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5 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Population
• Potential interbreeding population
• continuity over time
• Species
• Characteristics
-Size (numbers)
-Density (numbers per unit area or host)
-Distribution (clumped, random, uniform)
-Variation (size, density, distribution)
-Social Behavior (interaction)
-Genes (genotype-genetic makeup, phenotype- interaction between genotype in environment)
-evolution (isolate=speciation)
-extinction
Population Dynamics
• Changes in population size over time (density)
• Exponential Growth Curve (no limits in population size) housefly
-two flies lay 100 eggs (male:50, female:50)
-Ideal situation: 25 generations
-No mortality until old age
• Logistic Growth Model
-competition for food, space, and resources
-carrying capacity (K) – maximum population size for food, space, needs amount
Darwin and Natural Selection
• Reproduction form new generation
• Overproduction cause except fecundity
• Heredity
• Genetic diversity
• Variation in fitness
• Selection pressure- external factors favors a certain adaptation
• Fitness: probability that an individual will survive and produce
Demography (Natality and Mortality)
• Type I- most live to old age (humans, starved fruit fly)
• Type II-Constant morality (butterfly adults, hydra)
• Type III-High infant mortality (most insect, oysters)
• Only females will continue the generation
• (refer to handout graph)
• Net reproductive rate- average number of female offspring over adult female’s lifetime
• Balance of births and deaths
-Natality > mortality (growth)
-Natality = mortality (stable)
-Natliaty < mortality (decine)
-refer to graph
(works well with insects with one generation, not with multi-generation/year)
Limits to Population Size
• Natural control –all factors cause population to change in size
• Population fluctuate between upper and lower limit by actions of abiotic and biotic factors
• Density-dependent (DD) factors
-severe increase to population as it increases in density
1. Intraspecific Competition (food, space)-decrease reproduction, reduce development rate, emigration
2. Natural Enemies (predators, parasitoids, pathogens)- lag effect with predator; numerical vs function response
(graph)
• Density Independent (DI) Factors
-do not change in intensity with population density (whether if population is big or small)
-weather, chemical pesticides, mowing, floods