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75 Cards in this Set

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This Has been defined as a relatively permanent change in potentioal performance or behavior as the result of experience
Learning
True or False: Some learning theorist argue that all learning is the result of connections between stimuli and responses.
True
Name two major schools of learning theory
Classical Conditioning
Operant Conditioning
Who investigated what eventually becdame known as Classical Conditining?
Ivan Pavlov
Another name for a paired presentation of a neutral stimulus(eg a tone) that does not produce salivation with that of meat powder, which naturally elicits salivation and after several pairings-the neutral stimuls alone produces a salivation response is called what?
Classical conditioning
In classical conditioning, Pavlov called the stimulus that naturally elicits the target response the (A)______ and its response (B)_________
A)Unconditioned Stimulus
B)Unconditioned Response
In Classical Conditioning, Pavlov called the Neutral Stimulus (A)_______ and the response it produced after conditioning the (B)________
A) Conditioned Stimulus
B) Conditioned Response
Pavlov found that, for Classical Conditioning to occur, the CS must precede the US- What is this called?
Forward Conditioning
Includes presenting the Conditioned Stimulus (CS) so that it precedes and overlaps presentation of the unconditioned stimulus(US)
Delay Conditioning
It entails presenting and terminating the Conditioned Stimulus (CS) prior to presenting the Unconditioned Stimulus (US)
Trace Conditioning
Occurs when the CS and US are presented at the same time
Simulataneous Conditioning
Of the three Procedures-Delay, Trace, and Simulataneous conditioning, which is the most effective for establishing a CR and which is the least effective?
Most Effective = Delay
Least Effective = Simulataneous
True or False: The greater the number of trials, the stronger and more persistant the Conditioned response
True
What occurs more rapidly when the CS is intense, novel, or distinctive from other stimuli?
Classical Conditioning
The Strength of a CR is measured by assiessing what?
A)It's Strength
B)It's Rate
C)The latency between presentation of the CS and occurance of CR
D)The Persistance of the CR (How long it is elicted by the CS in the absence of the US)
True or False: A CS-CR connection has been established if the CS is repeatedly presented without the US, The CS-CR connection eventually decays
True
The gradual disappearance of a conditional response is the result of presentation of the CS alone is referred to as
Classical Extinction
What is this; An experimental subject often responds with a conditioned response not only to the CS but also to Stimuli that are similar to it. The fewer the number of trials and the lnger the delay between conditioning and testing, the greater the stimulus genralization.
Stimulus Generalization
What is the name of the opposite of stimulus genralization and refers to the ability to discriminate between similar stimuli and respond only to the CS with a CR
Stimulus Discrimination
Studies on Stimulus Discrimination led to the discovery that very difficult discriminations can lead to what?
Experimental Neurosis
True or False; Pavlov discovered that when a second Neutral Stimulus was repeatedly paired with a previously conditioned stimulus (CS) the second Neutral Stimulus alone eventually produced a conditioned response (CR). This is called higher order condtioning.
True
What is another name for higher order conditioning?
Second Order Conditioning
Who are the theorist associated with Operant Conditioning?
Edward Thorndike
B.F. Skinner
What are Thorndikes best known studies?
His best known studies involve placing hungry cats in puzzle boxes that required the animals to make a particulare response (e.g. pulling a loop of string)
What are Thorndikes conclusions about leaning?
He concluded that learning is not due to mental events or thinking about a problem, but instead to connections that develop between responses and stimuli as the consequence of trial and error. A connectionism.
Describes Thorndkes-Instrumental Learning
Because the behaviors he was studying were instrumental in helping the animals achieve a goal, he referred to this phenomenon as Instrumental learning
Describe Skinners-Respondant Behaviors
Those behaviors (Reflexes) that are automatically elicited by certain stimuli
Describe Skinners-Operant Behaviors
Operant behaviors are voluntarily emitted as the result of the way they operate on the environment. (e.g. as a rsult of the consequences that follow them)
True or False; Skinners principles of reinforcement and punishment can be viewed as an extension of Thorndikes law and effect.
Ture
True or False; Reinforcements and punishments can be either positive or negative?
True
In Reinforcement and punishment, what does the term positive and negative refer to?
Positve = Refers to the application of a stimulus

Negative = Means witholding or removing a stimulus
Describe Postive Reinforcement
Perfomance of a behavior increases as the result of the application of a stimulus following the behavior. (Ex; In Thorndikes experiiment, a cats "pulling on the string" behavior increased because it led to the attainment of food.
Describe Negative Reinforcement
A behavior increases as the result of the withdrawal or termination of a stimulus
True or False; Punishment can be postive or negative?
True
When does postive punishment occur?
It occurs when the application of a stimulus followinng a response decreases that response. (Ex. Slapping a dog with a newspaper after he chews up your favorite shoes-hopefully after being hit with the newspaper-the dog will no longer chew your shoes.
When does negative punishment occur?
When a stimulus is removed following a behavior and as a rsult the behavior decreases. (Taking away a childs allowance whenver he back talks-to decrease that behavior)
Skinner usually looked at such behaviors as bar pressing and key pecking in rats and pigeons within the confines of a box like operant chamber (Skinner Box). In a typical + reinforcement experiment water or food was delivered into the box via a delivery tube whenver the animal pressed the bar or pecked the key----What is this called?
Operant Strength
How did Skinner evaluate the effectiveness of Operant Conditioning (A)_______. What did this entail (B)________?
A) Measuring Operant Strength
B1)Determining the reate of responding druing acquisition trials

B2)determining the total number of responses made during extraction trials (the period when no reinforcement is provided)
In Operant conditioning, (A)What --refers to witholding reinforcement from a previously reinforced behavior in order to decrease or eliminate that behavior?
Extinction
A temporary increase in responding during extinction trials is called (A) What?
An extinction (response) burst
What does the following describe: When a subject has been reinforced for two different behaviors and reinforcement for one behavior is withdrawn in order to extinguish it, the other behavior is more likely to increase
Behavioral Contrast
Whose Theory of Obeservational Learning proposes that a person can simply observe another person ( a model) perform a behavior and subsequently display that behavior himself or herself without external reinforcement?
Albert Bandura
Who is best know for studies in which children observed an adult model act aggressively toward an inflated clown (Bobo Doll) and when later left alone with the doll the children displayed similar aggressive behaviors toward the doll while children who had not viewed the model did not exhibit these behaviors.
Albert Bandura
Who concluded that observational learning reflects an alteration in cognition involving four different processes including attentional, retention, prodcution, and motivational.
Albert Bandura
Which Process is described below? Observational learning requires that the learner attend to, and accurately percive the model behavior.
Attentional Process
Describe Retention Process
Reproduction of a modeled behavior requires that the learner symbolically preocess the modeled bheavior in memory via visual imagey or verbal coding. Retention is enhanced through cognitive rehearsal
Describe Production Process
The learner must be able to accurately reproduce and rehearse the modeled behavior. Production is enhanced through practice and performance feedback.
Describe Motivational Process
The learner must be motivated to acquire and perform the modeled behavior. Motivation is enhanced when the learner is reinforced, but the reinforcement can be either internal (self-reinforcement), vicarious, or external
Studies have shown that obsevational learning is most effective when it is combined with (A) What
Guided Participation.(Progressive Performance by the learner with assistance from the model)
True or False; It was found that live modeling with guided participation or (participant modeling) was superior to symbolic modeling (observation of a filmed model) or systematic desensitization.
True
The cognitive learning theories stress the (A)______
______ ________ occur during learning, and reject the assumption that (B)_______ ________ is a necessary ccondition for learning to occur
A) Internal Thought Processes
B) External Reinforcement
Tolman viewed learning as "purposive" or oriented toward the (A)________. He also proposed that learning often takes place without being manifested in (B)_________; In other words he believed that learning can be (C)___________
A) Achievement of Specific goals
B) Performance Improvement
C) Latent
Gestalt Psychology includes a model of learning that incorporates the role of internal (A)__________
A)Cognitive Processes
Kohler argued that learning can be the result of?
Insight
Kohler proposed that such an "aha" experience reflects an internal cognitive restructuring of the (A)_________ that improves the Organisms ability to achieve it's goals.
A) Perceptual Field (environment)
Bandura's theory of observational learning proposes that a person can simply (A)________ ________ ________ Perform a behavior and subsequently display that behavior him or herself without (B) ___________ __________
A) Observe another person (model)
B) external reinforcement
According to Pavlov, the phenomenon known as (A)_________ indicates that once something is learned it is never forgotton.
A)Spontaneous Recovery
Experimental Neurosis is the result of?
Difficult discriminations
Classical Extinction occurs when?
The Conditioned Stimulus (CS) is presented alone
A loud noise which produces a startle response is paired with a flashing light so that the light, when presented alone elicits a startle response. The loud noise in this situation is?
The Unconditioned Stimulus
Most likely, the startle response produced by the flashing light in the above situation will be weaker or stronger than the response elicited by the loud noise?
Weaker thatn the response elicited by the loud noise
A tone is subsequently presented prior to the flashing light several times, so that eventually, the tone also elictis a startle response. This procedure is an example of?
Higher Order Conditioning
Negative Reinforcement is used to increase or decrease behavior?
Increase behavior (Ex. Pressing lever will stop electric shock-Pressing lever will increase)
What is generally the best schedule for intially establishing a behavior?
Continuous One
The intermittent reinforcement associated with the greatest resistance to extinction is the (A)________Schedule?
Varible Ratio
Thorndikes (A)________ Proposes that behaviors which are followed by satisfying consequences are more likely to occur again.
Law of Effect
The removal of a stimulus following a behavior decreases that behavior. In other words the stimulus is acting as a(n) _________
Negative Punishment
A mother has been giving her son a hug whenever he says "please" following a request. She decides to stop reinforcing her son in this way. Right after she stops hugging her son, she can expect that the frequency with which he says please will?
Temporarily Increase
A father scolds his son each time the boy whines. The boy's whining increases. In this situation the fathers scolding is acting as a(n)?
Positive Reinforcer
What is a secondary reinforcer
It is associated with a reinforcer that has inherent value
In Operant Conditioning, Stimulus genralization involves performing the same response in the presnce of?
Stimulus similar to the original discriminative stimulus
According to Albert Bandura, the acquisition and retention of an observed behavior is attributable in part to
Self-Reinforcement, Vicarious and External reinforcement
For Kohler, the "Aha" experience is a reflection of?
Insight
For Tolman, "Cognitive maps" are the result of
Connectionism
What is another name for guided participation?
Participant Modeling