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34 Cards in this Set

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Turnover
The percentage of an organization's workforce that leaves and must be replaced.
Motivation
The set of forces that cause people to behave in certain ways.
Classical theory of motivation
A theory of motivation that presumes that workers are motivated only by money.

The Principle of Scientific Management (by Frederick Taylor), pay employees more so they can produce more.

Firms should analyze jobs to increase efficiency, reduce cost, thus pay employees more to increase productivity.

This led to (scientific) time-and-motion studies: the breakdown of jobs into basic, easily repeatable components and make more efficient tools and mahcines to perform them.
Hawthorne effect
The tendency for worker's productivity to increase when they feel they are receiving special attention from management.

Thus paying attention to employees is good for business.
Theory X
A management approach based on the belief that people must be forced to be productive because they are naturally lazy, irresponsible, and uncooperative.
Theory Y
A management approach based on the belief that people want to be productive because they are naturally energetic, responsible, and cooperative.
Hierarchy of human needs model
Theory of motivation describing five levels of human needs and arguing that basic needs must be fulfilled before people work to satisfy their higher-level needs.

Once a lower level has been satisfied, it no longer motivates behavior (e.g., providing pension plan after already having job security - redundant, and less appealing).

Different people have different needs, motivated by different things. Hierarchies varies widely, not only for different people but also across different cultures.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs
- physiological needs (food/water/sleep/shelter)
- security needs, stability and protection (pension plans and job security)
- social needs; friendship and companionship(friends/feeling of belonging)
- esteem needs(recognition, status and self respect; job titles, offices)
- self-actualization needs (self fulfilment; challenging job assignments)
Two-factor theory
A theory of human relations developed by Frederick Hertzberg; identifies factors that must be present for employees to be satisfied with their jobs and factors that, if increased, will lead employees to work harder. These consist of 'hygiene' and 'motivating' factors.

Hygiene factors affect motivation and satisfaction onlu if absent or insufficient.

Motivating factors are similar, without it, there is little detriment, but in presence of motivating factors, employees will be more likely to be satisfied.

Managers should ensure proper hygiene factors, then implement motivating factors: recognition and responsibility - to improve satisfaction and motivation.
Expectancy theory
The theory that people are motivated to work towards rewards that they want, and that they believe they have a reasonable chance of obtaining.

A reward that seems out of reach is not likely to motivate.

Thus for a goal to be an effective motivator, it much be wanted/desirable, and attainable.
Equity theory
The theory that people compare (1) what they contribute to their job with what they get in return, and (2) their input/output ratio with that of other employees.

People evaluate their jobs by how much they put into it, versus how much they get out of it. This produces ration of contribution:return; then compare it to other employees.

Employees that feel unequitably treated may do various things to restore 'fairness': ask for raises, reduce effort, work shorter hours, or just complain.
Goal-setting theory
The theory that people perform better when they set specific, quantified, time-framed goals.

Goals are best when moderately difficult to maximize motivation. Too easy or too hard is ineffective.

Specific goals are better (e.g., increase by 10% over a year, rather than 'do your 'best').

Goals are more easily accepted if employees are part of the process of selecting them.
Psychological contract
The set of expectations held by an employee concerning what he or she will contribute to an organization (contributions) and what the organization will provide to the employee (inducements) in return; What an employee has to do, and what the employee will be given.
Reinforcement
Controlling and modifying employee behavior through the use of systemic rewards and punishments for specific behaviours.
Human Relations
Interaction between employers and employees and their attitudes towards one another.

A satisfied and motivated workforce is critical for good human relations (between employer and employee).

If psychological contracts are created, maintained, and managed effectively, the result is likely to be workers who are satisfied and motivated.
Morale
The generally positive or negative mental attitude of employees toward their work and workplace; feelings and attitude of employees.

Satified employees are more likely to have high morale; morale reflects the degree to which they perceive that their needs are being met by their jobs. Morale is determined by a variety of factors, including job satisfaction, and satisfaction with other things like: pay, benefit, co-workers, and promotion opportunities.

Satisfied workers are more likely to work harder, have fewer complaints, and less likely to exhibit negative behavior (complaining, deliberately slowing work pace). On the other hand, unhappy workers are more likely to be absent due to minor illness, personal reasons, or general disinclination to go to work.

Low moral can also result in higher turnover, resulting in lost productivity, disrupted production, and high retraining costs.
Job Satisfaction
The pleasure (enjoyment) and feeling of accomplishment employees get from performing their jobs well.
Management by objectives (MBO)
A system of collaborative goal setting that extends from the top of an organization to its bottom.

Every level has their own goals to manage, and contribute to the goals of others by completing their own.
Participative management
A method of increasing employees' job satisfaction by giving them a voice in how they do their jobs, and how the company is managed. (Helps make employees feel important and necessary).
Job enrichment
A method of increasing employee's job satisfaction by extending or adding motivational factors such as responsibility or growth.
Job redesign
A method of increasing employees' job satisfaction by improving the worker-job fit through combining tasks, creating natural work groups, and/or establishing client relationships.
Flextime
A method of increasing employees' job satisfaction by allowing them some choice in the hours they work.
Compressed workweek
Employees work fewer days per week, but more hours on the days they do work.
Telecommuting
Allowing employees to do all or some of their work away from the office.
Worksharing
A method of increasing employee job satisfaction by allowing two people to share one job.
Leadership
The process of motivating others to work to meet specific objectives.
Managerial styles
Patterns of behavior that a manager exhibits in dealing with subordinates.
Autocratic style
A managerial style in which managers generally issue orders and expect them to be obyed without question.
Democratic style
A managerial style in which managers generally request input from subordinates before making decisions but retain final decision-making power.
Job Satisafaction and Dissatisfaction Trends
A report found that employee stress is costing Canadian Industry 60 billion a year (half is due to lost productivity).

Top sources of stress: too much or too little work, lack of two-way communication up and down hierarchy, being unappreciated, inconsistant performance reviews, career uncertainty, unclear company policies, and office politics.
Free-rein style
A managerial style in which managers typically serve as advisors to subordinates who are allowed to make decisions.
Contigency approach
An approach to managerial style holding that appropriate behavior in any situation is dependant (contigent) on the elements unique to the situation.
Job Satisfaction and Dissactisfaction Trends
A report found that employee stress is costing Canadian Industry 60 billion a year (half is due to lost productivity).

Top sources of stress: too much or too little work, lack of two-way communication up and down hierarchy, being unappreciated, inconsistant performance reviews, career uncertainty, unclear company policies, and office politics.
Job Satisfaction and Dissactisfaction Trends
A report found that employee stress is costing Canadian Industry 60 billion a year (half is due to lost productivity).

Top sources of stress: too much or too little work, lack of two-way communication up and down hierarchy, being unappreciated, inconsistant performance reviews, career uncertainty, unclear company policies, and office politics.