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44 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
To what does Encoding refer to?
The acquisition of information: the initial formation of a memory trace.
Ebbinghaus's Nonsense syllables: what are they?
Word syllables that have no inherent meaning to them:
Ba, Koo, Wa, Sa
Maintenance Rehearsal
When items are repeated to keep them inside the short term memory or phonological store
Elaborative Rehearsal
Where the items are given depth and meaning, this creates deeper meaning and associated with time and place of learning.
Elaborative Processing, has been given three hypothesis:
Elaboration, Distinctiveness and effort.
Explain all three
Elaboration refers to expanding a newly formed memory trace. This can be done through relating items to previously learned associations with deeper meaning.
Distinctiveness refers to the memories that stand out more than the rest. In other words, if the item is made to be more distinctive than other memories, it will be more easily retrieved with less interference.
Elaborative Processing represented as effort refers to the effort expended and that is what determines retention.
Cognitive Effort:
is the amount of effort placed by the mind to process information. this can be tested for by administering a second task simultaneously and measuring performance on memory task.
For example judgement tasks, digging for deeper meanings will hinder dual task performance.
Pegword Mnemonic
Where a previously memorized list of numbers and words are then attached to arbitrary items later on

1-gun
2-zoo
3-tree
4-door
5-hive
6-bricks
7-heaven
8-gate
9-line
10-pen
Location mnemonic (Loci system)
Where list items are memorized with well known locations.
Define Concrete and Abstract words in terms of how they associated with imagery formation
Concrete words are more easily imagined.
Why are picture memories so well remembered?
Due to Dual coding, both the visual and the verbal translation of the picture are both encoded. (One Theory)
High frequency, Pronounceablilty, imagable, and more associations are all variables of what kind of words?
Meaningful words
Domain-specific Knowledge
Where information is recalled well from areas with which you are familiar.
Which is more effective in the short run for studying?
Study, then study again
Which is more effective in the long run for studying
Study then test the material
What are some explanations for why testing memory increases recall?
There are three
When one studys then tests themselves the first hypothesis states that test taking is like studying and therefore more solidification.

The second hypothesis, is that testing is a more challenging form of studying and therefore more effort is put into studying.
A third is that testing mimics what a final test does....that is tests the student.
What is the Von Restorff Effect?
Where a single distinct categorical item is placed among a list of items sharing a similar category, the distinct item will be remembered more easily.
Why does the Von Restorff effect work?
Due to differential processing, in other words, the focused attention/orientation increases brain wave activity thus more effort is placed. Also, the distinctiveness of the item sticks out from a slew of other memories.
Explain the Isolation effect
The Von Restorff effect

....:P....

Only with more distinctive items, and increased likelihood or remembering incongruent items against a backdrop of congruent items.
Retrograde and Anterograde amnesic effects
Where the list items before and after a "Von Restorff" item is not fully recalled, or impaired recall.
Seductive detail effect

And why does it occur?
Where tangential information is better encoded into memory than "to-be-remembered' items.
Tangential information = Novel, personal concrete material.

Why? 2 reasons, one: items take more processing effort and therefore memory is allocated to the tangent
two, the tangential item causes a disruption in the flow of idea, and therefore organization of relevant items is disrupted.
Retrograde amnesia hypothesis (Spaced vs Mass repetition learning)
Where P2 (period of learning number 2) is much more distinct and larger than P1 therefore blotting out P1
Attention-deficit hypothesis (Spaced vs Mass repetition learning)
Where the individual in an attempt to learn is mass, goes through the material too quickly
Encoding variability hypothesis (Spaced vs Mass repetition learning)
Where P1 and P2 are learned separately and equally spaced therefore creating two distinct cue and more associations the material
Optimal range for spacing learning,
Space/Time until examination
X/Y= ?
10-20%
Generation effect
Where there is increased memory performance on study material that is generated by the individual.
Transfer appropriate processing
Where recall is enhanced due to encoding and retrieval (or testing) methods are more nearly alike.
In what ways can elaborative processing be hindered?
Through implicit memory tests, where the priming effect can effect how one answers to blanked items like c_a_k (chalk or crack?)
What is verbal overshadowing?
When items to be recalled are better recalled without articulation of them. Hence the attempt to articulate and describe the item, hinders memory and things that are easily verbalized are remembered.
Incidental learning
when items are remembered without having the intention to do so.
Why does incidental processing sometimes work just as well as intentional learning?
This may be due to cognitive processes that are involved in encoding the items.

If a more elaborative method is involved then the items encoded can be better recalled.
In what ways can Incentives improve memory and recall?
Items of higher importance or higher values will have more effort put into its encoding rehearsal, and therefore result in better recall of higher value items.

In other words, incentives will only effect behaviors of retention specifically.
What effect does interest have on memory and recall?
Interest in an item will generally have deeper association from previous learning. This therefore will allow for better processing of relevant information.
However, there is also an emotional involvement factor which allowed for (due to the importance of) certain items to recalled better to occur
What is Yerkes Dodson Law?

(Clue: has to do with arousal)
The Yerkes Dodson law states that recall and performance follows an inverted U shape, where extreme high and low levels of arousal result in decreased performance and the moderate levels of arousal result in peak performance.
What is strychnine?
A poison that in high doses were used as a tonic for memory loss and forgetfulness.
Lorazepam is what kind of drug (what is it used to treat). How does it effect memory?
It is an Anti-Anxiety Drug and it impaired memory function in comparison to antihistamine control drug.
At what times do people peak on performance during their circadian rhythms?
Typically, at the beginning and decreasing over time.

Yet, variations occur dependent of the individuals lifestyle, such as morning lark and night owls each performed better at their own respective times.
What themes do emotions use, what aspects are involved in emotional memories?
Attention, arousal, distinctiveness and elaboration are incorporated in the encoding of emotional events.
Flashbulb memories
Pockets of memory that are deposited during times of intense emotional importance. The events can be events such as 9/11 etc. The theory remains that a instant picture of that moment in consciousness is permanently etched into the mind, presumably to handle consequential events that might recur.
What are some ways schemas can influence learning? (there are five concepts)
Selection (guide selection of what is to be encoded)
Storage (Organize the memory into relevant parts of the outline)
Abstraction (common features among a string of similar experiences are extracted and stored)
Retrieval (provides cues to guide and direct memory)
Normalization (may distort memory into what "usually" happens rather than what actually happened)
What is JOL?
Judgements of learning
where the individual rates how effectively they have learned items and materials
Metamemory = define the memory self efficacy theory
an individual is capable of evaluating ones own efficiency at remembering items.
The cause and effect variables however are debatable.
Elaborative interrogation
Where the individual is asked to explain and elaborate on items that were just learned.
Explain the advance organizer technique as used by textbooks.
The presentation of past material with future material in a longer introductory passage.
What do analogies do for memory?
They activate prior memories to make easier the encoding and associations of newer memories.