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13 Cards in this Set

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This pro-Spanish historian offers many revealing details of the cleavage within the colonial upper class in his _____ __ ______.
*The creoles and peninsular Spaniards were two hostile castes, differing in their occupations and ideas. The Spaniards justified their privelege by referencing the alleged indolence and incapacity of the natives. The Creoles vented theirs by describing the Europeans as mean and grasping.
Lucas Alaman, "History of Mexico", 1850
a la man. the struggles between two groups of men in Mexico.
In his autobiography, one of the fathers of Argentine independence describes the influences and events that transformed a young Creole of wealth and high social position into an ardent revolutionary. The French Revo, disillusionment with Bourbon liberalism, the English invasions, and the events of 1808 in Spain all played their part in this process.
Manuel Belgrano, autobiography, 1808
ring the bell for revolution in Argentina, and you might need a grainer to go with it.
This English aid and biographer to Bolivar describes the turning point in the struggle for independence in northern S. America when Bolivar crossed the Colombian Andes with his army and attacked Spanish forces in New Granada unexpectedly. Victory . One of most daring and brilliantly executed military campaigns in history.
Daniel F. O'Leary 1800-1854
Hidalgo overcame the wavering of his associates when their conspiracy was discovered and he transformed what had been planned as an upper-class Creole revolt into a rising of the masses.
*this historian and enemy of the revolution who knew Hidalgo in the peaceful years before describes him.
Alaman, "History of Mexico," 1850's
Hidalgo and Morelos attempted to combine the Creole ideal of independence with a program of social justice for the oppressed classes of the Mexican population. This is a decree of Hidalgo, issued after his capture of Guadalajara, and it helps to explain why many conservative Creoles fought on the spanish side against the patriots.
Hidalgo quoted in Alaman's "History of Mexico" 1810
This more moderate and scholarly writer shows an effective summary of the liberal case against the Spanish colonial regime in Chile.
Lastarria "Investigations on the Social Influence of the Conquest and the Colonial System of the Spaniards in Chile" mid 1800's
the last area didn't go uncovered when describing liberal feelings on the matter of spaniards in chile
This is told from the point of view of an enlightened conservative on the subject of Spanish rule. He shows the relative mildness of Spanish rule. He also concedes ato the cruelties of the conquest, but diminishes spanish guilt by shifting responsibility to a flawed human nature in which the strong suppress the weak in all times and places. He allowed Lastarria to make his point. He was from Venezuala (scholar and educator)
Bello, "review of Lastarria's Investigations" (mid 1800's)
just like Gelato, let's keep everything beautiful and the same- conservative Venezuala (caramel) sides with Spanish rule. From venezuala, but talking about Chile.
This book describes a caudillo who was barbaric and ran a dictatorship in the cruelest, most lawless form. He was Quiroga who was under Rosas of Argentina.
"Life in the Argentine Republic in the Days of the Tyrants: or Civilization and Barbarism" -Sarmiento, 1868
This 1841 letter written by the Scottish-born wife of Spanish ambassador, provides an unexpected glimpse into the rich cultural and institutional life of Mexico City under Santa Anna. Upper-class women often toured and even sponsored charitable institutions, transcending the political feuding and periodic revolts that occupied their male counterparts. The end refers to Santa Anna's wooden leg. He lost it in the battle against foreign invaders, and it was a sybol to the caudillo's loyal followers, of his sacrafice to the nation.
Frances Calderon de la Barca, "Letter of the Forty-seventh" 1841
this barking woman defends the charities of her husband, santa anna
In this famous interview with an American journalist, Diaz demonstrates his understanding of this developmentalist agenda as well as his mastery of public relations. The promise of free elections in the upcoming presidential campaign, probably intended for American rather than Mexican readers, encouraged development of a political opposition that would eventually put an end to Diaz's authoritarian rule.
*Diaz had ruled Mexico effectively for nearly 35 years. The regime's propogandists said it provided stability. Economic development came from promotion of democratic sensibilities through expanded educational and employment opportunities.
James Creelman, "President Diaz, Hero of the Americas" 1908
Shortly after the dictator's fall from power, a cultured Mexican exile wrote the following appraisal of the Diaz regime. The age of diaz had enriched a favored few at the expense of Mexico's millions.
Pardo 1912
he pardoned diaz's terrible dictatorship rule
This Chilean writer, thought not unmindful of the achievements of North American democracy called attention to certain defects in the N. American character and sounded the alarm against the expansionist designs of the US aginst L Amer. It should be noted that he wrote at a time of agressive N. American diplomacy and filibustering expeditions designed to secure Cuba, Central America, and portions of Mexico for the US.
Bilbao, 1856
A brief essay written by a Uruguayan writer that became enormously influential among contemporary intellectuals, and still stands as a symbol for the defense of what proponents view as humanistic Latin American values against the utilitarian N. American model. Written shortly after the Spanish-American war, its defense of L.American uniqueness carries the flavor of the traumatic Spanish defeat by the US. Although he refused to admit this interpretaition, his allegorical conflict between the embodiment of beauty and truth (title), and Caliban, the evil spirit of materialism and positivism (characters for Shakespeare's the Tempest) became a metaphor for the differences btwn LA and the US. On another level, it is the symbol of idealist reaction against positivism-- its views on the "genius of the race" offers a critique of the pessimistic racial thinking of the period.
Rodo, "Ariel" 1898
Arielle rides the Rodeo. Unlike her though, this criticizes the US. Uraguay like urine/vag.