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240 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
1. Based on surveys conducted in 1972 what percent of crimes were reported?

What percent are now currently reported?

2. What are five costs that crimes has on society?
1. Financial
2. Emotional(to victim and bystanders)
3. Medical/Physical
4. Time
5. Causes Fear
3. How is crime good (or positive) for the economy?

Four ways...
1. Livilihood for some people
2. Industry to deal with crime(police, courts, prisons, etc)
3. Good for private security industry
4. Crime sells (newspapers, news, etc.)
4. What are the three interrelated components of the criminal justice system?

In 1977 alone how much $ was spent to maintain this system?
Police, Courts, and Corrections

22 Billion
5. Why are there inconsistencies between the theory that all people should be treated equally and the practice of this?

(Four reasons)
1. No rule or law can be written in such a way as to remove all ambiguities SO decisions are left to discretion of justice agent
2. Basic belief of many agents that justice requires that each person be treated individually
3. Recognition by agents that the system is incapable of dealing with all law violators
4. Social pressures from fellow agents and members of the community
6. What is discretion?
"the power or right conferred [by the law on public officials to act] in certain circumstances, according to the dictates of their own judgments and conscience, uncontrolled by the judgment or conscience of others"
Blacks Law Dictionary
7. What are the two competing value systems or models of law enforcement identified by Parker?
1. Crime control model

2. Due-process model
8. What is the most important function of the criminal justice process in the crime control model?
Suppressing criminal behavior
9. What is required in order to suppress criminal behavior?

How is this function accomplished?
A high proportion of criminal activity must be punished

With its limited resources, the system must operate efficiently and speedily
10. What is the central value in the due-process model?

This model operates on the presumption of what?
The protection of noncriminals from abuse by agents of the state

11. What are believers of the due-process model concerned with?

In order to accomplish this what must be done?
They're more concerned about mistakes that result in convicting the innocent

Reliable fact finding is necessary
12. What is social psychology?
The branch of psychology that studies how a person's thoughts, feelings, and behavior are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied behavior and/or characteristics of others
13. How do social psychology and sociology differ?
Sociologists explain social behavior in terms of factors external to the individual

Social psychologists use explanations that focus on intra-individual processes
14. What are five methods used to study decision making in the criminal justice system?
1. Laboratory-experimental approach
2. Simulation approach
3. Field studies
4. Surveys, questionnaires, and interviews
5. Archival
15. What are the pros and cons of the laboratory-experimental approach?
-High degree of control
-Measure effects with a high degree of precision

-Low external validity
-Questionable if results can be applied to "real world"
-Participants knowledge that they are in experiment may cause them to react unnaturally
16. How do researchers get around some of the problems faced in laboratory experiments?
Conduct experiment in natural setting (Field Experiments)
17. What are the advantages and disadvantages of field experiments?
-More generalizable (high external validity)
-Can be conducted without participants knowing they are in an experiment

-Cannot exercise control (low internal validity)
-Ethical questions
18. What is the simulation approach?
Participants in simulation studies are asked to imagine themselves in a certain role and to render a hypothetical decision
19. What are the pros and cons of the simulation approach?
-Study a wider range of decision contexts

-Participants know their decisions are hypothetical so results tell little about real-life decisions
20. What are field studies?
They involve the observations of real-life decisions as they naturally occur
21. What are the pros and cons of field studies?
-Data derived is applicable to real-life settings

-Low internal validity
-Hard to draw conclusions since lack of control
-Observers presence may influence decisions of decision maker
-Limited to situations in which observer knows time and place of decision in advance
22. What are the pros and cons of surveys, questionnaires, and interviews?
-In depth probing of beliefs and attitudes

-Lack exactitude and clarity of experiments
-Make certain assumptions about respondents that may not always be true (i.e. they know why they decided to act as they did)
23. What are the pros and cons of archival approaches?
-Can use statistical procedures (regression analysis)

-Records are often incomplete or contain misinformation reflecting biases of record keeper
24. What is regression analysis?
A statistical procedure that allows researchers to determine what information in the data archive best accounts for particular decisions
25. What are some ethical implications of social psychologists being involved in the criminal justice system?
1. How can a study be designed to maximize theoretical and practical values, while minimizing costs and potential risks to participants

2. Confidentiality of the information provided by participants
26. What are the two theories of social psychology that are used to study decision making?
1. Attribution Theory

2. Social-Exchange Theory
27. The attribution-exchange model assumes that decision making consists of what two broad stages?
1. Criminal justice agents form certain impressions of the person he or she is dealing with

2. Agent evaluates the various response options with regard to their potential benefits and cost
28. What is an attribution?
An inference about why an event occurred or about a person's dispositions
29. According to Heider, how can one understand and predict another's behavior?
Identify the relatively stable, or dispositional, properties of others, which include their motives, traits, and abilities
30. How do we respond to others?
We respond to the underlying dispositions (motives,traits) and not to the actual behavior itself

*attributions dictate our responses to others
31. Why do we use attributions?
1. Want to maximize outcomes or rewards
2. Want a world that is predictable & safe so we must be able to figure people out
32. When analyzing the outcomes of others' behaviors, people consider the relative contributions of what two things?
Environmental and Personal Factors
33. Personal Force can be analyzed according to what 2 contributing subfactors?
Power (ability)

34. In order for an action to occur then what is necessary?
Ability and Motive
35. What are some ways to reduce motivation?
Rehabilitation, "scare straight", send to jail

*this is the goal of juvenile courts
36. What are some ways to change ability?
Send to prison, capital punishment (I kill!)
37. Is the disposition observed or inferred?

Is the action observed or inferred?
Disposition: I hate Spike
Action: I kill Spike

Disposition precedes action for perpetrator

Reverse direction for police in that they observe action and must infer dispostion
38. What are the two causes taken into account when making an attribution?
1. Facilitative causes

2. Inhibitory causes
39. What are facilitative causes?
Causes that are perceived to increase the likelihood of a give behavior or effect

(can be internal or external)
40. What are inhibitory causes?
Causes that are perceived to decrease the likelihood of a given behavior or effect

(can be internal or external)
41. What are the three principles Kelly proposed?
Covariation Principle

Discounting Principle

Augmentation Principle
42. What does the covariation principle state?
An effect is attributed to the one of its possible [facilitative] causes with which over time it co-varies
43. What is an example of the covariation principle?
If Bartholomew hits his wife when he drink but there is no violence when he sober, the perceiver will attribute Bartholomew's battery to the alcohol
44. What is the discounting principle?
It states that the role of a given facilitative cause in producing a given effect is discounted if other plausible facilitative causes are also present
45. What is meant by "discounted"?
The perceiver will be less confident that the cause is the correct one or, if it is the correct one, will be less confident that it is of particularly great magnitude
46. What is an example of the discounting principle?
If hit man testifies against mob boss in return for money or leniency, the jury will wonder whether reward or truth facilitated his testimony
47. What is the augmentation principle?
State that when an action occurs in the presence of an inhibitory cause the perceiver will view the existing facilitative cause as being of great magnitude or strength
48. What is the central idea of the augmentation principle?
Facilitative cause must have been particularly potent to overcome the resistance induced by the inhibitory cause
49. What is a casual schema?
When people use a backlog of information gained from past experience in order to make attributions based on incomplete information
50. When a casual schema used?
Need a quick decision

Too costly to acquired all the info needed for a thorough causal analysis
51. Attributions that people make for success or failure can be classified on what two dimensions?
Locus-of-control dimension (internal/external)

Stability dimension (stable/unstable)
52. What would be stable and internal vs stable and external
Stable/Internal: criminal disposition (psychopathic)

Stable/External: Bad neighborhood (deviant social norms)
53. What would be unstable and internal vs unstable and external?
Unstable/Internal: emotional state (angered)

Unstable/External: Bad luck (wrong place at the wrong time)
54. When will someone attribute a given behavior to a stable internal cause?
If that behavior is consistent with person's past behavior
55. What does the stability dimension predict?

What does the locus-of-control dimension determine?
Predicts future performance

Determines affective responses to the person, such as anger and dislike
56. Which type of attribution will generate more negative affect: stable/internal or unstable/internal? Why?
Unstable/internal because people are seen as being more responsible for unstable internal causes (lack of motivation) than for stable internal causes (lack of ability)
57. What is the source of attributional bias?
According to Kelley, it is the need to feel that one can predict and control one's outcomes
58. What is an example of an attributional bias?
Attribute others' behaviors to internal dispositions, whereas these others tend to attribute their own behavior to external causes
59. Why do we do we locate the cause of someone's behavior in stable internal dispositions?
Helps us achieve a sense of predictability concerning that person's future behavior
60. What is meant by a perceiver's "need to believe in a just world?"
Tendency to view others as responsible for their behavior is exaggerated when these others experience negative outcomes

Assign responsibility to victim so you are dissimilar to victim and reassure self that a similar fate will not fall upon you
61. What are social exchanges theories based upon?
People are hedonistic creatures (maximize pleasure, minimize pain) and they are dependent on others for accomplishing this
62. What do people do when they trade with others?
Try to acquire some commodity at a lower price than they would have to if they were to produce that commodity by themselves
63. Based on this idea when wouldn't social exchange take place?
When one can produce the commodity more cheaply by themselves
64. Both Kelley and Homans views on social exchange assume that what people receive in exchange is what?

(outcomes: Kelley)
(profits: Homans)
65. How are a persons outcomes calculated?
Subtract the cost from the rewards
66. What are rewards?

What are costs?
Rewards: pleasure,gratifications,& satisfactions received in the exchange

Costs: any factors that operate to inhibit or deter the exchange
67. What are "opportunity costs?"
Costs referred to by economists that entail rewards one must give up when one chooses to exchange with one person rather than another
68. Are outcomes stable in an exchange relationship that lasts for a while?

Bart helps Rex in return for praise well as exchange relationship continues Bart gets tired of praise (no longer rewarding)
69. What is this called when Bart tires of Spikes praise?
Bart is becoming "satiated" (operant conditioning terms)

"Law of diminishing marginal utility" (economic terms)
70. What is the law of marginal diminishing utility?
The value of an additional unit of reward declines as more and more units of reward are received
71. What is power?
Refers to a person's ability to affect the quality of someone else's outcomes
72. When does a person have power over another?
1. The person has something the other wants badly
2. You can't get this from someone else
3. Cannot coerce the person to surrender it
4. You cannot resign yourself to doing without this
73. What is the comparison level for alternatives?
The standard outcome level that people use in deciding whether to remain in or terminate a relationship
74. How is the comparison level used in evaluating a relationship?
If a person's outcomes fall above the CL, the person will find the relationship attractive

If they fall below the CL, the person will find the relationship unattractive
75. What are the three possible determinants of the comparison level?
1. May compare their outcomes w/ their own previously experienced outcomes
2. With the outcomes of others considered to be similar the themselves
3. With the outcomes of the person with whom they are currently interacting
76. Of the three sources of comparison, which do people attach the greatest weight to?
A person's own experience

*source having the greatest impact on the CL will be the one that is most salient at the time of evaluation
77. What is a norm?
A behavioral rule that is accepted at least to some degree, by both members of the dyad (two person group)

Ordinarily norms take on the character of a moral obligation
78. By depersonalizing social influence, norms reduce what?
Interpersonal costs associated with power confrontations and thereby smooth social interaction
79. Because norms are rules about behaviors they increase what?
Regularity and predictability of social exchanges

Give basis for predicting how an other is likely to react and serve as a guide for the participants own actions
80. What is distributive justice?
A situation in which people in a social-exchange relationship perceive that their ratio of profits to investments is equal to their exchange partner's ratio of profits to investments
81. Diagram of distributive justice.
Distributive Justice
82. What distributive injustice?
When a person perceives that the rations are unequal
83. Who developed the equity theory?

What concepts does it use?
Developed by Adams and reformulated by Walters

Used parallel concepts of outcomes and inputs
84. What are the four propositions that equity theory rests on?
1. Try to max outcomes in interactions w/ others
2. Groups recognize value of treating other equitable, thus reward those who do and punish those who don't
3. When in an inequitable relationship a person becomes distressed
4. Greater inequity = more distress and harder person will work to restore equity
85. How can equity be restored in a relationship?
1. Can restore actual equity by changing the others outcomes or inputs or by changing one's own outcomes or inputs

2. Can restore equity psychologically by distorting their perception of their own and the other person's inputs and outcomes
86. What does the norm of reciprocity state?

Two things..
1. People should help those who have helped them

2. People should not injure those who have helped them
87. What is indebtedness?
A state of obligation to repay a benefit
88. Leventhal contends that equity theory relies on what in determining fairness in social exchange?
Contributions rule

What one deserves depends on one's contributions
89. In his justice judgment model Leventhal proposes what two additional rules?
1. Needs Rule: persons with greater need should receive higher outcomes
2. Equality Rule: all should receive equal outcomes (regardless of their inputs or needs)
90. What percent of incidents investigated by police are reported by citizens?

What are citizens?

Gatekeepers of the system
91. What two events called attention to the importance of reporting by citizens?
Murder of Kitty Genovese in New York

National Opinion Research Center survey of victims of crime
92. What did the survey reveal?
victims (like bystanders) are frequently unresponsive to crime

35% of petty larcenies were reported, compared w/ 65% of robberies and aggravated assaults
93. Where do most crimes occur?
In metropolitan areas

Most common locations: streets, parks, playgrounds, and parking lots

*bystanders often fail to notice criminal events
94. What three variables explain why event are attended to or ignores?
1. Characteristics of observer (ability to see/hear & state of mind)
2. Features of situation
3. Social-influence factors
95. What characteristics make a situation/stimuli stand out from others stimuli in the environment?
1. Intensity (loud, bright)
2. Novelty
(robberies try to minimize novelty of criminal act)

*thieves will purposely create a competing novel event to distract others from the theft
96. What social influence factors affect detection of a crime?
Increase detection by personal face-to-face communication
97. What is an example of face-to-face communication as a social influence factor?
Face-to-face communication in the form of a request can influence a bystander's commitment to maintaining surveillance over another's property, thereby increasing the likelihood of detecting future crimes
98. What are the two stages of the attribution/exchange model of decision making by bystanders?
1. After detecting suspicious event, bystander must interpret incident as a criminal event

2. What action they should take if any once an attribution of criminal intent has been made
99. What are personal norms?
An individual's beliefs about what behaviors are morally correct or appropriate in a given situation
100. What are some examples of how individual's beliefs about what acts constitute a crime has changed over time?
Attitudes toward sexual offenses (adultery/seduction as minor offenses)

Response to white collar crimes (see prominent persons do it, so must not be so bad)
101. How are actions provoked by external causes viewed?
May not be viewed as a crime

Being the victim of injustice or inequity is one such cause
102. What is so important about the bystander's definition of crime?
Whether or not an attribution of criminality is made depends on the bystander's def and how closely observed act fits that definition
103. What are the three general determinants on how an act will be labeled?
1. Characteristics of the observer
2. Nature of the stimulus situation
3. Social-influence factors
104. How do characteristics of the observer affect labeling a crime?
Motivational state influence what we perceive

-state of arousal may create a readiness to label an event
-perception may stem from non motivational sources as well
105. What principle of Kelley's do criminal recognize and use?
Discounting principle

Try to conceal their criminal intent by introducing a highly plausible facilitative cause for their actions
106. How are social-influences a factor?
When we are uncertain about the correctness of our beliefs, we tend to rely on the opinions of others for confirmation
107. How do the number of unresponsive bystanders influence defining a situation as an emergency?
The greater the number of unresponsive bystanders present, the stronger is the tendency NOT to define a situation as an emergency (Latane & Darley study)
108. What about nonverbal cues?
Bystander's attributions about an ambiguous event can be influenced by non verbal cues emitted by those present
109. What are the three salient options bystanders have when taking action?
1. Intervene directly
2. Notify proper authorities
3. Take no action
110. Who can the bystander intervene with directly?
1. Social exchange w/ the suspected offender

2. Social exchange w/ significant others
111. Which states have enacted a Good Samaritan statue?

What does this do?

Monetary compensation to bystanders who are injured while trying to prevent a crime or catch an offender
112. What do "interveners" have in common?
Taller, heavier, & better trained to cope w/ crimes and emergencies

Self-perceptions are consistent with this description

High degree of capability and strong sense of confidence in ability to intervene successfully
113. How does the relation of the assailant affect a bystander intervening?
Stranger: 65% of subjects intervened

Women's husband: 1% intervened(less resistance from stranger than husband)
114. How do social-exchange considerations affect the mode of intervention?
More likely to use physical force when thief is a female
115. How does the bystander's social-exchange relationship with the victim impact the bystander's willingness to intervene?
Commitment to guard another's property increases bystanders' costs if they fail to intervene
116. Is commitment to watch someone's property by itself sufficient to cause a bystander to intervene?
Male bystanders consider the degree of harm suffered by the victim (high value = more likely to honor commitment)

Female bystanders showed a high rate of intervention regardless of property value
117. How does the presence of others influence bystanders intervening?
Presence of another person decreased bystanders' sense of responsibility to intervene, which made them feel less guilty for not intervening and therefore reduced their costs
118. What rewards can notifying the police produce?
-Recognition for "doing right thing"
-Avoid risk of immediate injury
119. What are the cost of notifying the police?
-Make court appearances
-Loss of time & wages
-Fear of retaliation
120. What is the "silent observer" program?
Initiated in Battle Creek, MI (first 8 mo, 24 convictions)

Program that tries to reduce such system related costs by making it easier for bystanders to give anonymous tips
121. What three social processes were examined by Schwartz and Gottlieb in examining social exchange with significant others?
1. Diffusion of responsibility
2. Negative social influence
3. Evaluation apprehension
122. What support was found for the diffusion of responsibility process?
92% of subjects in the alone condition sought help for the victim

45% in the mutually unaware condition (didn't know how others were reacting) sought help
123. What support was found for the negative social influence process?
48% of subjects who were aware of the other bystanders' unresponsiveness sought help, compare with 68% of those who were unaware of how others were responding
124. How did they test the evaluation apprehension process?
Compared the reactions of subjects who believed and did not believe that the others were aware of how they were responding
125. What was found?
Help was sought by 74% of subjects who believed that others were aware of their reaction, compared with 39% of those who believed they were not under the scrutiny of others
126. How do others present or nearby during the commission of crime do more than silently observe the event?
They may verbally remind the person of the responsibility or absence of responsibility to notify the authorities and may advise a particular course of action
127. What percent of people who witnessed a shoplifting live reported it when others encouraged them to?

What about when they were discouraged to report it?
72% when encouraged

32% when discouraged
128. What percent of people who witnessed a shoplifting via video reported it when others encouraged them to?

What about when they were discouraged to report it?
72% when encouraged

8% when discouraged
129. What does this previous study by Bickman and Rosenbaum highlight about social exchange with others?
A few comments from a fellow bystander may affect a bystander's expected costs/benefits ratio

Thereby influencing whether the bystander will report a theft to the authorities
130. What can taking no action cause a bystander to feel?
Guilt and disapproval from others b/c social norms dictate that people should help those who are dependent on them
131. How do bystanders reduce the costs associated with feelings of guilt?
Minimize the inequity suffered by the victim

-Make the victim deserved his or her fate
-Rationalize victim deserved to be harmed b/c they provoked offender or b/c victim has dislikable personality characteristics
132. In the case of property crimes, how can bystanders resolve the dilemma between doing nothing and taking some overt action?
Inform the victim of the crime
133. How is the victim's emotional state when making decisions?
Under great emotional stress

Their arousal is greater than bystanders b/c they are the target of the crime
134. What types of crime can go left undetected by the victim long after their occurrence?

Property Crimes (burglary and theft)

Also white collar crimes

Crimes of stealth and victims are rarely eyewitnesses to their victimization
135. What factors affect victim's labeling of an event as a crime?
Same factors that affect the labeling process by bystanders
136. Which class of victims tend to blame themselves?
Rape victims

Such attributions help rape victims cope w/ the event by giving them a sense of control over their fate
137. What are the stages in a victim's labeling an event as a theft?
1. Discovery that property is missing (if no attribution process is not initiated)
2. Yes, engage in search behavior
3. Branch: either self/nature responsible (abort attribution process) or others responsible
4. If other(s) responsible: either attribute to intention to commit crime or noncriminal intention
138. When is the event labeled as a theft?
Attribution of intention to commit theft
139. What motivates victims to make the decision to take action?
Reduce the distress that accompanies being treated unfairly and prevent it recurrence
140. What are the two broad action strategies that victims can use to reduce their feelings of being unfairly?
1. Restore their original outcomes by obtaining compensation from offender or others

2. Retaliate against the offender thereby reducing offenders outcomes to a level comparable to their own
141. What things can victims do to obtain compensation or retaliate?
1. Seek a private solution
2. Cognitively reconstruct event
3. Notify the authorities
142. In what ways can a victims seek a private solution?
1. Offender's identity is known: confront (through use of threats or real force) and retrieve stolen property
2. Offender's identity is not known: motivate offender to return stolen property through financial rewards
3. Can enlist help of friends or PI
4. Try to prevent future victimization
143. How can victims indirectly obtain compensation?
Steal from others
144. How do victims cognitively reconstruct the event?
1. Conclude victimization was not very serious ("little harm was done")
2. Minimize the significance of their loss (compare their outcomes w/ worse outcomes)
3. Provide compensatory benefits in that it taught them a valuable lesson
4. "Crime doesn't pay", eventually offender will get what he deserves
5. Blame themselves for victimization
145. What do victims blame themselves?
1. Can reassure they will not be victimized again b/c they will not repeat the controllable behavior mistake again
2. Incident does not appear as inequitable as it originally appeared
146. How can notifying the police reduce a victim's distress?
1. May be able to recover stolen property if offender is caught
2. Courts can force offender to make restitution to victim
3. Sense of retaliation if offender goes to jail (also deter offender from future criminal acts)
4. Increase police patrols in area (gives victims reassurance of safety)
5. For insurance claims need to file police report
147. Who tends to report crimes more often?
Females more than males

Older people
148. What is the most important determinant of victim's decision to the call the police?
The perceived seriousness of the crime

More serious victimization, greater feeling of injustice and distress
149. Why do victims fail to report property crimes?
Thought that "nothing could be done"

Also because of real or imagined costs of dealing w/ criminal justice system
150. What are some of the costs associated with the criminal justice system?
1. Callous treatment (i.e. esp with rape victims)
2. Losses of time and money
3. Consider reactions of suspected offenders
151. Why don't rape victims often report the crime?
Fear of reprisal (more w/ racial-minority victims)

Belief it is a personal matter (more w/ white people)
152. What types of social exchange might the victim have with the suspected offender?
Fear of retaliation: physical or economical

*major reason why people don't report crimes
153. How do others influence a victim's decision in reporting a crime?
Victim's delay in reporting often stems from their seeking additional info or assurance from others that incident requires intervention
154. In a study by Greenberg and others what was found about how others influence a victim's decision to report a crime?
Advising to do nothing: decrease in reporting compared with control group given no advice

Advising to do something: no significant increase in reporting
155. What things were found to increase victim's reporting in this study?
Emotional state influenced reporting (more angry, more willing to call police)

Explicit advice to "call police" increased reporting

Bystander's advising, offered support, and remained by victim increased reporting
156. How do males and females differ in why they report crimes?
Male victims are more easily persuaded by the "principle argument" (theft is wrong and they should get away w/ it)

Females more persuaded by "police effectiveness argument" (prob. catch him)
157. How do victims act if there are co-victims?
Tend to follow example of the co-victim and ignore the bystander's advice
158. What is the main function of the police?
Service and maintenance functions

Minor part is crime fighting (10% of calls in Syracuse were for crime fighting)
159. What is self-policing?
Origins in Medieval England

Police functions at the local level were performed by unpaid, elected constables who depended heavily on the support of the citizenry ("hue and cry")
160. When did London form its first full-time, salaried police force?

1829, b/c there was a need for improved protection of citizens

Main purpose was prevention of crime
161. What were the officers called?
"Bobbies" after founder of the force, Sire Robert Peel
162. What was early law enforcement in the American colonies like?
Self-policing as exemplified by the constable/night watchman system
163. When and where was the first daytime paid force instituted?
1833 in Philadelphia

However, existence of day and night shifts, each w/ its own separate administration proved inefficient

1844 unified police force in New York
164. Why were the Texas Rangers and other similar state police units formed?
Created to deal with problem when local police officials found themselves unable to cope w/ criminals whose activities extended beyond municipal boundaries
165. When were most state units formed?

What is their main duty?
After WWI similar units were formed

By 1975 all states except Hawaii had such units

Limited to enforcement of traffic regulations
166. What is the best known federal enforcement agent?
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)

Created in 1924 as branch of Department of Justice
167. Who was the first head of the FBI?????

Oh Yeah!!
168. In the US how many full time municipal and county officers are there?

How many agencies are they distributed among

How many are males?

12,000 agencies

97% are male officers
169. What is the structure of local police departments?
Vary in size

Large departments have hierarchy (high degree of specialization)
170. What legal restriction or boundaries are on police practices?
Bill of Rights (first ten amendments)

Three are directly relevant to the police
171. What amendments are important?
Fourth: prohibits unreasonable search and seizure of persons/property

Fifth: lists safeguards for persons accused of a crime

Sixth: right to a speedy trial and public trail and right to counsel
172. The Bill of Rights were originally applied to apply what?

How and when did this change?
Apply only to the federal government (not individual states)

Fourteenth amendment made due-process of fifth amendment applicable to states
173. What is the exclusionary rule?

Why was it provided?
States that evidence obtained in violation of a person's constitutional rights is inadmissible in court

Provided to deal with impetus to comply with the court's decisions
174. What did Mapp vs. Ohio decide?
Evidence obtained during an illegal search and seizure was inadmissible in state as well as federal courts
175. What did Escobedo vs. Illinois decide?
Suspects have a constitutional right to counsel when arrested and that they must be advised of their rights to remain silent
176. What did the Court bar in McNabb vs. U.S. and Mallory vs. U.S.?
Barred the use of confessions resulting from an illegal delay in arraignment
177. What did Miranda vs. Arizona decide?
Persons taken into custody must be warned that they have the right to remain silent, that anything they say can and will be used against them, that they have a right to have an attorney present, and that if they cannot afford one, one will be appointed for them
178. What is an arrest?
The decision to take a suspect into custody
179. What are the legal grounds for an arrest?

When is an arrest warrant issued?
Officer can make arrest with or without an arrest warrant

Issued by a magistrate after the latter has determined that there exists probable cause to believe that the suspect committed the crime
180. What is probable cause?
Key phrases in def:

Reasonable trustworthy information

A man of reasonable caution
181. What are the two levels of crimes?
1. Misdemeanors: max penalty is usually no more than a year

2. Felony: serious crimes that are punishable by a year or more in prison
182. What is the criteria for misdemeanor arrests without an arrest warrant?

What about for felony arrests without an arrest warrant?
Offense was committed in the officer's presence

Requirements less demanding
-don't have to be present during crime
-have "reasonable grounds" for believing suspect committed crime)
183. What is the major function of legal factors?
Set boundaries for police behavior
184. In Boston, Chicago, and Washington D.C. citizens were responsible for what percent of instance in which the police were mobilized to deal with a criminal event?
87% of instances

Remaining 13%, police discovered event on own initiative
185. How are police notified by citizens?
1. By telephone (90%)
2. Informants (esp with victim less crimes like narcotics, gambling, etc)
3. Burglar alarm system (slow to respond to these though)
186. When the suspect is not at the crime scene investigatory work is required by whom?

*Kansas City Missouri police worked on less than half the reported crimes and most only received on day's attention
187. What factors influence polices' decision to investigate rape cases?
1. Credibility of victims testimony (most important)
2. Proof of penetration
3. Use of physical force
4. Promptness of reporting
5. Injury to victim
6. Relationship bwt victim and suspect
7. Use of weapon
8. Resistance offered by victim
188. What types of cases do police tend to investigate?
Cases that have a higher probability of success (have good leads) and more serious crimes (homicide/rape esp. if receive notoriety in press)
189. Who are usually informants? Why type of info do they supply?
Members of "underworld"

Info pertains to crimes that have occurred or being planned, identity of suspects, location of incriminating evidence

*usually give info in exchange for something
190. What three considerations are used to determine the credibility of informants information?
1. Examine informant's past performance
2. Inhibitory causes/"admission against interest"
3. Info is sufficiently detailed and precise
191. What is "admission against interest?"
Info supplied by informant may implicate him or her in crime

This "augments" authorities confidence in credibility of info if informant offered info despite the potential costs
192. What did Terry vs. Ohio confirm?
Police have authority to detain and interrogate suspects short of placing them under arrest

Can invest even though there is no probable cause to make an arrest
193. What two things can the police do?
Frisk (protection for officer)

194. How do the characteristics of the police help determine if something is a crime?
They are trained to be vigilant and suspicious (state of readiness)
195. How does the reward structure in police departments influence detecting a crime?
Serves to reinforce "nabbing" a suspected criminal or making a "good pinch"
196. What three stimulus situations are most likely to arouse the suspicion of the police?
1. Type of activity
2. Characteristics of person performing activity
3. Circumstances under which the activity was viewed
197. How does the type of activity arouse suspicion?
If police can't attribute action to a reasonable legal/legitimate cause they assume illegal cause and interrogate person
198. How do age, gender, race, and SES (characteristics of person)affect arousal?
Younger people are more likely to be stopped

Males are more likely to be stopped than females (except in areas where prostitution flourishes)

Stop minority groups more than whites

Shabby dressed people (lower SES) arouses more suspicion
199. How do past actions of person affect arousal?
People on probation or parole are more likely to be stopped

More likely to stop people who have been arrested but not convicted
200. Hof the activity affect arousal?
More likely to stop/question when they're on the street during night

More likely to stop/question in high-crime areas
201. What two sources of information do police use in attributing dispositions to the suspect?
Observable characteristics of the act and actor

Suspect's demeanor when confronted by the police
202. Who do police attribute strong criminal dispositions to?

What principle is at work and how?
Those suspected of committing more serious crimes

Augmentation principle: strong inhibitory causes (moral and legal sanctions) so must have strong criminal disposition
203. What makes a crime more serious?
Amount of harm done to victim

Premeditation (carefully planned out, more serious)
204. How does race affect seriousness of crime and therefore type of disposition assigned?
Assaults involving a black suspect and a black victim were not treated as serious offense by the police in Detroit

*same crime against white person is viewed as very serious
205. Why did the police feel this way?
Believe that settling disputes violently is normative behavior in black ghetto communities
206. How do observable characteristics of suspected offender affect attributions made by the police?
Minor offense committed by youth are view as reflecting immature judgment

Blacks & others living in ghetto are viewed as having stronger criminal dispositions than white in middle class suburbia

Record of arrest/conviction then must have stable criminal disposition

Even appearance have cause inference of criminal disposition
207. How does the suspect's demeanor when confronted affect attributions made and arrest?
If hostile/disrespectful likely to be perceived as having stronger criminal disposition

More likely to be arrested
208. When do motorists usually receive a ticket?
When they argue or get angry

Even if they just ask what they did wrong
209. In what ways can the police deal with the suspected offender?
1. Take official action (arrest or summons)
2. Handle situation informally
3. Ignore offense
210. What are the circumstances like when police must make these decisions?

Outnumbered by citizens (can present danger to officer and means officer must be on best behavior)
211. How does the means in which the police arrive influence the demeanor of the suspect?
More cooperative when police are summoned to scene by another citizen

Less cooperative if police arrive on own initiative (viewed as intruders)
212. How does authority affect social exchange with the suspected offender?
Police need to assert authority when dealing w/ public

Suspect's whose demeanor confirms polices authority reward to police

Challenge authority imposes a cost on the police
213. How do police deal with suspects who challenge their authority?
1. Treat them in hostile, authoritarian, belittling manner
2. Place offender under arrest

*more likely to arrest misdemeanor suspect who is disrespectful than felony suspect who is respectful
214. How does the differential power of the suspects affect the police's decision to arrest?
Police consider suspects ability to "make trouble" for the police in the future

*esp true with traffic violators
215. Who can make trouble for police?

Who do police discriminate against?
Prominent/politically people

Discriminate against lower SES and minority groups
216. Why are blacks and other minority groups more likely to be arrested than members of the white community for committing the same crime?
1. Encounters w/ minorities may more often involve a hostile confrontation
2. Show little hesitancy in arresting minority suspects b/c they have less to fear from them in terms of political retaliation
217. Does race or social class affect the bargaining power of a suspect?

If suspect controls some valuable commodity, police will bargain suspect's freedom regardless of race or social class
218. Do police consider equity and fairness in making arrests?
Yes, police want to see suspects get what they deserved

If they think someone doesn't deserve what the legal punishment is, then they may just ignore and not make arrest
219. How else does the need to maintain fairness dictate who will and won't be arrested?
Justice requires disrespectful suspects be punished (arrested) and respectful suspects by treated more leniently
220. What about those people who seem to get away with stuff all the time (i.e. Bennett). How do police treat them?
They will arrest them for minor offenses (even though ordinary people won't be arrested)

Arrest to correct for previous "injustices"
221. How does the complainants preference factor into arrest action?
Police generally follow the complainants preference in the arrest action

Their preference overrides suspect's demeanor in affecting the arrest action

*But the more serious the offense, the less influence the complainant has
222. When will the police not follow the complainants preference?
If its a minor offense and they expect that the complainant will not file a formal charge or will drop the charge shortly after

Also if victim is in continuing relationship w/ suspect or is only interested in restitution
223. How does social exchange with the police administration and other criminal justice agents impact the decision to arrest?
Police administration impact decision to arrest, through control of duty assignments and promotions

Chief can set policy regarding how strictly certain types of laws will be enforced
224. What are the three general styles of policing which are shaped by the community's and police chiefs expectations?
1. Watchman style
2. Legalistic style
3. Service style
225. What is the primary function of the police in the watchman style?

What offenses are ignored?
Maintain order rather than law enforcement

Minor offense: traffic, juvenile, vice, and private disputes
226. For minor offenses what does justice depend on?
What offense is committed

Who the suspect is and the standards of the group with which the suspect is identified
227. How are blacks viewed in this style?
Though to "want" and deserve less law enforcement
228. When will arrests be made?
Serious Crimes

When the public peach has been breached
229. What is the reward structure like in the watchman style?
Little incentive for vigorous enforcement of the law

Minimum number of special-duty squads (little room for promotion)
230. How are police to handle commonplace situations in the legalistic style?
Handle all situations as if they were matters of the law enforcement rather than order maintaince
231. What is the preferred method of dealing with offenses in the legalistic style?

How is justice defined?
Arrest is preferred mode

There is a single standard of community conduct

Define justice in terms of what the person had done
232. What is the reward structure like in the legalistic style?
High value in officer's productivity

Highly specialized divisions (opportunity for promotion as incentive)
233. What is emphasized in the service style of policing?
Emphasis on providing services to the community

Maintain good community relations
234. How are police officers expected to act?
Like department-store sales personnel

Courtesy, neat appearance, prompt response to requests for service, & deferential demeanor
235. How are groups treated in comparison to the watchman style?
No group's complaints are ignored
236. How are minor offense handled in the service style?
Handled informally and by means of non-arrest alternatives
237. How are officers in the service style similar to officers in the watchman style?
Definition of justice depends not just on what the suspect has allegedly done but also on who the suspect is
238. How does the service style resemble the legalistic style?
Both emphasize professional training and provide incentives for hard work by maintaining highly specialized division to which officers can be promoted
239. Will police arrest if they think the evidence will be exclude due to illegal search and seizure?

How do they avoid this?
Hell NO, they still arrest your ass

Then they doctor the facts to meet the legal requirements
240. What is the police code?
Prohibits backing down

Subculture implies you show them who's in charge

Think Training Day