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68 Cards in this Set

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the trip from africa to the americas:
-overcrowding
-disease
-prob 2/3 of captives didn't make it to the americas
The Middle Passage
the French came over and created this place. Focused on sugar production. One of the richest colonial possessions in the whole world.
Saint-Domingue
he commanded the slaves'army, and was a military genius. They basically took over the colony from France. His goal was to end slavery, not to get political independence. They abolished slavery, then they named him Commander General of the colony. This started arguments among the leaders about the revolutionary movement.
Louverture
overturned slavery, Lose the slavery
he was a key lieutenant of Louverture. was a member that argued political independence. __________ was his ally and was a free black. They joined together to fight for political independence. This was the first example of independence within Latin America
Jean-Jacques Dessalines

(Henri Christophe)
January 1, 1804
in 1802, Napoleon sent a large military force to retake Haiti and restore slavery. This is when they became independent.
1700 for Spain
Spain had suffered a series of setbacks and 1700 was the year the Hapsburgs lost the throne to the Bourbons
reforms in Spain that generated significant change, although they were never intended to change fundamentally Spain's relationship with its colonies. Under the reign of Charles III (1759-1788)
*2 kinds of reforms:
1)colonial beaurocracies
2)these reforms alienated the creoles
Bourbon Reforms
3 developments that took place that created an attitude of independence in Spanish America:
1) Bourbon Reforms
2) European and American influences (american and french revolutions provided examples of how the colonies could break free)
3) Creole Nationalism (they were spanish americans, not spanish subjects)
what was the catalyst that caused the spanish colonies to break free from Spain?
Imperial Crisis in Iberia:
Napoleon invaded Spain and captured Ferdinand VII- when he did this, he put his brother on the spanish throne. The colonies believed Spain was a fake gov't now. Broke from Spain. 4 major: Brazil, Argentina, Venezuala, Mexico
Describe the liberation of S. America
led by creole elite and relatively conservative
1783, he was born in Caracas, grew up in the revolution. lived in racial caste system. from wealthy creole family (plantations, mines, owned about 1,000 slaves), parents died when he was young. raised by uncle. in 1811, led declaration of independence from spain. Wrote a constitution that was produced by congress.
Simon Bolivar
he was a creole priest who wanted to take Mexico City. "Father of Mexican Independence."
-wasn't always supported
-captured and killed in 1811
Miguel Hidalgo
he was killed in 1815 so the conservative movement began when Penisulares and other creoles formed together (Mexico)
Jose Maria Movelaj
move over for mexican independence- move ya lazy a
Describe Brazilian independence
more or less peaceful (1808-1822)
-1807 Napoleon invaded Portugal but couldn't capture the king because of fleet going to Brazil, but left Prince Pedro who sided with Colonists and formally declared independence in Sept. 1822
-transfer to monarchy
which was the only country in the early 19th century without independence?
Cuba
3 reasons for Economic Stagnation in Spanish America during the Age of Caudillos:
1) Lack of Reform
-chaotic political situation- extremely unstable (ie. Mexico had something like 74 presidents during this time)
2) Lack of Foreign Investment
-never developed national markets
3) Chronic Trade Fluctuations
-flood of cheap manufactured goods into Latin America so that natives couldn't compete
a military boss, regional strongman. most were large landowners. they ran the government in spanish america.
-set up republican and representative forms of government with constitutions BUT were facades for them to rule over regional strongmen
Caudillo
2 Types of Caudillos: (describe each)
1) CONSERVATIVES
-those wanting to keep existing social order in tact.
-favored strong central gov't
-favored monopoly of catholic church
-favored fueros (special privileges) for high ranking/church official
-unenthusiastic about freedom of press, speech (social liberties)
-setup monarchies
2)LIBERALS
-wanted to change existing system.
-medium-sized landowners, artisans, merchants, profitable mestizos
-favored federalist form of gov't, not strong central, but provincial landowners could have power
-opposed fueros
-supported civil liberties
-greatly admired the US

*Both agreed to keep the indigenous and mestizos (the majority) without power.
When did Argentina become independent?
1860
What was the foundation of Argentina's economic prosperity?
good natural resources allowed them to create ranches and export
2 political groups in Argentina during age of caudillos:
1) Unitarians (conservatives)
2) Federalists (Liberals)
major conflict in Argentina during age of caudillos aside from issues between two groups:
to what extent can Buenos Aires impose its will on the rest of the nation
-a liberal, governor of Buenos Aires, brilliant politician
-wrked out compromise so that Buenos Aires represented Argentina in int'l affairs and provinces were involved in everything else
-typified strongman rule (ie. silenced all opposers; created secret police org. to intimidate opposers)
-illustrated way caudillos maintained charisma to maintain followers and leadership could appear as one of common people, used imagery
-ruled 1829-1852. his own federalists kicked him out because was hlding onto power too tightly. went into exile into england. decade of instability in argentina
Juan Manuel Rosas
doesn't smell as fresh as...
Civil War in Argentia dates?
1859-1861, after Rosas overthrown by his own federalists
*ended civil war in Argentina
*impt. because the agreement was where elite: liberals and conservatives come together to work out major problems and are able to put aside issues that were harming the nation, unlike other L. Amer. nations
*brought political order, economic growth, moderate prosperity
Compromise of 1862
The Constitution of 1864 (Mexico)
*gave liberals a federalist-style government
*gave conservatives the fueros; catholicism as official state religion
Election of 1828 (Mexico)
-conservative candidate won in close race
-liberal candidate publicly declared election results invalid and named self leader of nation- organized supporters, overthrew
*set precedent for violent overthrow of gov't; politics extremely unstable
*best example of Caudillo in Mexico and in general
-creole army officer
-political life involved constant involvment in military coups; overt polit corruption; charisma- enormous ego
-became pres in 1833, got bored and left office (didn't resign), went to his hacienda (LIBERAL); his VP enacted liberal reforms and got rid of fueros
-in 1834, took office as conservative (after leading coup) Many conservatives in charge, not just him. Conservatives held power for 2 decades
Santa Anna
Mexican-American War
*1846-1848
*cause: border dispute between US and Mexico over TX
*US president Polk
*US gave Mexico $15 million for the territory from CA to TX
*Mexico lost half of its territory between the 1830's and 40's- significant damage to conservative political rule in Mexico
->Mexican sick of conserv rule
*the Lincoln of Mexico
*an indigenous person who rose to power in the liberal party
*practiced law, above corruption
*Mexico was in bad shape, lots of foreign debts.
*he announced a 2 year moratorium on paying debts to GB and France
->French invasion
*led resistance with assistance of US
*had Maximilian shot
*died of heart attack
Benito Juarez
The French Invasion
*of Vera Cruz
*Juarez wouldn't pay back debts. GB left after Juarez agreed to start paying, but French refused to leave under Napoleon III.
*conservatives convinced Nap that mexicans would welcome the establishment of a Euro monarch in Vera Cruz
*Nap appointed Maximilian.
*US assisted Juarez in resistance
*1866, French withdrew army but Maximilian stayed
*1867, Juarez had him shot
*end of conservative rule
appointed by Napoleon to lead the French Invasion of Mexico. Ruled from 1862-1867. French withdrew army from Vera Cruz in 1866, but he stayed. Juarez had him shot in 1867
Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian
France's invasion of Mexico to gain foothold in America. One of the claimants was a baker
Pastry War
believed in manifest destiny; US president who sent troops over to take over CA
James K. Polk
he led US troops into Texas; a general, he commanded the Northern Army
Zachary Taylor
US army general in Mex-American War; was military governor of Mexico City; commanded Southern Army; overthrew Santa Anna
Winfield Scott
a peace treaty between the US and Mexico that ended the Mexican-American War. Mexico ceded 40% of its pre-war territory for $15 million and the US took over $3.25 million of debts owed to American citizens
*CA, NV, UT, parts of CO, AZ, and NM
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848)
first full-blooded Indian to rule Mexico in 350 years. Was president
Benito Juarez
In the late 19th C, this new period of social and economic order replaced stagnation. Order and growth.
Problem: imposed new dependency on L. Amer
Era of Neocolonialism (1870-1914)
an informal colonialism in which L. America is dependent on industrial nations
catalyst: industrial revolutions in GB and US
Neocolonialism
a term meaning that a nation's economy's entire prosperity is based on one or few exports. very reliant on outside forces to import goods.
monoculture
Features of Neocolonialism:
*monoculture
*wealth concentrated in few hands, usually large landowners b/c large land ownership encouraged by state
*Foreign control of resources
*Order and progress
a term referring to the period of Diaz's dictatorship in Mexico
Porfiriato (1876-1911)
-military general and hero in Mexico. Lost presidential election first, then seized gov't by force and established longest dictatorship (3 decades long).
-v. little industry/technology.
*invited foreign investment and export
*established political stability (PAN O PALO- bread or stick)
*modernization- literacy, health, schools, telephone/telegraph, RR's
*unless could produce legal title of land, it was considered public (passed law)
*people paid less if were mexican than foreign
*concentration of foreign domination of economic resources (mining, oil)
Porfirio Diaz
Compromise of 1862 (Argentina)
*reflected sense among nat'l leaders that nat'l unity was what they should be working for
*worked out problem of Buenos Aires and other issues
*leaders put aside issues and came together
upperclass oligarchy that ruled Argentina in late 1880's
*mostly upperclass large landowners
*wanted to bring foreign interest in
"Generation of 1880"
a very impt figure in the Generation of 1880
*President of Argentina from 1880-1886. Afterwards, ruled from behind the scenes.
*land boom
*led military expedition into S. part of country AKA "Conquest of the Desert" to take indigenous land so to sell to outside interests
*rise of middle class
Julio Rocca (1880-1886)
a military expedition led by Roca to take indigenous land so to sell to outside interests
*divided it into huge lots and sold to Generation of 1880
->rise of middle class from success of ranches, urbanization -> more people wanting to participate in politics and complain about one-party rule
Conquest of the Desert (1879-1880)
Electoral Reform (Argentina, 1912)
*gave Argentine male suffrage
*created extremely chaotic and inefficient gov't
*military coup replaces gov't after a while
war between Chile, Peru, and Bolivia. only time there was war btwn individual Latin American nations.
*conflict over the Atacama Desert, rich in nitrate deposits
*1879, Chile attacked Bolivia and Peru. After, they returned territory to private interests. Values had plummeted during war, bought by British, went up after war, British had power, owning banks, tel lines, etc.
The War of the Pacific (1879-1884)
land disputed over by Chile, Peru, and Bolivia
*rich in nitrate
Atacama Desert
liberal president of Chile, elected in 1886. Campaigned on specific, well-defined program of economic modernization BUT unlike others, wanted it to be sponsored by the state and not outsiders.
*built up an indigenous infrastructure via a public works program; had large class of workers
*poured money into education and doubled enrollment in school
*wanted to nationalize mining industry
*was resisted by leaders and overthrown in 1891
*took refuge in embassy and killed himself
->led to the Parliamentary Republic
Jose Manuel Balmaceda
after Balmaceda's rule in chile, this was a time of neocolonialism, more dependence on foreigners
*(1891-1920)
The Parliamentary Republic
Through this, US meant to challenge efforts from European nations to colonize Americas/L. Amer.
*proclaimed that American colonies were off-limits for future colonization
Monroe Doctrine (1823)
*war fought over Cuba's independence
*Cuba sided with Spain
*Cuba became indep country
*US emerges as a major political power on the world stage
*Spain gave US the Philippines, Guam, and Puerto Rico
Spanish-American War (1898)
Treaty in which Cuba became independent of Spain but US would maintain some control. The Platt Amendment within it made Cuba a protectorate of US- gave right to intervene and protect itself
Treaty of Paris
this reinstated the Monroe Doctrine.
Roosevelt Corollary
Franklin D. Roosevelt said that the US would refrain from interfering in the internal affairs of L. Amer. (the opposite of the Roosevelt Corollary)
*withdrew from Caribbean in 1930's
The Good Neighbor Policy (1933-1945)
he is credited with starting the Mexican Revolution, but he was a large land owner, not a politician. Was arrested and put in jail during the election although Diaz had said he'd welcome opposition. Revolution occurred in aftermath of the election.
Francisco Madero
a statement that Madero issued following the election, and it declared the ELECTION INVALID. He had to call to revolution.
The Plan of San Luis Potosi
peasant movements that helped the revolution cause in Mexico. It was led by PANCHO VIA. The one in the south was led by EMELIO ZAPATA. In the summer of 1911, Diaz resigned and went into exile in Europe.
Support from the North and the South
the same year as the resignation of Diaz, he was elected the first president of Revolutionary Mexico. Was opposed by the left but also by the ultra conservatists. After only 2 years, he was removed from office in 1913.
The Madero Presidency
*in 1915, he finally generated enough support to seize the presidency in Mexico after no one else could. He wanted a moderate constitution BUT the delegates wanted far reaching reforms.
->the constitution they produced was very far reaching. it was the 2nd victory of the revolution. It directly addressed problems associated with Neocolonialism
Venustiano Carranza
Carranza wanted a moderate constitution BUT the delegates wanted far reaching reforms.
->the constitution they produced was very far reaching. it was the 2nd victory of the revolution. It directly addressed problems associated with Neocolonialism
*Labor (minimum wage, hours, right to unionize)
*Land (gov't could reverse process of large landed estates; also declared mexico owner of land water and resources)
Constitution of 1917
In his presidency, he was unhappy with the constitution. he ignored it. rolled back progress that had occurred. very unpopular president, hinted that would not give up office
-> revolt
Carranza's Presidency
he led the revolt against Carranza and it drove him out of the capitol
Alvaro Obregon
elected in 1934, came from the liberal wing of the PRI. was honest and uncorrupt. sympathetic to the little people. High point of the mexican revolution
*Land Reform
*Labor Reform (created the confederation of mexican workers)
*Economic Reform, Nationalization of the Oil Industry
Lazaro Cardenas
Manuel Camacho
Cardenas chose him to be his successor. He was a well-known conservative. In Election of 1940, went into a more moderate, conservative form.