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37 Cards in this Set

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Ice Age
a period of extremely cold temperatures when part of the planet's surface was covered with sheets of ice
Radiocarbon Dating
method used to determine how old objects are
Beringia
an area of dry land between Asia and Alaska that was exposed during the Ice Age
Nomads
early Native Americans that moved from place to place and did not live in permanent settlements
Agricultural Revolution
the time period when early Americans learned how to plant and raise crops
Maize
the most important crop of early Americans, used to make bread, we know it as corn
Civilizations
permanent settlements turned into these, usually there was a system of trade and government and art and science and a written language
Olmec
the first people to build a civilization in America
Mississippian Culture
lived in Moundville, Alabama as well as other places, built huge cities with flat-topped mounds
Land Bridge Theory
the idea that the first people to come to the Americas walked across a land bridge from Asia to Alaska during the Ice Age
DNA Testing
method of testing bones, skulls, and teeth to tell how old they are
Vikings
people from Scandinavia who receive credit for being the first to land in the Americas, Leif Ericsson
Christopher Columbus
Italian who sailed for Spain to America
Indians
the name Columbus called Native Americans
Columbian Exchange
a mixture of cultures; Europe and Africa and Asia sent grains, fruits, coffee beans, livestock, and disease to the Americas; the Americas sent corn, peanuts, cocoa beans, and turkeys to Europe and Africa and Asia
Disease and Native Americans
diseases from Europe killed as many as 80% of Native Americans
Amerigo Vespucci
America was named after him and not Columbus
Juan Ponce de Leon
looked for the fountain of youth, named Florida
Magellan
his crew sailed around the world, he named the Pacific Ocean
Balboa
the first European to reach the Pacific coast of America and to see the Pacific Ocean
3 G's
explorers sailed for gold, glory, and God
Walter Raleigh
tried to settle at Roanoke, named the area Virginia after the Virgin Queen Elizabeth
The Lost Colony
Roanoke
Jamestown
first successful attempt at settlement, settled by the Virginia Company
Problems at Jamestown
swampy land, mosquitoes, poor leadership, many unskilled workers
Tobacco
the crop that saved Jamestown
House of Burgesses
the first general assembly of people in Jamestown; the first government; a Governor, 6 councilors, and 20 representatives, 2 from each of the colony's ten towns
Burgesses
the representatives
Pilgrims
went to America to escape religious persecution, sailed on the Mayflower, helped by Squanto, settled in Plymouth
William Bradford
colonial leader in Plymouth
John Winthrop
led another group of Pilgrims to the Americas, stockholder in the Massachusetts Bay Company
Roger Williams
banished from Massachusetts, started a colony called Providence, where the government had no authority in religious matters
Quakers
everyone has an inner light from God, no need for church or ministers, led by William Penn, started the colony of Pennsylvania
Georgia
a colony started by James Oglethorpe for poor people in England who were in prison because they couldn't pay their debts
Spanish Settlement
Mexico, Florida, Texas, Central America, Caribbean, California, etc.; gold, silver mining, and ranching
English Settlement
Eastern seaboard of North America, trade and farming
French Settlement
Canada, St. Lawrence River, and Louisiana Territory; exporting furs