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81 Cards in this Set

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What diseases can you acquire during a hospital stay?
Nosocomial Diseases
Name three reasons why nosocomial diseases are acquired during a hospital stay
- patients carry lots of infections
- patients are immunocompromised
- hospital personnel and equipment
What are nosocomial diseases caused by?
blood stream infections (BSI)
burn wound infections
respiratory infections (pneumonia)
surgical site infections
urinary tract infections
Source of bacteria can be ______ (outside patient) or ______ (from patient)
exogenous
endogenous
Many nosocomial diseases are caused by microbes brought with the patient at the time of admission. These organisms are generally opportunistic-that is, they do not cause disease in normal humans, but they are dangerous in compromised individuals. Name three common opportunists
E. coli
Staphylococcus aureus
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
The teeth are surrounded by tissues that provide the support essential to tooth function. These tissues, called the periodontal tissues, may be the site of a periodontal disease called ____
Acute Necrotizing Ulcerative Gingivitis (ANUG)
periodontal
around tooth
gingivitis
inflammation of gums
Name four causing agents of periodontal disease
Porphyromonas gingivalis, Leptotrichia buccalis, Eikenella, Treponema vincentii
Porphyromonas gingivalis, Leptotrichia buccalis, and Eikenella are all what kind of bacteria?
Gram-negative rods
Treponema vincentii is what kind of bacteria?
Gram-negative spirochete
Process of periodontal disease. With _____ bacteria colonize periodontal pockets at gum/tooth border
plaque formation
With plaque formation bacteria colonize periodontal pockets at gum/tooth border. Bacteria produce ____ and then ____
toxins and then proteases
With plaque formation bacteria colonize periodontal pockets at gum/tooth border. Bacteria produce toxins and then proteases. Cause inflammation of gums (_____) and then ______
gingivitis
bone destruction
With plaque formation bacteria colonize periodontal pockets at gum/tooth border. Bacteria produce toxins and then proteases. Cause inflammation of gums (gingivitis) then bone destruction. Loss of _____ possible
tooth
What is ANUG (Acute Necrotizing Ulcerative Gingivitis) associated with?
poor oral hygiene, malnutrition, smoking and mental disease
How is Periodontal disease controlled?
frequent plaque removal- brushing and flossing (if you don't floss, ANUG can occur in the absence of cavities)
The acquired enamel pellicle is made up of ______
(-) charged glycoproteins which repels (-) charged bacteria
The _____ is made up of (-) charged glycoproteins which repels (-) charged bacteria
acquired enamel pellicle
What disrupts the natural repulsion of the acquired enamel pellicle repelling (-) charged bacteria?
plaque
Pellicle colonized by ______ and other bacteria
STreptococci
Coaggregation of bacteria through ______ interactions
lectin-carbohydrate receptor interactions
Pellicle colonized by Streptoccoci and other bacteria. Coaggregation of bacteria through lectin-carbohydrate receptor interactions. Streptococci produce enzyme that polymerizes _____ into ________
sucrose into glucan polymers
Pellicle colonized by Streptoccoci and other bacteria. Coaggregation of bacteria through lectin-carbohydrate receptor interactions. Streptococci produce enzyme that polymerizes sucrose into glucan polymers. Glucan cements bacteria together to form _____
plaque
Name four causing agents of Dental Caries.
Streptococcus mutans, mitis, oralis, and sanguis
Streptococcus mtans, mitis, oralis, and sanguis produce acids. What four kinds of acid?
lactic, acetic, formic, butyric
Streptococcus mutans, mitis, oralis, and sanguis produce acids (lactic, acetic, formic, butyric) after _____
metabolizing sucrose and other sugars
Plaque is not permeable to ________ so acis are not diluted or washed away
saliva

acid lowers pH and weakens tooth
Acids demineralize the _____ and _____
enamel and underlying dentin
The bacteria (Streptococcus mutans, mitis, oralis, and sanguis) produce acid that breaks down the calcium phosphate salts in ______, the major compound in the enamel and underlying dentin
hydroxyapatite
What three things do you need for caries?
1) buildup of plaque
2) dietary carbohydrate (sucrose)
3) acidogenic bacteria
What could be done to prevent periodontal disease, plaque formation, and dental caries?
Block binding of bacteria and formation of plaque.

Fluoride
Block binding of bacteria and formation of plaque. Bacteria bind through _____
adhesin
Block binding of bacteria and formation of plaque. Bacteria bind through adhesin. FInd portion of adhesin that binds. Then synthesize a _____
peptide imposter
Block binding of bacteria and formation of plaque. Bacteria bind through adhesin. FInd portion of adhesin that binds. Then, synthesize peptide imposter, which blocks _____
sites on teeth where STreptococci would bind
HOw does fluoride work?
fluoride works by displacing the hydroxyl ions in hydroxyapatite and reducing the solubility of enamel
Sexually transmitted Diseases require person-to-person contact such as ____ or ___
intercourse
orogenital acts

Agents of STDS cannot live outside body. Fomites cannot transmit STDs
What is the #1 STD, #1 cause of sterility in young women?
Chlamydia
Chlamydia is one of several diseases collectively known as _____
nongonoccoccal urethritis (NGU)

*nongonococcal urethritis is a general term for a condition in which people without gonorrhea have a demonstrable infection of the urethra usually characterized by inflammation, and often accompanied by a discharge
What is nongonoccoccal urethritis characterized by?
inflammation of urethra accompanied by discharge
What is chlamydia caused by?
Chlamydia trachomatis, G- cocci
Chlamydia has to live in human cells to survive. In other words, it is an _______ of humans- grows only in eukaryotic cells
intracellular parasite
How long is the incubation period for chlamydia?
1-3 weeks
What do you treat chlamydia with?
tetracycline (or erythromycin for pregnant women)

- no tetracycline for pregnant women cuz of bone formation
What are some symptoms of chlamydia for women?
- Vaginal discharge, burning w/ urination
- inflammation of cervix
- salpingitis- blockage of Fallopian tubes
- pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
- Sterility is a possibility because some women show few symptoms or are asymptomatic
What is the blockage of Fallopian tubes called?
Salpingitis
What things should you know with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)? (involves what? can cause what?)
- involves reproductive structure
- can cause chronic pelvic pain, ectopic pregnancy, tubal infertility
What are some symptoms of chlamydia for men?
Painful urination, discharge, tingling sensation in penis
What are the symptoms of chlamydia for newborns?
diseases of eyes
chlamydial opthalmia can cause blindness
Describe the reproductive cycle of the chlamydiae
- A chlamydia enters the cytoplasm of a susceptible cell.
- It enlarges to form an initial body after about 12 hours.
- The initial body then undergoes several binary fissions to form small particles called elementary bodies.
- elementary bodies accumulate after 30 hrs.
- the elementary bodies emerge as new chlamydiae after 48 hrs.
What is the #2 STD reported?
Gonorrhea
What is the causative agent of gonorrhea?
Neisseria gonorrheae

G- diplococci, fragile organism
How long is the incubation period for gonorrhea?
2-6 days
How can gonorrhea be treated?
a variety of antibiotics
How would you control the spread of gonorrhea?
through the use of prophylactics, rapid treatment, diagnosis of asymptomatic cases, public education
N. gonorrhea use pili to attach to mucosal cells, which prevents ____
bacteria from being washed away
What are the symptoms of gonorrhea that women have?
- symptoms similar to chlamydia, just worse
- discharge, burning pee, salpingitis, PID- can result in ectopic pregnancy or sterility
- 50% are asymptomatic (are unknowing carriers)
What are the symptoms of gonorrhea that men have?
- Painful urination, discharge, testicular pain, swelling of lymph nodes in groin
- infection of epididymis can lead to sterility
What are the symptoms of gonorrhea for newborns?
Gonococcal opthalmia prevented with silver nitrate, antibiotics
What can be prevented with silver nitrate and antibiotics?
gonococcal opthalmia
What is the one, only fatal STD?
Syphilis
What is the agent of syphilis?
Treponema pallidum
Describe Treponema pallidum
Spirochete (axial filaments)
Treponema pallidum is a spirochete (axial filaments) that enters the body through ____
mucous membranes, abrasions or hair follicles
What is the incubation period for syphilis?
~ 3 weeks
How is syphilis transmitted?
intimate human-to-human contact
How can syphilis be treated in primary, secondary, latent, and tertiary stages?
antibiotics in primary and secondary and latent stages

can't be treated in tertiary stages
What is a characteristic of the primary stage of syphilis?
Chancre, purplish ulcer with raised margins and hard edges
Where does a chancre develop?
at site of entry
What does a chancre contain?
spirochetes
When does a chancre disappear?
Disappears spontaneously after about 2-6 weeks
secondary syphilis looks like other diseases. What are symptoms of secondary syphilis?
- fever, flu-like illness, swollen lymph nodes (mono)
- skin rash (measles or chicken pox)
- patchy hair loss, jaundice (hepatitis)
What are some of the major symptoms of syphilis?
swollen lymph nodes (mono)
jaundice (hepatitis)
measles or chicken pox
Is secondary syphilis still infectious in the latent stage?
yes
What is the tertiary stage characterized by?
gumma- soft gummy and granular lesions that will burst blood vessels
gumma leads to degeneration of ____
nervous tissues
Gumma is soft gummy and granular lesions that will burst blood vessels and leads to degeneration of nervous tissues. It then leads to ___, ____, and ___
insanity
blindness
death
Congenital syphilis is where _____ penetrate _______ after 4th month
spirochetes
placenta
What is characteristic of congenital syphilis?
skin lesions, bad bone formation, meningitis
WHat triad is associated with congenital syphilis?
Hutchinson's triad
What are the three things associated with Hutchinson's triad?
deafness
impaired vision
notched, peg shaped teeth