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94 Cards in this Set

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What structure separates the anterior compartment from the posterior compartment of the thigh?
The lateral Intermuscular septa
What structure separates the anterior compartment from the medial compartment of the thigh?
The medial intermuscular septa
Which muscles in the anterior compartment are innervated by the femoral nerve?
Muscles in the anterior compartment include:#Quadratus Femoris - Femoral#Sartorius - Femoral#Pectinius - Femoral#Tensor Fascia Lata - Sup. Glut. Nerve L4,L5,S1,S2
Describe the capsular arrangement of the ACL
extrasynovial and intracapsular
What are the attachments of the ACL
distal attachment is anteriorly to the anterior intercondylar area of the tibia and proximally to the medial side of the lateral condyle posteriorly
Does the ACL resist posterior or anterior displacement?
anterior displacement. It also prevents hyperextension.
Does the ACL cross on the medial or lateral side of the PCL?
the lateral side
What bony landmarks surround gluteus medius?
the posterior and anterior gluteal lines.
Which muscle lies between the posterior and anterior gluteal lines?
gluteus medius
Which vein does the great saphenous vein drain into?
The femoral vein… not the deep femoral vein.
Which nerve runs with the great saphenous vein?
The anterior portion of the medial femoral cutaneous nerve
List the arteries that are at risk in a hip fracture.
The medial and lateral circumflex arteries. (aka retinacular arteries)
What is the longest branch of the femoral nerve?
the saphenous nerve
What supplies the ligament to the head of femur?
the foveola artery; supplied from the posterior branch of the obturator artery.
What are the attachment sites of piriformis?
O: pelvic surface of sacrum #I: Posterosuperior angle (tip) of the greater trochanter of Femur
What is the medial (proximal) attachment of the gemelli?
Ischium
What is the lateral (distal) attachment of the gemelli?
Femur
The tendon of which muscle helps to form a ligament of the knee?
Semimembranosus
What are the branches of the femoral artery in the thigh?
Inferior epigastric#superficial circumflex iliac artery#superficial and deep external pudendal#lateral and medial transverse arteries# deep femoral# descending genicular
Where does the hip capsule insert on the femur?
On the intertrochanteric line.
What attaches at the intertrochanteric line of femur?
pubofemoral ligament# iliofemoral ligament# vastus medialis and lateralis# hip capsule#NOT pectineus (pectineal line) NOR rectus femoris
Does the deep femoral artery travel in the adductor canal?
No. The femoral artery travels there and terminates at the Adductor Hiatus.
Is the 4th branch of the deep femoral artery the terminating artery?
Yes.
What are the cardinal planes in anatomy?
Sagittal; Transverse, and Frontal.
Is the hip more stable in flexion or extension?
In extension. Forces up the femur, when in flexion, make it easier to pop the head of femur out of the acetabulum.
What blood supplies supply the hip?
Many. There is no one supply due to the anastomosis.# Obturator artery #medial and lateral femoral circumflex arteries #Inferior and superior gluteal arteries.
What forms the cruciate anastomosis?
Inferior gluteal#1st perforating branch of the deep femoral# Medial and lateral femoral circumflex arteries.
What are the borders of the femoral triangle?
Medial: lateral edge of adductor longus#Lateral: medial border of sartorius#Base: inguinal ligament#Roof: Fascia Lata#Floor: iliacus, psoas major, pectineus, adductor brevis
What are the borders of the femoral canal?
Anterolateral wall: vastus medialis#Posterior wall: adductor longus, superiorly and adductor magnus, inferiorly#Roof: sartorius
What innervates the posterior compartment?
Tibial nerve
What nerve supplies the skin on the lateral side of the thigh?
Lateral femoral cutaneous???
What nerve supplies the extensors of the hip muscles?
Tibial nerve
What nerve supplies gluteus maximus?
Inferior gluteal
What nerve supplies gluteus minimus and medius?
Superior gluteal
What nerve supplies the hamstrings?
Tibial nerve
What nerve supplies the quadriceps?
Tibial Nerve
Which nerve innervates the triceps surae?
Tibial nerve
What is the action of triceps surae?
plantarflexion
The spiral line is a continuation of the____________.
intertrochanteric line
What is the origin of Tensor Fascia Latae?
ASIS
What nerve supplies adductor magnus?
Adductor portion is obturator nerve.#Hamstring Portion is tibial nerve
What muscle is innervated by the posterior branch of the obturator nerve?
Adductor magnus.
Which muscles crosses two joints and flexes the hip and extends the leg?
rectus femoris
What are the branches of the internal iliac artery?
Anterior Trunk# - Obturator artery# - Inferior Gluteal artery# - Internal Pudendal artery#Posterior Trunk# - Superior Gluteal artery ## - Iliolumbar artery# - lateral sacral
What are the branches of the external iliac artery?
inferior epigastric#deep circumflex iliac
What nerve supplies cutaneous innervation to the butt?
cluneal nerves
Which spinal nerves give rise to the superior cluneal nerve?
Dorsal ramii of L123
Which spinal nerves give rise to the middle cluneal nerve?
Dorsal ramii of S123
Which spinal nerves give rise to the inferior cluneal nerve?
Post femoral cutaneous - Ventral Ramii of s123
What is the nerve supply to the common peroneal nerve?
L4-S2
How does the sacral spinous ligament relate to the sacral tuberous ligament?
the sacral spinous ligament runs deep to the sacral tuberous ligament.
Which ligament crosses the anterior tibial artery (NV bundle) at the ankle?
EHL - #Extensor hallucis longus
Which ligament crosses the anterior tibial artery (NV bundle) in the foot?
EHB - #Extensor hallucis brevis
Which two tendons cross each other at the ankle in the deep osteofascial compartment?
Tibialis Posterior passes under FDL - Flexor digitorum longus
Which two tendons cross each other in the plantar foot?
FHL and FDL #Flexor hallucis longus and #Flexor digitorum longus
Which ligament crosses the posterior tibial artery?
FDL#Flexor digitorum longus
What are the muscles that originate from the peroneal sheath?
OFI#Oblique head of Adductor Hallucis#Flexor Digiti Minimi Brevis FDMB#Interossei (plantar and dorsal)
Which muscles originate from the tuberosity of calcaneus?
AbFAb or AbhFdbAbdm#Abductor Hallucis#Flexor Digitorum Brevis#Abductor Digiti Minimi#NOT Quadrutus plantae
What inserts into the middle row of phalanges?
Flexor digitorum brevis and Extensors digitorum longus and brevis.
Which structures attach to the tibia?
The medial collateral ligament does not.#Pes Anserinus muscles (SGS) IT Tract, Quadriceps tendon, Semimembranosus, popliteus, tibialis anterior and posterior, soleus, FDL
Which structures attach to the head of fibula?
Biceps femoris, peroneus longus, brevis, tertius, EHL, Tibialis Posterior, FHL
Which surface of the medial cuneiform presents a groove?
Medial surface. Groove is for tendon of tibialis anterior
Where is the popliteal vein in relationship to the artery at the adductor hiatus
The vein is lateral
Where is the popliteal vein in relationship to the artery at the center of the fossa?
The vein is posterior
Where is the popliteal vein in relationship to the artery at the soleal line?
The vein is medial
What are the branches of the dorsalis pedis artery?
Lateral tarsal#Medial tarsal#arcuate#deep plantar perforating#1st dorsal metatarsal#Note: perforating arteries (not the deep) is not a branch of the dp.
What is the progression of lymphatic disease?
Cellulitis#Lymphangitis#Lymphandopathy#Sepsis#Death
What mechanisms are involved in deep venous return?
pulsation of arteries#muscles - milking action#valves
What mechanisms are involved in superficial venous return?
vasoconstriction#muscles - milking action#valves
If you had a clot in dorsalis pedis at the ankle joint, would you expect increased pressure in the arcuate artery?
No.
If you had a clot in dorsalis pedis at the ankle joint, would you expect decreased pressure in the anterior tibial artery?
No.
If you had a clot in dorsalis pedis at the ankle joint, would you expect decreased flow in the lateral tarsal artery?
Yes. The lateral anastamoses will supply compensatory flow to that region.
If you had a clot in dorsalis pedis at the ankle joint, would you expect no blood flow to the lateral tarsal artery?
No
What symptoms would a patient demonstrate with a nerve compression at L5?
lack of cutaneous sensation on the dorsum of foot.#weakness in extensor muscles, especially EDL EHL. NOTE: Tibialis Anterior is supplied by L4
What would you expect to happen if a surgeon accidentally cut the medial plantar nerve?
Aside from a lawsuit, the patient will experience loss of function to:#Lumbricals (1st)#Abductor Hallucis#FHB#FDB#cutaneous sensation to the 2nd, 3rd, and 1/2 of 4th toes.
Which bone in the foot lacks any muscle attachments?
Talus
Which muscle inserts into the intermediate cuneiform?
Tibialis Posterior
Which bone in the thigh and leg does not articulate with the tibia?
the patella.
Do the tibia or fibula articulate with calcaneus?
No! Neither!
Which bones articulate with calcaneus
Talus (2x)#Navicula#Cuboid
Define cellulitis
Inflammation of subcutaneous, loose connective tissue (formerly called cellular tissue).
Define lymphangitis
Inflammation of the lymphatic vessels.
Define lymphadenitis
Inflammation of a lymph node or lymph nodes.
Define sepsis
The presence of various pus-forming and other pathogenic organisms, or their toxins, in the blood or tissues; septicemia is a common type of sepsis.
Which spinal nerves give rise to the superior cluneal nerve?
Dorsal ramii of L123
Which spinal nerves give rise to the middle cluneal nerve?
Dorsal ramii of S123
Which spinal nerves give rise to the inferior cluneal nerve?
Post femoral cutaneous - Ventral Ramii of s123
Which osseous structures give rise to dorsal ramii nerves?
Ilium and vertebral column
Which osseous structures give rise to ventral ramii nerves?
Ischium and pubis
Which spinal nerves give rise to the lumbar sacral plexus?
L4,5 and S1
Which spinal nerves give rise to the femoral nerve?
Dorsal division of L2, 3, and 4
Which spinal nerves give rise to the obturator nerve?
Ventral division of L2, 3, and 4
Which direction does the ventral division of the obturator nerve travel?
medially
Which planes does the hip move in?
All three cardinal planes. Sagittal, Frontal, and Transverse