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124 Cards in this Set

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adaptability
capacity to learn new behaviors that enable us to cope wiht chaning circumstances
learning
realtively permamnent change in an organism's behavior due to experience
john lock and david hume
learn of association- smell of bread, eat satisfying likings
associative learning
learning that certain events occur together. the events may be 2 stimuli (as in classical conditioning) or a response and its consequences (opernat conditioning)
successful adaptation
requires both nature (genetic predisposition) and nurture (a history of appropraite learning)
conditioning
process of learning
operant conditioning
learning to associate a response (behavior) and its consequence and thus to repeat acts followed by good results and avoid acts followed by bad results
observational learning
learn from others' experiences and examples
classical conditioning
a type of learning in which an organism comes to associate stimuli. a neutral stimulus that signals an unconditioned stimulus begins to produce a response that anticipated and prepares for unconditioned stimulus (pavlovian or repondent conditioning)
Ivan Pavlov
pavlov's dog
John B. Watson
searched for laws underlying learning. urged colleagues to discard reference to inner thoughts, feelings, motives.
observable behavior
watson- psych should study how organisms repsond to stimuli in their environment- objectice science
behaiorism
the view that psychology should be objective science that studies behavior withouht reference to mental processes. (agree w/ 1 not 2 today)
psychic secretions
worked w/ the same dog repeatedly, the dog began salivating to stimuli associated w/ food
neutral stimuli
something the dog could see or hear- signaled the arrival of food, dog associates the 2 stimuli
expectancy
an awareness of how US will occurs
-thoughts count- not just simple CS-US assocation
biological constraints
an orgnaism's learning capacity
-similar in all animals
-natural response could be conditioned to any neutral stimulus
-animals capacity for conditioning is constrained by its bio
domjan
conditioned stimuli have a natural association with the unconditioned stiumuli they predict
-learning enables animals to adapt to env.
-learning can be studied objectively
watson
human emotions and hevhior, though biologically influenced, mainly a bundle of cognitive resonses
operant conditioning
learning in which behavior is strengethend if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher
respondent behavior
occurs as an automatic response to some stimulusl skinner's term for behavior learned through classical conditioning
operant behavior
behavior that operates on the env., producing consequences
skinner's behavioral technology
revealed principles of behavior control
-taught pigeons to walk in figure 8, play ping-pong, keep missile on course by pecking at target screen
operant chamber
skinner box- containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to ontain a food or water reinforcer, with attached devices to record the anima's rate of bar pressing or key pecking
shaping
operant- procedure reinforces guide behavior towards closer approximations of the desired behavior
successive approximations
reward response close to desired behavior and ignore all other responses
discriminative influece
signals that response will be reinforced
reinforcement
event that strengthens the behavior it follows
positive reinforcement
increasing behaviors by presenting postitive stimuli such as food.
-strengeths response
negative reinforcement
increasing behavior by stopping of reducing negative (aversive) stimuli, shock
-when removed after response, strengthens response
primary reinforcer
innately reinforcing stimulus-ex sataisfies biolgical needs
conditioned reinforcers
stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer (secondary reinforcer)
continuous reinforcement
reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs
partial (intermittent reinforcement
reinforcing a response only part of the time; reults in slower acquisition of a response but greater resistence to extinction that does continuous reinforcement
fixed-ration schedule
reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of reponses
variable-ration schedules
reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses
fixed-interval scheudle
rreinforces a response only after a specified time has elpased
variable-interval schedule
reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals
punishment
eent that decreased behavior that it follows
cognitive map
mental rep of the layout of one's env.
latent learning
learning becomes apparent only when there is some incentive to demonstrate it
intrinsic motivation
desire to perform a behavior for its own sake-work and play for enjoyment
extrinsic motivation
a desire to performm a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment
biological predispositions
natural predispostions contain its capacity for operant conditions
BF Skinner
external influences shape behavir and by urging the use of operant principles to influence people's behavior
observational learning
learning by observing others
modeling
process of observing and imitating a specific behavior
memes
transmitted cultural elements
mirror neurons
frontal lobe neurons, adjacent to motor cortex, fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doin so.
-enables imitation, language learning, empathy
theory of mind
mirror neurons give rise to children's empathy and to thier ability to infer another's mental state
prosocial
positive, ocnstructive, helpful behavior
misinformation effect
incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event
-imagining nonexisistent actions and events creates false memories
-imagination inflation
source amnesia
(misattribution)
attributing to the wrong sources and event we have experienced, heard about, read, or imagined
gist memories
memories of imagined experiences are more restricted to the meanings and feelings we associate with it.
recall
measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlies (fill-in the blank test)
recognize
meaures of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned (mutliple choice)
relearning
memory meaurse that assess the amount of time saved when learning material for second time
retreival cues
anchor points used to access target information when want to retrieve it later
priming
activation, after uncounsciously, of particular assocations in memory
deja vu
eerie sense that you have experienced this before- from cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an eralier experience
-well-educated, young adults
state dependent memory
learn in one state more easily recall again in that same state
mood-congruent memory
tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood
adsent mindedness
inattention to details procues encoding failures
transience
storage decay over time
blocking
inaccessibility of stored information
tip of tongue
experience retrieval failure
misattribution
confusing the source of inormation
suggestibilty
lingering effects of misforutne
bias
belief-colored recollects
persistence
unwanted memories
forgetting curve
much of what we learn may quickly forget
proactive interference
disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new info (old interferes w/ new)
retroactive interference
new learning on the recall of old info
-minimize by reducing number of interfering events
positive transfer
old and new info compete w/ eachother that interferene occurs
repression
psychoanalytic theory- defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety- arousing thoughts, feelings, memories
automatic processing
unconscious encoding of incidental information, space, time, frequency
space
encode place on page where materical appears- visualize location later
time
unintentionally note the sequence of the day's events
frequency
efforlessly keep track of howm any times things happen
effortful processing
encoding that requires attention and conscious effor- greatest chance retaining
rehearsal
conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage
next-in-line effect
people go around a circle saying words or their names and attempt to remember them , they forget the names of those said reight before them
-focus on own performance and after fail to process last person's words
-info processed before sleep seldom remember
spacing effect
tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study of practice
serial position effect
recall best the last and first items on list
visual encoding
encoding of picture images- least likely to remember
acoustic encoding
encoding of sound, words
semantic encoding
encoding of meaning,- most likely to remember
self-reference effect
forget how well certain adj describe someone else and forget, ask about ourselves remember well
imagery
mental picture; powerful aid to efforful processing, especially when combined with semantic endoing
rosy retrospection
recalling high points while forgetting mundane
mnemonics
memory aids, especially techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices
chunking
organizing items into familiar, manageable units- automatic
acronyms
encoding first letters to be remembered
ichonic
visual 1-2/10th second
echoic
auditiory 3-4 sec
memory
persistence of learning over time through storage and retrieval of information
flahsbulb memory
clear memory of an emotionally significal moment or event
encoding
processing of info into memory system-extracting meaning
storage
retention of encoded info over time
retrieval
process of getting info out of memory storange
three-stage principle
for memories through 3 stages
sensroy memory
immediate, brief recoring of sensory info in memory system
short-term meory
actvated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a ohone mumber
long=term memory
relatively permamnet and limitless storehouse of the memory system- knowledge, skills, experiences
working memory
newer understanding of short term memory that involves conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information and of information retrieved from long-term memory
central executing processor
auditory and visual-spatial elements
unconditioned response (UR_
classical conditioning- unlearned, naturally occurring response to the US, such as salivation when food is in the mouth
unconditioned stimulus (US)
classical- stimulus that unconditionally- naturally or automatically- triggers a response
conditioned response (CR)
classical conditioning- learned response to a previously neutral (now conditinoned) stimulus
conditioned stimulus
classical- originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response
conditional reflex
salivation/ now CR
acquisition
initial stage in classical conditioning, pphase associating a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus comes to elicit a conditioned response. operant- strengthening reinforces a response
extinction
diminished responding that occurs when CS (tone) no longer signals an inmpending US (food)

-operant when response is no longer reinforced
spontaneous recovery
reapearrance of a weakened CR after a pause of an extinguished conditioned response- supressing it, not eliminating it
generalization
the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for the stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses
-adapticve
-dog conditioned to that tone will respond to similar tone
discrimination
learned ability to distiniguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not sigan an US
cognitive processes
thoguhts, perceptions, expectations
iconic memory
momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; photographic or picture image memory lasting no more that few tenths of a second
echoic
a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled w/in 3-4 seconds
long term potential (LPT)
an increase in a synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. neural basis for learning and memory
amnesia
loss of emory
implicit memory
retention independent of conscious recollection (procedural memory)
explicit memory
memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare (declarative memory)
hippocampus
a neural center that is located in the limbic system and helps process explicit memories for storage