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51 Cards in this Set

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comparitive advantage
p.60 it is beneficial for two parties to trade if one has a lower relative cost of producing a good (free trade) under this doctrine expansion of exports in central america seems like a good thing others disagree...prices central americans recieve for their exports have declined relative to the cost of manufactured goods that are imported, prices of primary commodities are they rise and fall so do export prices and this hinders economic planning and increases govt instability
golfo dulce forrest reserve
p.208 costa rica-largest remaining rainforest on the Central American pacific coast. covers about 40% of the peninsula, about 1/3 of it was cut in the early 90s, typical survival strategy of 8000 residents-sell timber and use land for crops and cattle however the land is not fit for farming (washes out) ex of damage to environment in ways that effect the entire world.
costa rica coalition for develpment initiatives (CINDE)
p.58 founded in 1983 with the support of the U.S. "private" export-promotion center, funded by USAID with the local equivalent of 12 million dollars, maintained US support through 1991
International monetary fund (IMF)
Honduras: Had important role in drafting income tax (implemented in 1949) and also founding central bank and national development bank
IMF helped with Honduran development
Iran contra affair
Policy of the Reagan administration that ended when a plane crashed in Nicaragua in October 1986 on an illegal mission to supply the contras
Reagan was supplying contra forces trying to overthrow the progressive Sandinista government (which he feared was communist)
U.S. spent over $100 million in building a force of 10,000 to 15,000
“Land to the tiller” program
Program in El Salvador put into effect 28 April 1980 and ended June 1984. US supported
supposed to be self iniciated but the history of violence and repression against the campesinos prevented many from taking action.
All who rented or sharecropped land under 17.3 acres where allowed to claim title to it
Benefited more than ¼ of poor and affected about 22% of agriculture land
Daniel Ortega
p.157, 165, 177, 180, 181
Current Nicaraguan president. Has spent much of his life as an important leader in the Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN) First presidency lasted from 1985-1990-his socialist policies brought a great deal of opposition from the U.S. govt and contra forces
United Fruit Company
Formed in 1899 is now Chiquita
U.S. Corporation that along with Standard Fruit Company gained a monopoly on banana markets. Backed at times by the military was at its peak in 1950…growth corresponded with period of most US military intervention. Biggest in Guatemala and Costa Rica and also Honduras
(commitment) p. 26
Being so clear about what is really important that thought and action cannot be separated. “Putting your body where your words are” a good test for it is the level of concern a person has for children.
Driving force is hope and a reason is God’s presence,
It is a way that people in churches impacted by liberation theology are understood
Preferential option for the poor
p. 31
Fact that God loves all means that basic needs must be met for all and not just some.
In policy decisions we must consider the best option to alleviate the injustice of poverty.
The opposite of this is preferential option for the rich which is in the authors opinion the “trickle-down theory”
The gospel is about shrinking the gap between rich and poor this is a religious idea and one of the culminating distinctions of liberation theology.
National Liberation Party (Partido de Liberación Nacional). 1948-1990. Center-left, pro-democracy. Elite politicos and middle-class social democrats who rebelled against the Communist-friendly, corrupt administration of Calderón in 1948. Led by Jose “Pepe” Figueres Ferrer. Social reforms for workers, nationalized banking and insurance industries, wider health and social security coverage. Fair elections were held through this time, and PLN alternated in power with conservative groups which later united to become PUSC. Accommodated mobilized protest groups, negotiating with them. Luis Alberto Monge- president in 1982, in the midst of an economic crisis. Sought help abroad, which led to an agreement with the US to collaborate with the Contras in Nicaragua in exchange for $1.1 billion in aid. Began to split in early 90’s over structural adjustment agreements.
Social Christian Unity Party (Partido de Unidad Social Cristiano). Traditional Unity coalition of conservative parties which reorganized and institutionalized in 1985. Strengthened by globalist pressures for neoliberalism. Possibly has taken over now as the dominant party in CR. Rafael Angel Calderón Fournier’s administration (1990-1994) embraced neoliberal principles, but didn’t actually sign any structural adjustment agreements (avoided the negative rap the PLN got for it).
Costa Rica Coalition for Development Initiatives (CINDE):
A “private” export-promotion center, founded in 1983 to foster nontraditionals, by promoting new government incentives for exporters. Solely Supported and funded by USAID until 1991
Alianza Liberal
The Liberal Party (PLN) of Nicaragua, was corrupted by the Somozas, then resuscitated as various splinter groups and finally re-emerged united under this new name. Arnoldo Alemán was a leader- Mayor of Managua in 1990, governed the city as a neo-populist. He became president against Ortega in 1996, barely getting a majority of the vote. He was president during the devastating Hurricane Mitch, and later forged a broad pact with Ortega to reform the constitution and electoral law.
Revolutionary Democratic Alliance (Alianza Revolucionaria Democrática) Costa Rica-based Contra forces against Sandinistas in 1980’s. Funded and supported by U.S. CIA. 1983 extensive guerrilla pg. 79
Nicaraguan Democratic Force (Fuerzas Democráticas Nicaraguenses). Honduras-based Contra group, 1980s. Funded and supported by U.S. CIA. pg. 79.
Sandinista National Liberation Front (Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional). The only surviving rebel group of some 20 guerrilla bands that appeared between 1959-1962. Very strongly anti-Somoza, grew during 1970’s. In 1979, opened military ranks to all who opposed the Somoza regime and forged broad alliances, causing their resources to swell. Once in power in the 1980’s, the US began organizing and supporting Contra groups against them. Promoted their own brand of democracy emphasizing popular participation in making public policy and services and programs for the poor. Grassroots organizations of women, workers, peasants, youth, children through which common Nicaraguans debated and voted on issues, worked on local problems, etc. Daniel Ortega elected pres. in 1984, began by investing much money in health services, education, land reforms, but the war against the Contras forced the government to spend its money on military needs instead.
Sandinista Renovation Movement (Movimiento de Renovación Sandinista). A breakaway group from the old military FSLN in 1995. Took the vast majority of the intellectual and leadership talent, leaving the FSLN with the more hard line military supporters of Ortega. pg. 89
PLN (N):
Liberal Nationalist Party (Partido Liberal Nacionalista): Party of Somoza regime. Members began leaving Nicaragua in late 1970’s, tried to escape with their wealth after Somoza’s forces murdered the ABC correspondent.
Association of Rural Workers (ATR):
Nicaragua, 1977. Landless rural workers’ union. Played an important role in the anti-Somoza struggle. Received organizational assistance from the FSLN. The peasants’ discontent encouraged new policy initiatives dealing with rental relationships and the provision of credit. When the Sandinistas were in power, they helped organize land cooperatives.
Violeta Chamorro
Candidate of the United Nicaraguan Opposition (UNO) in 1990. The widow of a martyred publisher of La Prensa and a short-term member of the first revolutionary junta. Entered office as the economy was in shambles. Her constituency thought that the size and role of the states needed to be greatly limited. Great success in reducing inflation, but did little for economic growth, at least in the short run. Her administration pursued a more moderate course of action. Ironic situations: relying on the army and police, led by FSLN, to control land invasions undertaken by demobilized Contra peasants. Turned to the agro-export sector- cotton, coffee, meat, sugar. Top priority was peace and national reconciliation, which meant a willingness to negotiate with the Sandinistas.
Iran Contra Affair
An airplane crashed in1986 during an illegal covert mission to supply the Contras, exposing the Reagan administration. Contrary to congressional intent, Reagan had raised money secretly to keep the Contras alive as a fighting force during the period that Congress had suspended such assistance. Based on “secrecy, deception, and disdain for the law”.
Daniel Ortega
President of Nicaragua, elected in 1984 from Sandinista party (FSLN). People were dissatisfied with the results of the revolutionary regime. The land reform gradually came to an end under him.
Nationalist Republican Alliance Party (Alianza Republicana Nacionalista) El Salvador. Roberto D’Aubuisson. Extreme anticommunist ideologies. Gained power in 1988-9 in the legislation and the presidency with candidate Alfredo “Freddy” Cristiani who was an aristocrat who turned out to be more moderate than expected. Cristiani did little to improve the quality of election or to clean up the nation’s corrupt judiciary. Did manage to negotiate for peace with the FMLN. Implemented neoliberal reforms in banking and financial sectors. Continued to contribute to the bloodbath until 1992 peace reform. Candidate Armando Calderón Sol won in 1994 (known as “the election of the century” because of being the first truly democratic election). Calderón intensified neoliberal reforms, privatized telecommunications and energy sectors. Increasing tensions between different factions of the ARENA and the failure of the reforms to address poverty, unemployment, or the growing crime problem decreased the popularity of the party. Francisco Flores won the presidency in 1999, continued to implement the neoliberal model.
Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front (Frente Farabundo Martí de Liberación Nacional) El Salvador. Martí killed in the wake of a 1932 peasant uprising. 5 guerrilla opposition groups who unified in 1980. Then allied with the FDR to form a joint political-military opposition organization which coordinated overall opposition revolutionary strategy. Had governmental structure, controlled militia, acquired financial backing, soon recognized by other nations as a powerful challenge to the junta. Tried to delay the 1989 elections unsuccessfully; Mounted a major military offensive in San Salvador. Demobilized forces after the peace agreement in 1992, engaged in electoral policies. Began to gain more political power as ARENA lost popularity in the mid-late 1990s. Split into two factions: renovadores wanted to modernize the party and compromise with the neoliberals; orthodoxos wanted to reject the neoliberal model.
: Communist Party of El Salvador (Partido Comunista de El Salvador). Formed in 1974 as one of many groups in opposition to the militaristic rule of PRUD-PCN.
Christian Democratic Party (Partido Democrata Cristiano) El Salvador. Formed during the mid-1960s, in opposition to the oligarchic government. Leader: Jose Napoleon Duarte. He called for gradual reformism in the nation. Their success and progress with these mild reforms alarmed the oligarchy. Duarte apparently won the 1972 presidential election, but the military, under the authority of the oligarchy, threw out the election results and installed a military leader as president. With the regime change of 1979, the new military junta allied with PDC. When the junta failed to stem the rampant official violence, PDC abandoned them. Many members joined up with the FDR. Duarte’s branch remained conservative, and after another U.S. fueled regime change, Duarte was installed in the presidency (1984) with a huge amount of U.S. financial, technical and political backing. PDC took a majority of legislative seats in 1984-5, entering a phase of civilian transitional government, meant to provide the foundation for greater democracy. However, the government never had any control over the security forces or war. Couldn’t get support from the business community or conservative parties. Defeated in elections in 1988-9.
“Land to the Tiller” program
El Salvador agrarian reform program. Allowed all those farming all rented or sharecropped land under 17.3 acres to claim title to it. Benefited more than ¼ of El Salvador’s rural poor, and affected around 22% of the agricultural land. Alternative to communal lands. Much of the land unfortunately come from local residents with minor holdings, who opposed the movement greatly. U.S. supported. Intended to be self-executed, but many of the peasants were reluctant to undertake the expropriation process because of the high level of state terrorism and history of peasant repression.
Guerrilla Army of the Poor (Ejército Guerrillero de los Pobres) Guatemala. Indigenous based, formed because of increased security and militaries violent domination over the poor. Began overt military activity in the late 1970’s. pg 121-122
Revolutionary Armed Forces (Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias) Guatemala. 1978-79. Sparked by the violence and corruption of the American-based Ydigoras government, they adopted a Marxist-Leninist ideology and guerilla war strategy pattered after Fidel Castro’s. Similar to EGP.
Democratic Front Against Repression (Frente Democrático Contra la Represión) Guatemala. Appeared in 1979, attempted to forged a coalition to enhance power and resource base. Draw all similar groups together.
Democratic Socialist Party (Partido Socialista Demócrata) Guatemala. Reform oriented, center-left party.
Jacobo Arbenz
Progressive president of Guatemala, 1951-54. Gave active support to peasants’ mobilization and organization. Instigated major agrarian reform, facilitated by the availability of extensive unused lands on private and foreign-owned estates, as well as by the government-operated national farms. Was implemented without attacking productive commercial farms. Domestic politics made the expropriation of U.S. owned lands easier, but United Fruit company propagated in the U.S. leading to the overthrow of Arbenz and undoing the reform. Overthrow seen as an anticommunist act, not economic.
Committee for Peasant Unity (CUC
Guatemala, 1978. The first organization to bring together Indian subsistence and migrant farmers with poor Ladino farmworkers. Soon affiliated with the urban-based National Committee of Trade Union Unity. 1st public apperance May 1, 1978 at Labor Day parade, organized largest public demonstraion of Indians to date. Led massive strikes that more than doubled daily minimum in 1980. Successes were halted as gov't violence against leaders increased.
Human Rights Committee of Honduras (Comité de Derechos Humanos de Honduras).
Lorenzo Zelaya Popular Revolutionary Forces (Furezas Populares Revolucionarias “Lorenzo Zelaya”). Founded in 1981 by a pro-Chinese faction of the Honduran Communist Party. Leftist guerrilla group which conducted various acts of urban political violence.
Public Security Forces (Fuerzas de Seguridad Pública): Military-dominated police brought increasing pressures to reform from the Carter administration in mid-late 1970s. Increased power through the mid-1980s. Liberal president Reina transferred them to civilian control in 1994, despite military opposition, however, the police reform process led to a crime wave.
Honduran Liberal Party (Partido Liberal de Honduras): The liberal/conservative debate began much later in Hon. than in other countries. The PLH formed at end of 19th century, and liberals dominated the political scene until the 1930s. Strength grew with the rapid expansion of labor union movement in the early 1950s. Liberal Suazo won the presidency in 1982, instigating a transitional civilian democratic regime, he worked with the U.S. in developing Contra forces in exchange for aid.
Agrarian Reform Agency (INA)
Honduras. Received minimal appropriations during mid-1960s. Agronomist Rigoberto Sandoval appointed as director in 1967. Under him, the agency became more professional, in part by bringing in international technocrats. In 1968, they began to adjudicate land conflicts in favor of peasants. National lands were recovered and turned into communal peasant settlements. Also purchased privately owned land for peasant settlements. Peasant support skyrocketed, and the government also increased its support toward the end of the 1960s. Leadership changed with the election of a conservative president in 1971.
International Monetary Fund
In Honduras, played an important role in drafting an income tax, implemented in 1949, and in founding of the central bank and the national development bank.
Central American Common Market: Formed due to global economic forces, economic assistance from the US, and cooperation among C.A. regimes in response to recessions of the 1940’s and 1950’s. Affected Honduras the least.
Christian-base communities (comunididades eclesiales de base). Nicaragua: Used as a tool for teaching the gospel among urban and rural poor people. Began, especially after the Managua earthquake of 1972 to encourage community self-help activism and demand better services and housing. El Salvador: In 1970s, made political and economic demands on behalf of the poor.
Central Intelligence Agency- often used as US force in C.A. countries to fight against socialism/communism. Sometimes resorted to imprisonment and torture tactics to combat rebels. Aided Contra forces against the Sandinistas in Nicaragua in the 1980’s with intelligence, funding, and training. Utilized against the Arbenz government by disinformation and covert actions.
Organization of American States
U.S. Agency for International Development. Imposed “efficiency criteria” to help manage US loans through shaping agricultural credit policy. Resulted in starved the peasant agriculture sector in Nicaragua.
United Fruit Company
: In the early 20th century in Guatemala, they took over local banana growers. Eventually owned key public utilities and vast landholdings.
From repartir, “to divide up”. Different system of European domination over indigenous. Each Indian village was to fill a labor quota, by supplying a percentage of their working age males to work in public institutions and for private individuals, sometimes at long distances from their homes. Their ability to provide for their families was reduced.
Agro-export Development Model:
Favored by conservatives as the preferred model of economic development. Elites in support of this model have been concerned with securing sufficient land and labor to implement the model successfully. Able to use public power to achieve these goals. The rapid spread of export agriculture transformed Central America after WWII. Its implementation eroded the economic security of many of the region’s rural people. The conversion of land to export crops enriches the few as the larger population suffers from diminishing land access, food supply, and employment opportunities. Contributes to gross inequality.
Comparative advantage:
From a perspective of comparative advantage, the internationalization of Central American agriculture is seen as positive. Through the production and export of certain commodities of which it enjoys a comparative advantage over other countries, C.A. is able to maximize its trading potential and promote its economic development. Those who disagree with comp. adv. say that the prices C.A. has received from its agricultural exports have declined relative to the cost of the manufactured goods it imports. Price instability is also a problem, as the dependence of C.A. on a few export crops means their economy will crash if the price for one drops substantially.
: commitment a whole person, mind and body, to change. Taking a stand, so that thought and action become united into one. “Putting your body where your words are.” Almost always has a concern for children at the center. The driving force is hope in the knowledge that God is in their midst, working with them to instigate change.
preferential option for the poor
In order to create a system of liberty and justice for all, we must start with the poor. Provides guidelines for the kinds of change that are necessary to bring greater justice into an unjust world.