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36 Cards in this Set

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There exists a theory in dual store theory of a third type of memory...what is it?
Sensory store
What is the modal model and who proposed it
Atkinson and Shiffrin's dual store theory
What are the properties of the modal model?
Stm is short and brief while LTM is more durable
STM is limited while LTM is virtually unlimited
Forgetting in STM occurs through displacement and replacement
STM serves to transfer info into LTM through encoding
What are the two basic divisions of the long term memory?
Semantic memory
Episodic memory
What is episodic memory?
Personal memory system contains temporal and contextual info of when and where
What is semantic memory?
Store of general knowledge
contains facts, words, language and grammar
What is the difference between explicit and implicit memory?
Explicit memory tasks involve reporting on recall
Implicit memory tasks involve recording rate of performance with out consciousness
Two ways in which implicit knowledge is tested?
Procedural learning
Priming
What is procedural learning characterized by?
Acquisition of generalized rules for performing tasks or procedure
What are the different combination of skills required for procedural learning?
Cognitive skills
Motor Skills
Perceptual Skills
Tulving's theory of monohierarchy?
Procedural memory is divided into
Semantic memory which divides into
Episodic memory
What is the perceptual representation system tulving describes in his monohierarchy theory
Priming effect on memory is a system which overlaps onto procedural and semantic memory
What is Squires method of memory?
Division of memory into two parts
Declarative and Non Declarative

Episodic and Semantic fit into the first
Procedural Priming Habits and Classical condition fit into the second
What are three stages of memory?
Encoding
Storage
Retreival
What is state dependent retrieval?
Memories encoded in one state of consciousness are more accessible in the same state
What part of the brain does N.A. have impaired?
the thalamus
What is Depth of processing theory
One memory system is hypothesized to exist

Degree of cognitive processing determines whether something is remembered
What type of processing leads to better retention in incidental learning?
Deeper cognitive processing
Testing with two cognitive tasks where one required more attention than the other is a form of testing for what?
Level of Depth processing
Two criticisms on Depth of Processing theory?
No independent measures exist

Term "depth" is unclear. Elaboration or distinctiveness?
What is transfer appropriate processing theory?
Recall of cognitive process use during encoding will aid in retrieval process
How are explicit and implicit memory tested for in transfer appropriate theory?
Explicit is done through elaborative processing

Implicit is done through perceptual operations (recognition of items)
Five assumptions made by the connectionist model?
1. A neural network model, each neural unit can potentially connect to many others
2. Successive pairings of neurons strengthens connections
3. Neural Units can be activated much like a neuron- activation gradually fades to baseline
4. Threshold for activation: Multiple units may be required to activate a particular unit
5. There can be layers of activation: which deeper layers combine and summate to previous layers
What is a different name for neural units?
Nodes
What is the delta rule?
Maximum activation minus
Current activation
times Delta

Thus showing the learning curve
What other sets of knowledge has the connectionist model been applied to?
Semantic Memory
Spatial learning in hippocampus
Instrument response - outcome contingencies
Classically conditioned associations
How does the connectionist model describe short term memory?
Items are activated in their neural representations, then slowly decay to baseline

Elaboration is the activation of multiple units
Explain the encoding and retrieval patterns in stages of memory using the connectionist theory?
Encoding is the strengthening of connections

Retrieval is the activation of retrieval cues, which activate relevant cues.
What are the two dimensions of amnesia
Cause related (physical or psychological)

Time related (trauma)
What are psychogenic amnesia?
Functional amnesia due to trauma
Forgetting events before a trauma is called?
Retrograde amnesia
Forgetting of events after trauma and inability to form memories?
Anterograde amnesia
Patients of what syndrome cannot form semantic memory, have trouble with episodic memory yet procedural memory remains intact?
Amnesic Syndrome
Korsakoff's syndrome is due to what?
Alcohol abuse
Thiamine deficiency
Three explanations for amnesia of psychogenic amnesia?
Repression
Emotional state dependence impeding recall
Implicit memory, memory goes implicit
What are general items in everyday forgetting?
Momentary forgetting
Prospective forgetting
Absentmindedness
Temporary forgetting of common names and words