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37 Cards in this Set

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Q. What aids automaticity of cardiac cells?
Calcium
Q. Phase 0?
Phase 1?
Phase 2?
Phase 3?
Phase 4?
Phase 0: Depolarization
Phase 1: Early Repolarization
Phase 2: Plateau Phase
Phase 3: Final Rapid Repolarization
Phase 4: Resting Membrane Potential
Q. AUTOMATICITY?
Ability to create an electrical impulse without being stimulated from another source
Q. EXCITABILITY?
Ability to respond to an outside stimulus
Q. CONDUCTIVITY?
Ability to receive an electrical impulse and conduct it to an adjoining cardiac cell
Q. CONTRACTILITY?
ability of myocardial cells to shorten in response to an impulse
Q. REFRACTORINESS?
a term used to describe the period of the recovery that cells need after being discharged before they are able to respond to a stimulus
Q. Normal Pacemaker Rates for:
SA Node?
AV Node?
Purkinje Fibers?
SA Node: 60-100 IPM
AV Node: 40-60 Impulses Per Minute
Purkinje Fibers: Less then 40 BPM
Q. How long is the normal PR Interval?
.12-.20 seconds
Q. How long is the normal QRS complex?
.04-.12 seconds
Q. The ST Segment represents what?
Interval between depolarization and repolarization
Q. The T wave represents what?
Represents the return of the ventricular cells to the resting state or rapid repolarization
Q. Which interval would you check to see if a patient is on antidysrhythmics, tricyclic antidepressants or has an electrolyte imbalance?
QT Interval
Q. Name the heart condition: Rate – GREATER than 100 beats per minute
Rhythm – PP intervals regular
P wave – Precedes each QRS complex;
PR interval – 0.12 to 0.20 second (Normal)
QRS complex – usually 0.04 to 0.12 second (Normal)
Sinus Tachycardia
Q. Name the Heart Condition: Rate – LESS than 60 beats per minute
Rhythm – PP intervals regular
P Wave – precedes each QRS complex
PR interval – NORMAL
QRS complex – NORMAL
Sinus Bradycardia
Q. Name the heart condition: Rate – Normal
Rhythm – RR intervals IRREGULAR; phasic with respirations (Speed up and slow down with respiration)
P wave – precedes each QRS;
PR interval – NORMAL
QRS complex – NORMAL
Sinus Arrythmia
Q. Name the heart condition:
Rate--Depends on Subsidiary Pacemaker.
Rhythm – irregular; pauses or escape beats present
P wave – normal during sinus rhythm; absent during sinus arrest
PR interval – NORMAL
QRS – NORMAL
Sinus Arrest
Q. What can cause a Premature Atrial Complex?
Tension, stress, alcohol, caffeine, infection, fatigue, inflammation, electrolyte imbalance, medications (particularly digoxin), and myocardial ischemia
Q. Name the heart condition: Rate: depends on underlying rhythm and frequency of PACs
RR: Underlying rhythm is regular, PREMATURE beats cause irregularity
P wave is premature and precedes a QRS; may differ in shape of p waves originating in sinus node
PR interval may be normal or prolonged
QRS complex is 0.04 to 0.12; may be absent
Premature Atrial Complex
Q. Name the heart condition: Atrial rate usually 150 – 200;
RR: Usually regular rhythm
P waves precede each QRS; there may be non-conducted p waves
PR interval: Normal
QRS complex: NORMAL
Atrial Tachycardia
Q. Name the heart condition: Atrial complexes exhibit a sawtooth appearance.
Atrial rate may be between 250 and 450 beats per minute
Atrial Flutter
Q. Name the heart condition: The atria quiver rather than contract at a rate of 300 – 600 beats per minute. May be caused by heart disease, fluid overload, or electrolyte imbalances.
Atrial Fibrillation
Q. What can atrial fibrillation result in?
Decrease in cardiac output by 20 to 30 percent
Q. Where do Junctional dysrhythmias originate in?
AV junction
Q. Name the heart condition: P wave may be inverted before or after the QRS, hidden in the QRS, or absent during the PJC.
PR interval will be LESS THAN 0.12 second if there is a p wave before QRS; otherwise not measurable
QRS is NORMAL
Premature Junctional Complex
Q. Name 7 causes of a junctional rhythm?
1. sick sinus syndrome, 2. rheumatic heart disease, 3. acute inferior wall MI, 4. drug toxicity, 5. electrolyte imbalance, 6. valvular disease, 7. cardiac surgery
Q. Name the heart condition: Rate is 60-150 beats per minute
Rhythm is regular
P wave may be inverted before, during, or after the QRS or absent
PR interval is LESS THEN 0.12 if before QRS otherwise unmeasurable
QRS is normal
Accelerated Junctional
Q. Name the Heart Condition: Rhythm is irregular during the PVC otherwise may be regular with underlying rhythm
P wave usually absent
PR interval not measurable for PVC
QRS is GREATER THEN 0.12 seconds and is premature, wide and bizarre
T wave will be the opposite polarity of QRS deflection
Premature Ventricular Contractions
Q. Name the heart condition: Ventricular rate is typically 130-250 beats per minute
RR interval is usually IRREGULAR
P waves may be present
PR interval not measurable
QRS is usually GREATER THEN 0.14 seconds
Ventricular Tachycardia
Q. Name the Heart Condition:
Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia with QRS complexes of changing amplitude giving it a spiral appearance.
Ventricular rate of 160-250 beats per minute
Rhythm is IRREGULAR
QRS is wide, bizarre with changing amplitude and deflection
Torsade de pointes
Q. Name the heart condition: Appears as wavy, irregular undulations of varying amplitude and contour with no discernible QRS complexes, p waves, T waves, or ST segments
Ventricles quiver without any muscular contraction (Similar to Atrial Fibrillation)
Ventricular Fibrillation
Q. Name the heart condition: If there are no p waves and no QRS the rhythm is?
Asystole
Q. Name the heart condition: If there are p waves with no QRS the rhythm is?
Ventricular Standstill
Q. Name the heart condition: Rhythm is usually regular
PR interval is consistently prolonged at GREATER THEN 0.20 seconds
QRS normal
First Degree AV Block
Q. Increasing prolongation of the PR interval until a QRS is dropped.
What people could this condition be normal in?
Second Degree Type 1 Mobitz Type I

Young adults and athletes
Q. Name the heart condition: Usually occurs in the Bundle of HIS. PP intervals regular; RR regular until complex is dropped
PR interval is constant in conducted beats
QRS is usually normal
Second Degree Type 2 Mobitz Type 2
Q. Name the heart condition: **Atria and ventricles beat independently of one another.
Atrial rate faster than ventricular rate.
Ventricular rate LESS THEN 60 and is determinate on the location of the stimulus
Third Degree Block Complete Heart Block