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33 Cards in this Set

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Analogue Study
Research Methodology in which a treatment is evaluated under well-controlled conditions that are similar to a clinical setting. Because the conditions are not identical to those in the clinical setting, the results of analogue studies have limited generalizability.
Aversive Counter Conditioning
A treatment based on counterconditioning that reduces the attractiveness of a stimulus or behavior by repeatedly pairing it with a stimulus that produces an undesirable or unpleasant response. Pairing alcohol consumption with electric shock is one example. The alcohol is the CS and the shock is the US.
Avoidance Conditioning
A type of conditioning that combines classical with negative reinforcement. Through avoidance conditioning, an organism learns to make a particular response in the presence of a positive discriminative stimulus so that it can avoid an unpleasant stimulus.
Case Study
intensive investigation of a single individual, family, community, or other social unit. Limited generalizability.
Classical Conditioning
Type of learning in which a neutral (conditioned) stimulus is repeatedly paired with an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus alone eventually elicits the response that is naturally produced by the unconditioned stimulus.
Classical Extinction
The gradual elimination of classically conditioned response by repeatedly presenting the conditioned stimulus without the unconditioned stimulus.
Conditioned Response
In classical conditioning, a response that is elicited by a CS as the result of pairing the CS with a US. The conditioned response is similar to, but not identical with, the unconditioned response (it is usually weaker in strength or magnitude).
Conditioned Stimulus
In classical conditioning, the previously neutral stimulus that, as the result of being paired with an unconditioned stimulus, now elicits a conditioned response (CR)
Continuous Schedule
In operant conditioning, providing reinforcement following each emission of the target response. Rapid acquisition of response, susceptibility to extinction.
Counterconditioning
The elimination of a response by pairing it with the response or associated stimulus that naturally elicits an incompatible and more desirable response. Reciprocal inhibition is a type of counterconditioning used to eliminate anxiety by pairing it with relaxation or other incompatible response.
Covert Sensitization
A type of aversion therapy that is done in imagination
Differential Reinforcement
An operant technique that combines positive reinforcement and extinction. During a specified period of time, the individual is reinforced when s/he engages in behaviors other than the target behavior. The alternative behavior is reinforced and the target behavior is extinguished. Includes DRA, DRO, DRL, and DRI.
Fading
a) gradual withdrawal of prompts when teaching a new response; b) a procedure used to eliminate an inappropriate stimulus-response connection by gradually replacing the inappropriate stimulus with appropriate stimuli so that the response becomes associated with the latter.
Flooding
A classical extinction technique that involves exposing the individual in vivo or in imagination to high anxiety-arousing stimuli (CS) without the US. (When done in vivo, it is also known as in vivo exposure with response prevention). In vivo flooding has been found to be an effective treatment of agoraphobia and OCD.
Forward Conditioning
In classical conditioning, the presentation of the CS prior to or simultaneous with the US. Of methods of forward conditioning, delay conditioning is most effective in producing a conditioned response. The CS precedes and overlaps the US.
Interference Theory
A theory of forgetting that proposes that the inability to learn or recall information is due to the disrupting effects of previously or subsequently-learned information. Proactive inteference is the inability to learn or recall new information as the result of the effects of previously-learned information; retroactive interference occurs when the inability to remember previously-learned information is due to the acquisition of new information.
Intermittent (Partial) Schedule
In operant conditioning, any pattern of reinforcement that is not continuous. Included fixed interval, fixed ratio, variable interval, variable ratio. Associated with greater resistance to extinction that a continous schedule.
FI=reinforced over fixed time
VI=reinforced over varying length of time
FR=reinforced after predetermined number of responses
VR=reinforced after varying number of responses. High, stable rate of responding, greatest resistance to extinction
Latent Learning (Tolman)
Model of learning proposes that learning can occur without reinforcement and without being manifested in actual performance improvement.
Negative Punishment
In operant conditioning, withdrawal of a stimulus contingent on the performance of a behavior in order to decrease the likelihood that the behavior will occur again. Response cost and time-out are examples of negative punishment.
Operant Extinction
The elimination of a previously-reinforced response through the consistent withholding of reinforcement following that response. Usually associated with a temporary increase inthe response ('extinction burst')
Positive Punishment
Application of a stimulus following a response with the goal of reducing or eliminating that respone
Premack Principle
Use of a high-frequency behavior as a positive reinforcer for a low-frequency behavior in order to increase the low-frequency behavior
Punishment
Operant Conditioning, the method used to decrease a behavior. Positive punishment (verbal reprimands) involve applying a stimulus following the behavior; negative punishment (response cost and time out) removes a stimulus following the behavior.
Response Cost
A form of negative punishment that involves removing a reinforcer (specific number of tokens or points) following that behavior to reduce that behavior.
Sensate Focus (Masters and Johnson)
In vivo desensitization technique used to reduce performance anxiety related to sexually-intimate situations. Invovles having the sexually-dysfunctional couple engage in hierarchically-arranged "pleasuring" activities that gradually lead to nondemand genital touching.
Spontaneous recovery
Classical and Operant conditioning, the spontaneous recovery of an extinguished behavior without additional pairing with the US or reinforcement.
Systematic Desensitization
Classical conditioning procedure based on conterconditioning (reciprocal inhibition). Involves pairing hierarchically-arranged anxiety-evoking stimuli with relzation in order to eliminate the anxiety response. Most often done in imagination. Extinction, rather than counterconditioning, is resonsible for it's effectiveness.
Trace Decay Theory
Theory of forgetting that proposes that a loss of memory is due to the gradual decay of memory traces or engrams over time as the result of disuse.
Type of long term memory
1) Procedural and Declarative Memory.
2) Implicit and Explicit Memory
procedural memory=how to do things
declaractive memory=retnetion of facts, includes semantic memory
Unconditioned Response
In classical conditioning, the response naturally elicited by the US w/o conditioning.
Unconditioned Siimulus (US)
In classical conditioning, the stimulus that naturally elicits the target response (UR) without conditioning.
Yerkes-Dodson Law
The theory that indicates that moderate levels of arousal are associated with optimal learning and performance so that the relationship between arousal and learning takes the shape of an inverted U.
Amnesia
Loss of memory.

Anterograde amnesia is a loss of memory for events and information subsequent to the trauma or other event that precipitated the amnesia.

Retrograde=loss of memory for events or information acquired prior to the event or trauma that caused the the amnesia.