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145 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is the difference between a rabbit and a hare?
Hares are born ready to run, fully furred. Rabbits are dependent on parents for 1st 3 weeks.
What are rabbits used for commercially?
Meat and fur.
What are rabbits used for in research?
Cosmetics(?), immunology, drugs, orthopedics, models for TSS.
Average weight of a rabbit?
2-18 lbs
When do rabbits molt?
The fall.
What and where are the rabbits incisors called?
Upper -they have 2 front teeth and 2 peg teeth, lower -they have 2 front teeth.
When do a rabbits teeth need to be trimmed?
Only if they're maloccluded.
What are night stools commonly called and what are they?
"Cecal stools". They are ingested directly from the anus and are soft. *if you see them they may not be feeling well.
What species are rabbits?
Lagomorphs - because of their 2 front peg teeth.
How can you hold a rabbit?
Football hold, scruff hold & support rump or abdomen, bunny burrito.
How do you place a rabbit back in their cage?
Hind end first.
What do you feed a rabbit?
High fiber rabbit pellets, fresh greens, free choice grass hay, small amounts of fresh fruits.
What type of greens should be avoided for rabbits?
Light colored - iceberg lettuce and alfalpha.
What types of food should be avoided for rabbits?
High starch foods: crackers, oats, corn & wheat.
What type of estrus cycle do rabbits have?
Said not to have one. They are induced ovulators. Ovulation occurs after copulation.
What are some signs of rabbit estrus?
Red, swollen vulva, hop around - rub their chins on everything (scent gland there).
How do you sex a rabbit?
Males:expose penis & see a round opening. Females:when exposed they have a slit, not a round opening.
What are male/female/baby rabbits called?
What can occur with an intact female rabbit?
Uterine cancer.
How do you diagnose a rabbit pregnancy?
Palpate marble-sized babies @14 days. Hair pulling occurs during the last 3-4 days of pregnancy.
What is rabbit parturition called?
What is unusual about rabbit parturition?
Babies can be born up to 3 dyas apart, usually with no complications.
Characteristics of rabbits post-parturition.
Young are born hairless, eyes & ears closed. Doe has no retrieving instinct. Don't disturb. Does nurse 5-10 mns, 2Xs a day.
How often does a doe nurse?
5-10 mns. 2 times a day.
What are some signs of rabbits dystocia?
Straining with no babies produced, anorexia, fever, smelly bloody discharge.
What can cause pseudopregnancy?
Infertile matings can induce ovulation. Generally lasts 15-17 days and may pull fur from their dewlap for 10-14 days.
Where can you bleed a rabbit?
Marginal ear vein, central ear artery (auricular artery), jugular, cephalic, lateral saphenous, vena cava.
Where is the marginal ear vein located?
Caudal exterior portion of the pinna.
How do you collect blood from the marginal ear vein?
Occlude vein at base of ear, use 25-22ga needle (very superficial, don't go thru pinna), collect blood from needle hub w/hematocrit tube.
Where is the central ear artery located?
On the exterior surface of the pinna - runs along the center or just off center of the pinna.
How do you collect blood from the central ear artery?
Don't occlude vessel! Use butterfly catheter & drip into a tube. Hold off for 30-40 sec & monitor for another mn.
Drug administration sites for a rabbit.
IM (lumbar, quad), SQ, IV (cephalic, saphenous), intraosseus, oral, nasogastric tube.
Do you withhold food before anesthesia for rabbits?
Yes, 2-4 hours before.
Why should you house rabbits in a cooler environment (68*)?
They can get heatstroke. Provide shade and water if housed outdoors.
Signs of malocclusion in rabbits?
Difficulty chewing food, anorexia (check for droppings).
What is one of the most common diseases of rabbits?
What are signs of enteritis?
Anorexia, soft-diarrhea type stools.
Treatment for enteritis.
Hi-fiber foods, fluids, motolity stimulating drugs, stress reduction.
Why do rabbits get hairballs?
Their pyloris is to small to pass them and they are unable to throw up.
What can you do to avoid hairballs?
Keep them on a high fiber diet.
What internal parasites can rabbits get?
Coccidia, pinworms.
Should you clean a rabbits ears?
No, their eardrums are extremely friable.
What external parasites do rabbits get?
Ear mites, fleas, cheylitella, cuterebra warbles.
What external rabbit parasite is zoonotic?
How do you treat ear mites?
Ivermectin injection, topical application, flea powder in ears, clean environment.
How do you treat cheylitella?
Ivermectin injections, flea powder, treat environment! It's zoonotic!
How do you treat cuterebra warbles?
Surgically remove the larva and supportive therapy. Larva penetrates rabbits subcutaneous space and grows.
What causes rabbit syphilis (vent disease)?
It's a contagious sexually transmitted disease caused by the spirochete Treponema paralunis-cuniculi.
What does pasteurellosis cause in rabbits?
Abscesses and snuffles.
How do you treat abscesses?
Drain & flush, systemic antibiotics, isolate animal.
How do rabbits contract snuffles?
Fomites, direct contact, aerosol.
Signs of snuffles.
Nasal discharge, sneezing, rhinitis/sinusitis, conjunctivitis, rattles on auscultation.
What is otitis media in rabbits?
A purulent exudate present deep in the ear canal.
Signs of otitis media.
Asymptomatic, rhinitis, scratching at ears. If spread to innter ear-ataxia, nystagmus.
What is nystagmus?
Eye twitching.
What is the color of normal rabbit urine?
Clear to brown.
What are signs of bladder stones in rabbits.
Depression, anorexia, weight loss, lethargy, hematuria, straining, urine scale.
What can be a cause of bladder stones?
Too much alfalfa hay - too much calcium.
What other animals are included in the ferret family?
Weasels, mink, badgers & skunk.
Are ferrets considered domestic animals in the US?
What were ferrets used for in the past?
What are ferrets used for in research?
Toxicology and infectious disease studies.
What's the average weight of a ferret?
Males:3-6lbs. Females:2-3lbs.
How long do ferrets live?
US:4-8yrs. Great Britian:12yrs.
What's unusual about a ferrets claws?
They are not retractable. They are used for traction and digging.
Where does the ferrets smell come from?
The sebaceous secretion of the skin-it's why descenting doesn't work.
What part of the GI tract is a ferret missing?
The cecum.
When do ferrets molt?
In the spring and fall.
Do ferrets have good eyesight?
No, they rely on hearing & their sense of smell. They are only aware of rapid movements.
When do ferrets get their true colors?
At 3 weeks. They can be albino, sable or fitch.
Can ferrets be litterbox trained?
Yes, but have multiple ones-they have a short GI time (3-4hours).
What can you do to "ferret-proof" a house?
Block off all holes, cover the underside of furniture, avoid access to foreign objects.
Should you house a ferret next to other rodents?
No, their smell can cause panic.
How often should you bathe a ferret?
Not very often (no more than once a month), it can strip essential oil from the skin and cause pruritis.
Should you feed ferrets sugary food?
No, but they love it.
What do you need to supplement a ferrets diet with?
Hairball remedy 1-2mls every 2-4 days for nutrition, not hairballs.
How do restrain a ferret?
Scruff & suspend in air, distraction. Do not use leather gloves, can't feel well.
What should be done 1st in a ferrets physical?
Take their temp.
How often should a ferret get a physical?
Annually until 4yrs, then twice a year.
What vaccines should you give ferrets?
Distemper every 3-4 wks until 14 mths, then yearly and rabies at 3 mths, then annually.
When do ferrets hit puberty?
At 4-8 mths.
What type of estrous cycles do ferrets have?
They are seasonally polyestrus (March-Aug.) & are induced ovulators.
What are male/female/baby ferrets called?
How do you bleed a ferret?
Often need sedation to do. Lateral saphenous, cephalic veins, jugular veins, anterior vena cava.
When should you neuter/spay a ferret?
By 4-6 months, some do it as early as 6-8 weeks.
How do you descent a ferret?
Remove their anal glands, usually at 5-6 weeks. Doesn't truly descent them!
Should you withhold food before putting a ferret under anesthesia?
Yes, for 4 hours before - but no more than 6 hours.
What are some signs of canine distemper in ferrets?
Upper respiratory infection, lesions around mouth & chin, seizures, anorexia, depression & death.
How is canine distemper (ferrets) transmitted?
Aerosol, direct contact (nasal/conjunctival exudates, urine, feces, skin, fomites).
What are some signs of human influenza in ferrets?
Sneezing, watery eye, nasal discharge, lethargy, anorexia &enteritis.
How is human influenza (ferrets) transmitted?
Aerosol. Owner to ferret, ferret to ferret & ferret to owner.
Is human influenza zoonotic?
What disease are ferrets used to test for?
Human influenza
What external parasites affect ferrets?
Ear mites, sarcoptic mange and fleas.
What fungal disease do ferrets get?
Is heartworm a problem for ferrets?
Yes, one heartworm can kill a ferret - they are so small.
Signs of heartworm in a ferret.
Lethargy, coughing, dyspnea, ascites.
What 5 factors can predispose ferrets to cancer?
Genetic influences, early neutering (?), natural photoperiod not obtained, diet, & infectious agents.
What does a benign tumor look like?
It's usually a ball, more contained.
What does a malignant tumor look like?
"Fingers", they move out to other parts.
What can lymphoma affect in a ferret?
Lymph nodes, spleen, liver, lungs, bone, kidney, intestine & skin.
What are some signs of a mast cell tumor in a ferret?
Usually involve the skin-raised/hairless tumors, usually unpigmented, ulcerartion may occur.
How do you treat ferret lymphoma?
Chemotherapy- prognosis is guarded.
How do you treat ferret mast cell tumors?
Surgically remove.
What is hyperestrogenism in ferrets?
An increase in estrogen levels, which leads to anemia &/or panleukopenia. Due to continual heat (estrus).
What area some signs of ferret hyperestrogenism?
Bilateral alopecia, swollen vulva, weakness, anorexia, depression & pale mucous membranes.
What is hyperadrenocortism?
It's caused by cortisol secreted from an adrenal gland tumor.
What are some signs of ferret hyperadrenocortism?
Spayed female (4+), seasonally bilateral alopecia, enlarged vulva, +- vulvar dicharge, anemia, occasional pruritis.
How do you treat hyperadrenocortism?
Surgical remove tumor.
What is insulinoma in ferrets?
Pancreatic tumors screte insulin, which leads to hypoglycemia.
What are some signs of insulinoma in ferrets?
Weakness/collapse, depression, paralysis of hind limbs, +- weightloss. They look drunk.
What are chinchillas used for in research?
Auditory studies. They are large ears with large bullae allowing access to middle ear. Hearing sensitivity is similar to humans.
Where do chinchillas come from?
The Andes Mountains in South America.
What is unusual about chinchillas' teeth?
Their incisors grow 2-3 inches a year.
What's the average weight of a ferret?
Male:400-500 grams
Female:400-600 grams
What are some characteristics of a chinchilla?
Quiet & shy, agile, usually active during the day, odorless, copraphagic.
How do you restrain a chinchilla?
Anticipate jumping, scruff & hold under abdomen, tuck head under arm, use a towel. Don't grab a running chinchilla-can pull off hair.
What is "fur-slip"?
When patches of hair and skin slip off the animal.
What makes chinchilla pellets different from rabbit and guinea pigs?
It is longer, easier for them to hold in their forepaws.
What should be offered to chinchillas to help wear down their teeth?
Pumice stone, small tree branches.
What should a chinchillas housing consist of?
Multi-levels, PVS pipes, hide box. Should be made of wire, may chew through wood cage.
What environment do chinchillas like?
Less than 50% humidity, temp between 50-68*F. Over 80* can cause heat stroke.
What is a dust bath?
Made of ash to remove dirt and oil from coat.
How do you give a chinchilla a dust bath?
Put in small pan, leave in cage ~1hr, they will roll around in it.
How do you sex a chinchilla?
Anogenital distance is further in males. Females have large urinary papilla (clitoris). Females larger.
What are chinchilla newborns like?
Precocious, eyes & ears open at birth, fully furred w/ teeth, walk w/in 1hr after birth, solid w/in 1wk.
Is is easy to bleed a chinchilla?
Where can you obtain blood from a chinchilla?
Nail clip (sm.amt.), cardiac (terminal), jugular, cephalic, saphenous, vena cava, femoral (blind stick).
Do you need to fast chinchillas before anesthesia?
What can cause conjunctivitis?
Excessive dust bathing, poor husbandry, contaminated water.
How do you treat conjunctivitis?
Restrict dust bath to 15-30mn/day, change type of dust bath, protective ophthalmis ointment.
What internal parasites can affect chinchillas?
Cryptosporidium, giardia.
What causes constipation in chinchillas?
Diet high in protein w/out adequate roughage, obesity, intestinal obstruction.
What can you do to treat constipation in chinchillas?
Increase amt of fiber in diet-gradual addition of fruits & veg, decrease amt of grains or raisin.
What's the most common reason for a chinchilla to visit a vet?
What causes chinchilla diarrhea?
Inappropriate feeding (over-feeding of fresh grains, poor quality hay, sudden change in diet), stress, bacterial or parasitic infection.
What does small bowel diarrhea look like?
Large amounts, less frequent and a bad odor.
What does large bowel diarrhea look like?
Smaller amounts, more frequent, may contain mucous or frank blood.
What is fur-ring?
Ring of hair around penis & prepuce that eventually stops the penis from retracting into the prepuce.
What can fur-ring cause?
Pain, urethral constriction, urine retention, infection, severe damage to penis.
What are some signs of fur-ring?
Excessive grooming, produce small frequent amount of urine, straining to urinate.
How do you treat fur-ring?
Anesthesia, apply sterile lubricant to area, cut & rool fur-ring off penis.
What temp can cause heatstroke in a chinchilla?
Ove 80*, especially is humidity levels are high.
What are some signs of heatstroke in chinchills?
Bright pink or red ears & mucous membranes, rectal temp greater than 103*F.
How do you treat heatstroke?
Immerse in tepid baths, IV fluids. Avoid putting cages in sunny windows or radiator.