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58 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
1) Malnutrition
2) infections
3) malignancy
4) liver dx
5) kidney dx
6) GI dx
1) neural tube defects
2) tumor marker
3) Down Syndrome (low)
API deficiency
Coagulation screen, liver function test
1) Wilson’s disease
2) malnutrition
3) nephrotic syndrome

- Cu transport
- superoxide scavenger
1) Hemolytic disorders

- binds hemoglobin
α2- Macroglobulin
Thyroxine binding globulin
thyroid disease
C-Reactive Protein
- Infection used with ESR
- binds extracts of pneumococcal cell wall (high)
β2 Microglobulin
1) Myelomas
2) renal failure
Iron Deficiency (TIBC)
1) Liver dx
2) infections
3) paraproteinemias
Anti-protease Inhibitor
- protease inhibitor
- high
α1- acid glycoprotein
tissue repair
Alkaline phosphatase
1) Cholestatic liver dx
2) osteoblast activity in bone disease
cell damage in acute pancreatitis
creatine kinase
1) skeletal muscle disorders
2) MI
3) brain tumor

- mainly found in contracting muscle
γ-glutamyl transferase
- sensitive marker of liver damage
- higher is m than f
- not associated with bone, used to differentiate tissues with ALP
lactate dehydrogenase
1) muscle damage
2) MI
plasma cholinesterase
1) scoline apnea
2) organophosphous poisoning

- degrade anesthetics and cocaine
- decrease: hepatic disease (made in liver)
- increase: nephrotic syndrome
acetyl cholinesterase
- nerve endings and erythrocytes NEVER in plasma
causes of cell damage and death
1) hypoxia
2) toxic substances
3) infections
4) trauma
5) immune destruction
Alkaline phosphatases
1) high fat meals
2) infancy and childhood
3) normal pregnancy
4) dx of biliary tract
Acid phosphatases
prostate specific antigen tumor marker
Alanine transaminase
1) Hepatocellular damage
2) cholestatic jaundice
3) post cardiac surgery
Aspartate transaminase
1) Hepatocellular damage
2) marker of MI
3) high [ ] in kidney, erythrocytes, cardiac and skeletal muscle
4) circulatory failure
5) acute viral hepatitis
isoenzymes of Lactate Dehydrogenase
- MI and renal: LD1 & 2
- Leukemia and malignancy: LD 2 & 3
- Liver or skeletal muscle: LD 4& 5
Contains factors VIIIa, IXa, X, Ca
tenase complex
hydrolyses prothrombin to thrombin
active form involved in degrading factors VIIIa and Va
Protein C
caused by deficiency of factor IX
hemophilia b
contains factors Va, Xa, II and Ca
prothrombinase complex
catalyses conversion of soft fibring clot to hard fibrin clot
Factor XIIIa
Factor XII (12)
- Hageman Factor
- Binds to exposed collagen Activated by HMW Kininogen & Kallikrein
Factor XI (11)
- Activated by factor XIIa (12a)
Factor IX (9)
- Christmas Factor (PTC)
- Activated by factor XIa (11a) in presence of Ca2+
Factor VII (7)
- proconvertin SPCA
- activated by thrombin and Ca
Factor X (10)
- Stuart-Prower Factor
- Activated on surface of platelets, VIIa (7a) TF, Ca2+
Factor II (2)
- prothrombin
- Activated on surface of platelets, prothrombinase
Factor VIII (8)
- antihemophila factor A
- Activated by thrombin; factor VIIIa (8a)is cofactor for X (10) by IX(9) act.
Factor V
- proaccelerin (labile factor)
- Activated by thrombin; Va is cofactor in for II by Xa act.
Factor III (TF)
- Tissue Factor
- Sub endothelial cell surface glycoprotein; cofactor for VII
factor I
- fibrinogen
- Cleaved by thrombin to form the fibrin clot
Factor XIII (13)
- fibrin stabilizer
- activated by thrombin and Ca
Von Willebrand factor
Associated with sub endothelial connective tissue: serves as bridge between platelet glycoprotein GPIb/IX and collagen
Protein C
Activated to Ca by thrombin bound to thrombomodulin; degrades factors VIIIa and Va
Protein S
Cofactor of protein C; both contain gla residues
Protein on surface of endothelial cells: binds thrombin to activate protein C
Antithrombin III
Most important coagulation inhibitor; controls activities of IIa, factors IXa, Xa, XIa and XIIa
intrinsic pathway
12 -->11-->9 +8 --> 10+ 5 --> thrombin --> fibrin, 13 --> stable fibrin clot
extrinsic pathway
7 --> 10 +5 --> thrombin--> fibrin 13 --> stable fibrin clot
factors inactivated by heparin
1) XIIa 12a
2) XIa 11a
3) IXa 9a
4) Xa 10a
5) Thrombin
Thrombin inhibitors
1) α2- macroglobulin
2) α1- antitrypsin
3) heparin cofactor II
disorders of fibrinogen and factor XIII (13)
- pts with CHD, hyperlipidemias, diabetes and hypertension
- pregnancy menopause, and contraceptives and smokers
von Willebrand Disease
- deficiency in vWF
- most common bleeding disorder
- defective platelet adhesion (VIII)
- AD
Factor XI deficiency
- ashkenazic jews
- AD
- injury related bleeding
antithrombin deficiency
- dVT and pulmonary embolism