes cell wall after germination
inner membrane
ENDOSPORE

major barrier against damaging chemicals
core
ENDOSPORE

dehydrated and houses DNA, ribosomes, and large amts of dipicolinic acid
dipicolinic acid
ENDOSPORE

helps w/ cell dormancy
found in the core
SASPs
ENDOSPORE

small acid-solubule proteins

bind and condense DNA; responsible for UV light and DNA-damaging chemical resistance
exosporium
ENDOSPORE

additional outer glycoprotein layer
monotrichous
1 flagellum
amphitrichous
one flagellum on both ends
lophotrichous
cluster at both ends
peritrichous
many flagella
three parts of flagella
filament
hook
basal body
filament
FLAGELLA

made of 1000s of flagellin
hook
FLAGELLA

universal joint
basal body
FLAGELLA

rotary motor that turns flagella
rings in each layer of cell wall:
2 rings in Gram pos.
4 rings in Gram neg.
CCW rotation causes...
run
CW rotation causes...
tumble
chemotaxis
response to chemicals
phototaxis
reponse to light
aerotaxis
response to oxygen
osmotaxis
reponse to high ionic strength
magnetotaxis
ability of follow Earth's geomagnetic lines of force
ribosomes
made of rRNA and protein
70S
site of protein synthesis
simple transport
only membrane-spanning system
group translocation
series of proteins that cooperate to mediate transport event: PTS
lac permease
simple transporter

symporter, in E. Coli

take up lactose along with 1 H+
uniporter
1 substane in one directoin
antiporter
2 substances in opposite direction
symporters
2 substances in same direction
three components of ABC system
periplasmic-binding proteins
membrane-spanning components
hydrolyses of ATP
macroelements
H, O, N, C, P, S

ions: K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+, Fe3+
common nutritional requirements
macroelement
microelement
particular requirement
carbon sources
autotroph: CO2

heterotroph: reduced molecules
energy sources
phototrophs: light

chemotrophs: oxidation of organic/inorganic cmpds
electron sources
lithotrophs: reduced inorganic molecules

organotrophs: organic molecules
siderophores
great affinity for iron than transferrin
transferrin
human iron-tranport portein
lactoferrin
produced by body in response to siderophores; retakes iron from bacteria w/ even greater affinity
required organic cmpds
amino acids

purines/pyrimidines

vitamins

other