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81 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are three Mechanisms of Death?
1) Alteration of membrane permeability
2) Damage to proteins and nucleic acids
3) REmoval of water
Alteration of membrane permeability. Membrane damage causes _____, affects cell growth
cell leakage
Damage to proteins and nucleic acids. Breakage of DNA or denaturation of proteins by chemical and physical agents will disrupt ______ and _____
replication and metabolism
What is an agent for destroying pathogens on lifeless objects?
What is an agent for destroying pathogens on living tissue?
What kills microorganisms?
What prevents further growth/division of microorganisms?

ex: chlorinfenical is a bacteriostatic
What makes something free of contamination?
What is the removal of microorganisms from a surface?
_________ work primarily by denaturing proteins
phenolic compounds
Phenolic compounds work primarily by _____
denaturing proteins
Phenolic compounds work primarily by denaturing proteins; however, they also ______
reduce surface tension which serves to loosen bacteria from tissue
Give two examples of phenolic compounds
- Hexylrescorcinol (Sucrets)
- Cresols
What are Hexylresorcinol's?
phenolic compounds.

Sucrets are cough drops with hexylresorcinol in it.
What are Cresols?
derivates of phenols that are safer and more germicidal
What is a combination of two phenols?
What bisphenol can be found in pHisoHex, an acne wash?
Hexachlorophene in pHisoHex used to be popular because effective for a long time. What is the problem with it?
found to cause brain damage
What bisphenol is found in Lysol?
What is a broad spectrum antimicrobial? Give an example.
kills gram negative and gram positve bacteria

- Trichlosan
What is a broad spectrum antimicrobial that can be put in soap, toothpaste, sponges, plastics and underwear?
Name two halogens
What makes something a halogen?
7 electrons in outer shell
Where is chlorine used?
municipal water supplies (0.2-1.0 ppm)
Chlorine will get rid of what?
most microorganisms except spores
What are two mechanisms of chlorine?
- changes membrane structure- leakage
- strong oxidizing agent- inactivates enzymes
5% _____ is household bleach
sodium hypochlorite
What is chlorinated lime?
calcium hypochlorite
Organic compounds that contain chlorine and that are more stable than hypochlorite solutions are called ____

- Chlorine released more slowly than in hypochlorite solutions
- for wounds, root canals
What is more reactive and more germicidal than chlorine?
Iodine halogenates _____ on proteins
What is tincture of iodine?
2% iodine/NaI in EtOH
2% iodine/NaI in EtOH is what?
Tincture of iodine
iodine/detergent complexes which release iodine over long period of time are called what?
Why don't iodophors stain like regular iodine?
detergetns loosen organisms on surface
Give three examples of Iodophors.
Betadine, Wescodyne, Loprep
Name four heavy metals
mercury, copper, silver, selenium
What is the mechanism of Heavy Metals?
Reacts with -SH groups, damages enzymes
What kills Neisseria gonorrheae?
Silver nitrate drops
SIlver nitrate drops kill what?
Neisseria gonorrhoea

-silver nitrate drops in the eye are for babies of women with STD. This way, no STD in the eye.
What two things is copper sulfate used for?
fungicide (grape vines)
algicide (swimming pools)
fungicide, a copper sulfate, is used for?
grape vines
algicide, a copper sulfate, is found in?
swimming pools
Mercury is effective against microorganisms. What is bad about it?
toxic to host

not considered safe
_____ is a fungicide found in some types of shampoo
selenium sulfide
selenium sulfide is a ____ found in some types of shampoo
Alcohols act by _____ and ____
denaturing proteins and dissolving lipids
70% alcohol is more effective than 100% because?
70% penetrates tissue better than 100%
% for alcohols means what?
percentage of water needed for coagulation of proteins
high bactericidal activity
What alcohol is very effective against vegetative cells (including Mycobacteria), but not spores?
Why is methanol bad?
too toxic as an antiseptic. causes cancer
Ethylene Oxide is a ___
What does ethylene oxide cross-link with?
nucleic acids/proteins
What can ehtylene oxide penetrate into?
penetrates packing material--sterilizes plastics, heat-sensitive material
Why are ethylene oxides bad?
highly explosive and toxic, enxtensive aeration necessary
What is something that uses Ethylene oxie to sterilize?
a _______ enzyme in living tissues breaks down hydrogen peroxide to oxygen and water.
Catalase enzyme in living tissues breaks down hydrogen peroxide to ____ and ____
oxygen and water
The breakdown of hydrogen peroxide to oxygen and water creates _____ that removes microorganisms
Hydrogen peroxide decomposition also results in a reactive form of oxygen- the _________- highly toxic to microorganisms
superoxide radical

*superoxide radical of oxygen formed--toxic to microorganisms
What inhibits growth of anaerobic organisms?

*oxygen is a product of broken down hydrogen peroxide
What is soap?
KOH or NaOH combined with fatty acids
Soap kills some microbes with alkaline pH of ___
Soaps degerms skin surface by _____ and _____
emulsifying particles/skin oil and reducing surface tension
_____detergents yield negatively charged ions in solution

These detergents are somewhat active against gram-positive bacteria, but the negative charges of bacteria usually repel them and limit their use to common laundry products.
______ are bacteriostatic (stop growth)
cationic detergents
Cationic detergents are especially effective for ____
gram positive bacteria
Cationic detergents work by __?
dissolving lipids in cell membranes
Cationic detergents are madde up of what?
ammonium chloride with organic radicals and at least one long-chain alkyl group
What are cationic detergents also called?

(called quats cuz four things coming off of N)
What two groups are involved in regulation?
EPA - disinfectants
FDA- antiseptics
number rates agent in comparison to ____

>1 better
<1 worse
determine number by mixing dilutions of phenol or test agent with cultures of _____ or ____
Staphylococcus aureus or Salmonella typhi
dilutions are subcultured every ____, grown for ____
5 minutes
2 days
What dilutions are used for Phenol coefficient?
dilutions that kill after ten minutes, but not five minutes

*AMPHYL is a disinfectant with phenol coefficient = 10
What is used as the current standard of analytical chemist?
use-dilution test
What is the first step to the use-dilution test?
Coat stainless steel cylinder with bacteria
What bacteria is the stainless steel cylinder in the use-dilution test dipped in?
Salmonella choleraesuis
Staphylococcus aureus
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
What is the second step of the use-dilution test?
Cylinder is dried and dunked in test agent for ten minutes
What is the third step of use-dilution test?
Put cylinder in growth media to see if bacteria grows

an effective agent would show no growth
an ineffective agent would show growth