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111 Cards in this Set

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Cordell Hull
Secretary of State during FDR's presidency; believed in reciprocal trade policy of the New Dealers, as well as a low tariff; led to passage of the Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act of 1934; also believed in Good Neighborism.
Neutrality Act of 1935
To prevent America from being sucked into war, Congress passed this act which stated that when the president proclaimed the existence of a foreign war, certain restrictions would automatically go into effect: no American could legally sail on a belligerent ship or sell or transport munitions to a belligerent, or make loans to a belligerent.
Johnson Default Act
This act forbade any countries that still owed the U.S. money from borrowing any more cash.
Francisco Franco
With the help of Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussilini, he overthrew the Loyalist regime and became the dictator of Spain in the Spanish Civil War of 1936-1939.
London Conference of 1933
This meeting of the summer of 1933 was composed of 66 nations that came together to try to make a worldwide solution to the Great Depression.
Good Neighbor Policy
This was established by Herbert Hoover to create good relations with Latin America as well as other nations. The idea was given in Roosevelt’s inaugural address. It took much of the American military out of these countries. It also nullified the Roosevelt Corollary. Ultimately this resulted in support from Latin America during World War II.
Reciprocal Trade Agreement Act of 1934
(1934) The Act was designed to raise American exports and was aimed at both relief and recovery. Led by Cordell Hull, it helped reverse the high-tariff policy.
Spanish Civil War
This war lasted from 1936-1939. In July of 1936, fascist Franco led the Spanish army units to overthrow the elected government in Spain. The revolution was supported by Spanish conservatives, monarchists, landowners, industrialists, and Roman Catholic hierarchy
Fall of France
Hitler’s launched his blitzkrieg on France in 1938. The British were already being driven back when Hitler attacked Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg. England evacuated 338,000 men from the English Channel. Mussolini attacked from the South at the same time, and on Jun. 22 France capitulated.
Vichy France
(July 1940 – September 1944) French regime in World War II after the German defeat of France. The Franco-German armistice (June 1940) divided France into two zones: one under German military occupation and one under nominal French control (the southeastern two-fifths of the country). The National Assembly ratified the armistice, was persuaded to grant Marshall Petain authority to assume full powers in the French State. The anti-republican Vichy government collaborated with the Germans and became increasingly a tool of German policy, especially after the Germans occupied the whole of France in 1942.
Panay Incident
Japanese bombers engaged in war with China. They bombed and sank a marked U.S. gunboat and three Standard Oil ships, which were evacuating American officials from China. Japan accepted responsibilities of bombing the ships, made a formal apology and promised indemnities later set at $2 million.
Marshall Petain
He was given authority to assume full powers in the French State after its fall to Nazi Germany.
Atlantic Charter
This was created by Winston Churchill and President Franklin D. Roosevelt in a secret conference. It outlined the hopes of the democracies and their intentions for improvements after World War II. It frowned upon aggression, affirmed national self-determination, and endorsed the principles of collective security and disarmament.
Franklin D. Roosevelt
--- governor of NY -- 5th cousin to Theodore Roosevelt --- wealthy family -- went to Harvard -- served as Secretary of the Navy -- was suave and conciliatory -- handicapped -- came up with New Deal --- elected as a democrat President in 1932 -- elected 4 times (only one to do so) --dealt with Great Depression and WWI
Lend-Lease
A law passed in March of 1941 by sweeping majorities in both houses of Congress. This law said that the U.S. would lend or lease weapons to overseas countries and victims of aggression who would in turn finish the job of the fighting, and keep the war overseas from the U.S.
Lend Lease
Program set up to loan the Allied nation’s arms and other materials to wage war against the Axis powers. This bill was approved by Congress in 1941, which originally authorized $7 billion. Thirty-five other nations besides Great Britain, USSR, France, and China received loans from this bill. By August 1945, the amount totaled $48 billion, of which the United States received $6 billion in repayment by these nations.
Pearl Harbor Attack
On the morning of December 7, 1941 scores of Japanese dive-bombers and torpedo planes flew across Oahu to bomb the ships that were anchored at a harbor in Hawaii, and to strafe the planes parked side by side at nearby air bases. In less that 3 hours, over 300 aircraft were destroyed or damaged, and 8 battleships, 3 light cruisers, and 3 destroyers were sunk or crippled. Worst loss of U.S. arms in history.
Munich Conference
This conference was held in 1938 between England and Germany. Chamberlain, representing England, gave in to Hitler’s demands on territory that Germany had lost after the end of WWI. Chamberlain was very much blamed for the oncoming of WWII due to his actions toward Hitler. Many people in Britain were very disappointed in Chamberlain and how easily he had appeased to the demands of Hitler. He was replaced soon after by Winston Churchill.
Final solution
Hitler persecuted Jews in Germany and sought to rid Germany of them. During WWII, he set up many concentration camps, where Jews were methodically executed by means of poisonous gas or other forms. By the end, 6 million perished.
Hideki Tojo
Japanese leader during WWII. An extreme militarist, advocated total war. Became Army Chief of Staff in 1937. Led the Japanese army against Manchuria, and in 1940 made Minister of War. In 1941, appointed Prime Minister, and controlled government and military operations during WWII. Resigned 1944.
Hiroshima and Nagasaki
The 1st A-bomb was dropped on a city in Japan by the U.S. in August 6, 1945 after Japan refused unconditional surrender. Some 80,000 people died immediately and 1000s more died of radiation poisoning in later years. Three days later a second bomb was dropped on a different city, which obliterated the area.
Ike (Dwight D. Eisenhower)
He provided Americans with the stability they craved, and labeled his credo "Modern Republicanism." In general, he was conservative on monetary issues and liberal "when it came to human beings." During his term as president, he backed the most extensive public-works program in U.S. history: the Interstate Highway Act and also extended social security benefits and raised the minimum wage.
Douglas MacArthur
He was the supreme allied commander and five star general in the U.S. army during the Cold War in 1945. After World War II, MacArthur was put in charge of putting Japan back together. In the Korean War, he commanded the United Nations troops. He was later fired by Harry Truman for insubordination and questioning the action of his superiors in the midst of the Korean War.
Battle of Midway
In 1942, the Japanese were determined to wipe out any remaining ships of the decimated American fleet when they sailed toward Midway. But, Japanese codes were decoded and Admiral Nimitz knew the exact plans and location of the Japanese ships. In a clever move, he ordered dive-bombers to destroy the ships.
Battle of Britain
This battle was the name commonly given to the attempt by the German Luftwaffe to gain air superiority over the Royal Air Force (RAF), before a planned sea and airborne invasion of Britain (operation sealion) during World War II. Neither Hitler nor the Wehrmacht believed it possible to carry out a successful amphibious assault on the British Isles until the RAF had been neutralized.
D-Day
This was the first day of the Normandy landings. In the first 24 hours, 150,000 allied troops landed on the beach of Normandy. An additional million waded ashore in the following weeks and allies reached inland in July, arriving in Paris by August. By summer’s end British secured Belgium and the Americans recovered France and Luxembourg. In short this landing started the invasion of western Europe and liberated France from the Germans.
Taft-Hartley Act of 1947
It outlawed the "closed" shop, made unions liable for damages that resulted from jurisdictional disputes among themselves, and required union leaders to take a non-Communist oath. Because it proved detrimental to certain unions, Truman vetoed the measure, although Congress overrode it.
Truman Doctrine
Truman wanted to prevent the spread of communism. He wanted it "contained". From Truman’s inaugural address to Congress on March 12, 1947, the president announced that the United States would assist free people resisting "armed minorities or...outside pressure." Meant as a offer for aid against communism the Truman Doctrine established the United States as a global policeman. The first implementation of the Truman Doctrine was $400 million given to aid Greece and Turkey to prevent a communist takeover. Other U.S. containment actions were found in the UN, Vietnam, Korea and Egypt. The Truman Doctrine became a major portion of Cold War ideology, a feeling of personal responsibility for the containment of communism.
Cold War
This “war” began in 1945 after WWII. It was a global ideological conflict between democracy and communism. (United States versus Soviet Union)
Yalta Conference
Conference of Russia, Great Britain and US in Feb.1945 with leaders FDR, Stalin and Churchill in Crimea. The result was statement of Soviet intent on entering the Pacific War two to three months after the end of the European war, Churchill and FDR promise for Soviet concessions in Manchurian and return of lost territories. Stalin recognized Chiang as China's ruler, agreed to drop demands for reparations from Germany, approved plans for a UN Conference and promised free elections in Poland. Stalin, though, went back on his deal and forced Poland to become communist. Many Americans saw this deal as a failure.
United Nations
This conference took place on April 25, 1945 --FDR died on April 12, but had chosen Republican and Democratic representatives to meet at the San Fransisco War Memorial Opera House with representatives from 50 nations, fashioning a charter similar to the old League of Nations covenant --- featured a Security Council dominated by the US, Britain, USSR, France, and China (the big 5 powers) who could veto, and an Assembly that could be controlled by smaller countries –this organizations permanent home was in NY city.
Marshall Plan
Issued in response to the struggling European countries, this plan would allow the U.S. to give financial assistance to certain countries. This was done to prevent communism from rising in countries like France and Italy, whose economies where suffering after WWII. It was agreed in July 1947 that the U.S. would spend $12.5 billion, over four years, in sixteen different nations. In order to receive financial assistance you had to have a democratic government.
Miracle of 1948
When the Soviets blocked all roads, canals, and railways connecting Berlin and the Western Zone of Germany the U.S. answer to the Soviets was the Berlin Airlift. Starting in the summer of 1948 and continuing for more than a year, British and American planes transported over 2 million tons of food and supplies to Berlin.
Joseph McCarthy
A Republican Senator from Wisconsin who was strongly against communism. McCarthy claimed there were many communists in the State Department. By accusing many of communism, McCarthyism arose. Republicans support and political power was given to senator McCarthy to instill fear within the Democratic Party. He did not have much evidence to support his accusations, and his search for communists was considered a type of "witch-hunt." When his lack of evidence was discovered, he was censored by Congress and lost his seat in Congress.
“Operation Vittles”
A.K.A. Berlin Airlift which successfully broke the Soviets blockade around Berlin.
The USSR had embargoed all supplies that would go into the Allied Germany. In response, America used many planes to take and drop food and supplies into Berlin. They did this to show the USSR that they were determined to maintain control of Berlin. It worked, the Soviets lifted the blockade.
NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)
Military alliance between the US, Canada, and 10 European nations signed on April 4, 1949. It was committed to building military defense of Europe against Communist Russia. Dwight D. Eisenhower became the Supreme Commander of this organization. The organization considered an attack against one member of the alliance, an attack on all.
The “Fair Deal”
Truman proposed a social and economic program during his State of the Union message in 1949. It was a program that called for improved housing , full employment, higher minimum wage, better farm price supports, new TVA's, and the extension of social security. Its only successes: raised the minimum wage, better public housing, extended old-age insurance to more people.
Chief Justice Earl Warren
Chief Justice and former governor of California; brought originally taboo social issues, such as civil rights to African Americans, to the attention of Congress and the country. Known for making the verdict for the "Brown v. Board of Education" case of 1954.
Brown vs. Board of Education
The case brought before the Supreme Court in May 1954 in which the Court ruled that segregation of races in public schools was unconstitutional. reversed Plessy v. Ferguson in 1954 by ruling in favor of the desegregation of schools. The court held that "separate but equal" violated the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment and was unconstitutional. Refusing to force the white south to accept the ruling, defiance toward the law sprang up. Many southerners saw it as "an abuse of judiciary power."
Rosa Parks
She was a seamstress and a secretary for the Montgomery chapter of the NAACP, was known as the "mother of the civil rights movement." In December of 1955, Parks refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white rider. She was jailed and fined $14 for the offense. This led to Martin Luther King, Jr.'s Montgomery Bus Boycott. Resistance to desegregation of buses was finally overcome by the Supreme Court ruling that it was unconstitutional to segregate public transportation in November, 1956.
Eisenhower Doctrine
1957 - Congress and US President pledged US military and economic aid to Middle Eastern nations threatened by communist aggression. Under the Doctrine the US was able to openly land several thousand troops and help restore order without taking a single life. Mainly this doctrine was supposed to contain communist expansion.
Korean Conflict
After Japan's defeat in 1945, Korea was divided at the 38th parallel between Soviet troops to the north and the People's Democratic Republic and US troops to the south. June 24, 1950 North Korean troops attacked the Republic of Korea, provoking war. US gained UN approval to stop the considered communist domino. The "limited" war was to hold the 38th parallel without beginning WWIII. A cease fire was installed on July 26, 1953.
McCarthyism
This was the communist witch hunts of the 1950's. This fear of Communism ruined many lives and families. The Senate hearings on communism were run by Senator Joseph McCarthy. It took over the U.S. as a means of fighting communism without realizing that the U.S. was in danger of losing what it was fighting for, Freedom and the Constitution.
The Suez Crises
When President Nasser of Egypt announced his intention to build a damn in the Suez to provide power and irrigation to Egypt, the United States offered its financial support, withdrawing it when Nasser spoke with the Communists on the subject. Nasser responded by nationalizing the Suez canal, which was previously owned by British and French stockholders. This hurt Europe by crippling their oil supply, most of which came from the Persian Gulf. The French and British retaliated by striking Egypt, confident that the United States would supply them with the oil they needed while they fought with the Middle East. President Eisenhower refused to do so, forcing the allies to withdraw their troops. As a result, U.N. troops acted for the first time to maintain peace and order in the world. Soviets tried to interfere. Eisenhown put the Strategic Air Command on alert.
Sputnik
The Soviet Union launched this first satellite into orbit on October 4, 1957. Humiliated at being upstaged by the Russians, the U.S. reshaped the educational system in efforts to produce the large numbers of scientists and engineers that Russia had. In addition, to better make scientific advancements, NASA was created in 1958. Created by Congress, it brought a national aeronautics agency to administer nonmilitary space research and exploration.
Nikita Kruschev
The premier of Russia during the race to get satellites into space between Russia and the United States. He used many propaganda techniques to try to fool the world of Russia's intentions. President's Eisenhour and Kennedy dealt with his communist attitudes.
Francis Gary Powers
May 3, 1960, the USSR announced an American U-2 plane was shot down in Soviet territory. May 5, NASA released a cover story of a lost weather research plane. On the 7th of May this pilot confessed to being a CIA spy. May 11 Eisenhower admitted to authorization of U-2 flights. This pilot was captured by the Russians but returned. Incident kept Khrushchev from meeting with Eisenhower.
Space Race
The United States attempt to technologically catch up with the USSR after their successful launching of Sputnik.
Fidel Castro and Cuba
He engineered a revolution in Cuba in 1959. He denounced the imperialists and took valuable American property for a land-distribution program. When the U.S. cut off U.S. imports of Cuban sugar, he took more U.S. land and resulting from that his dictatorship became similar to Stalin's in Russia. (Communism in the Western Hemisphere)
Election of 1960
In this election, democratic young, energetic John F. Kennedy was elected to president of the United States—the youngest man ever elected to that office. He ran against Republican Richard M. Nixon.
Peace Corps
Kennedy proposed this which was an army of idealistic and mostly youthful volunteers to bring American skills to underdeveloped countries.
Alliance for Progress
Kennedy’s policy was dubbed the Marshall Plan for Latin America, and it aimed to close the rich-poor gap in Latin American and thus stem Communism. However, too many Latin Americans felt that it was too little too late (because of Cuba).
James Meredith
Some places desegregated painlessly, but others were volcanoes. This 29 year old tried to enroll at the University of Mississippi, but White students didn’t let him, so Kennedy had to send some 400 federal marshals and 3000 troops to ensure that he could enroll in his first class.
Martin Luther King Jr.
A leader in the civil rights movement in the 1950's and 1960's. Preached non-violent forms of revolting such as sit-ins and friendly protests. He was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee on April 4, 1968.
Lee Harvey Oswald
On November 22, 1963, he assassinated President Kennedy who was riding downtown Dallas, Texas. This murder was later shot in front of television cameras by Jack Ruby.
John F. Kennedy
He was the youngest president ever elected, as well as the only Catholic to take office. He represented the democratic party with his "New Frontier" platform in the 1960 election. He was a major contributor to the space program and to the civil rights movement. He was assassinated on Nov. 22, 1963.
Cuban Missile Crisis
In Oct. of 1962, U.S. intelligence confirmed reports that the U.S.S.R. was constructing missile launching sites in Cuba. Kennedy placed a blockade on the island. He rejected a full-scale attack and, instead, delivered a public ultimatum to the U.S.S.R. So the U.S.S.R. agreed to remove the missiles rather than provoke a nuclear war. The U.S.S.R. backed down and the U.S. promised not to overthrow the Cuban government. . It was the most imminent threat of nuclear annihilation and thereafter, a hot line was established between the White House and the Kremlin to prevent accidental missile launches. The U.S. removed nuclear weapons from Turkey.
LBJ and the Great Society
This was President Johnson's policy. It was a continuation of the democratic ideals of FDR's New Deal and Truman's Fair Deal. It was a war on poverty in which such issues as health care, education, and welfare were covered and increased in importance. (Medicare and Medicaid)
Bay of Pigs Crises
Kennedy was told that there were enough people in Cuba that would support an uprising, so he sent American troops along with Cuban exiles to this area (these exiles were secretly trained by the CIA). The US hoped the uprising would overthrow the Communist government and result in the capture of Fidel Castro. When no one was there to support the raid, Kennedy withdrew air support. Therefore, Castro was able to defeat the uprising. The Cuban exiles were captured and traded back to the U.S. for food. Their return embarrassed the United States and the nation acquired a reputation as a belligerent imperial country. This was Kennedy's big failure in his foreign policy.
Jack Ruby
After Lee Harvey Oswald shot JFK, this guy was a proclaimed avenger and shot Oswald. The was much controversy and scandal and conspiracy in the assassination.
Warren Commission
On Nov. 22, 1963 in Texas, John F. Kennedy was shot and killed by Lee Havery Oswald. As a result, this order or group was created to investigate the controversial issues concerning a possible conspiracy.
Barry Goldwater
Republican senator from Arizona nominated on the Republican ticket for the Presidency in the election of 1964. He ran against Lyndon B. Johnson and lost the election.
Hubert Humphrey
The Democratic ticket for president went to this guy in 1968.
George Wallace
A third party ticket candidate for the American Independent party in 1968 that lost against Nixon. He was a former governor of Alabama and had stood in the doorway to prevent black students from entering the University of Alabama.
Stokely Carmichael
He was a black civil rights activist in the 1960's. Leader of the Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee. He did a lot of work with Martin Luther King Jr. but later changed his attitude. He urged giving up peaceful demonstrations and pursuing black power. He was known for saying, "black power will smash everything Western civilization has created."
Malcolm X
He was an influential black leader who called for unity between blacks to combat oppressive forces in the US. He was a Muslim preacher who favored black separation and condemned the "blue-eyed white devils". He was a part of the Nation of Islam, but broke with them to form a black nationalist group, the Organization of Afro-American Unity (OAAU). He advocated Black Power. He was shot by a black gunmen while giving a speech in New York City.
JFK and the New Frontier
This was the new programs introduced by President Kennedy in the early 1960's. These programs included the space program to the moon and the peace corp.
Election of 1968
Lyndon Johnson did not run for re-election this election due to his dissatisfaction with the Vietnam War and public discontent. Richard Nixon captured the presidency for the Republican Party after he defeated George C. Wallace, the American Independent and Hubert H. Humphrey, the Democratic candidate.
Robert Kennedy
He ran for President in 1968; stirred a response from workers, African Americans, Hispanics, and younger Americans; would have captured Democratic nomination but was assassinated by Sirhan Sirhan after victory speech during the California primary in June 1968.
Peace Corps
Kennedy proposed this which was an army of idealistic and mostly youthful volunteers to bring American skills to underdeveloped countries.
Alliance for Progress
Kennedy’s policy was dubbed the Marshall Plan for Latin America, and it aimed to close the rich-poor gap in Latin American and thus stem Communism. However, too many Latin Americans felt that it was too little too late (because of Cuba).
James Meredith
Some places desegregated painlessly, but others were volcanoes. This 29 year old tried to enroll at the University of Mississippi, but White students didn’t let him, so Kennedy had to send some 400 federal marshals and 3000 troops to ensure that Meredith could enroll in his first class.
Martin Luther King Jr.
A leader in the civil rights movement in the 1950's and 1960's. Preached non-violent forms of revolting such as sit-ins and friendly protests. He was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee on April 4, 1968.
Lee Harvey Oswald
On November 22, 1963, he assassinated President Kennedy who was riding downtown Dallas, Texas. This murder was later shot in front of television cameras by Jack Ruby.
John F. Kennedy
He was the youngest president ever elected, as well as the only Catholic to take office. He represented the democratic party with his "New Frontier" platform in the 1960 election. He was a major contributor to the space program and to the civil rights movement. He was assassinated on Nov. 22, 1963.
Cuban Missile Crisis
In Oct. of 1962, U.S. intelligence confirmed reports that the U.S.S.R. was constructing missile launching sites in Cuba. Kennedy placed a blockade on the island. He rejected a full-scale attack and, instead, delivered a public ultimatum to the U.S.S.R. So the U.S.S.R. agreed to remove the missiles rather than provoke a nuclear war. The U.S.S.R. backed down and the U.S. promised not to overthrow the Cuban government. . It was the most imminent threat of nuclear annihilation and thereafter, a hot line was established between the White House and the Kremlin to prevent accidental missile launches. The U.S. removed nuclear weapons from Turkey.
LBJ and the Great Society
This was President Johnson's policy. It was a continuation of the democratic ideals of FDR's New Deal and Truman's Fair Deal. It was a war on poverty in which such issues as health care, education, and welfare were covered and increased in importance. (Medicare and Medicaid)
Bay of Pigs Crises
Kennedy was told that there were enough people in Cuba that would support an uprising, so he sent American troops along with Cuban exiles to this area (these exiles were secretly trained by the CIA). The US hoped the uprising would overthrow the Communist government and result in the capture of Fidel Castro. When no one was there to support the raid, Kennedy withdrew air support. Therefore, Castro was able to defeat the uprising. The Cuban exiles were captured and traded back to the U.S. for food. Their return embarrassed the United States and the nation acquired a reputation as a belligerent imperial country. This was Kennedy's big failure in his foreign policy.
Jack Ruby
After Lee Harvey Oswald shot JFK, this guy was a proclaimed avenger and shot Oswald. The was much controversy and scandal and conspiracy in the assassination.
Warren Commission
On Nov. 22, 1963 in Texas, John F. Kennedy was shot and killed by Lee Havery Oswald. As a result, this order or group was created to investigate the controversial issues concerning a possible conspiracy.
Barry Goldwater
Republican senator from Arizona nominated on the Republican ticket for the Presidency in the election of 1964. He ran against Lyndon B. Johnson and lost the election.
Hubert Humphrey
The Democratic ticket for president went to this guy.
George Wallace
A third party ticket candidate for the American Independent party in 1968 that lost against Nixon. He was a former governor of Alabama and had stood in the doorway to prevent black students from entering the University of Alabama.
Stokely Carmichael
He was a black civil rights activist in the 1960's. Leader of the Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee. He did a lot of work with Martin Luther King Jr. but later changed his attitude. Carmichael urged giving up peaceful demonstrations and pursuing black power. He was known for saying, "black power will smash everything Western civilization has created."
Malcolm X
He was an influential black leader who called for unity between blacks to combat oppressive forces in the US. He was a Muslim preacher who favored black separation and condemned the "blue-eyed white devils". He was a part of the Nation of Islam, but broke with them to form a black nationalist group, the Organization of Afro-American Unity (OAAU). He advocated Black Power. He was shot by a black gunmen while giving a speech in New York City.
JFK and the New Frontier
This was the new programs introduced by President Kennedy in the early 1960's. These programs included the space program to the moon and the peace corp.
Election of 1968
Lyndon Johnson did not run for re-election this election due to his dissatisfaction with the Vietnam War and public discontent. Richard Nixon captured the presidency for the Republican Party after he defeated George C. Wallace, the American Independent and Hubert H. Humphrey, the Democratic candidate.
Robert Kennedy
He ran for President in 1968; stirred a response from workers, African Americans, Hispanics, and younger Americans; would have captured Democratic nomination but was assassinated by Sirhan Sirhan after victory speech during the California primary in June 1968.
Gideon vs. Wainwright
The Warren Court ruled in this case that the state was required to provide attorneys for defendants in felony cases at the public’s expense. This ruling was a part of the effort to reform the criminal justice system and enable poor people legal council.
Miranda vs. Arizona
In 1966 the case confirmed the obligation and requirement for police to read a suspect their constitutional right which included remaining silent and having legal council present during police questioning. The Escobedo decision labeled the Warren Court as an intrusive presence.
My Lai Massacre
In 1968 American troops massacred women and children in a Vietnamese village; this deepened American people's disgust for the Vietnam War.
Henry Kissinger
Nixon's national security adviser. He and his family escaped Hitler's anti-Jewish persecutions. Former Harvard professor. In 1969, he had begun meeting secretly on Nixon's behalf with North Vietnamese officials in Paris to negotiate an end to the war in Vietnam. He was also preparing the president's path to Beijing and Moscow. He flew from capital to capital and bargained with the Israelis and the Egyptian people. He organized a cease-fire in November of 1973. He negotiated the peace agreement with the aid of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries to end the Yom Kippur war. His "shuttle diplomacy" ameliorated the hostility between the Middle Eastern countries and the United States.
George McGovern
A Senator from South Dakota who ran for President in 1972 on the Democrat ticket. This man of South Dakota rose to fame on the energetic support of antiwar activists rushing to the Democratic primaries. His promise was to pull the remaining American troops out of Vietnam in ninety days which earned him the support of the Anti-war party, and the working-class supported him, also. He lost however to Nixon. He was seen as inept and radical, but Nixon was insecure about his popularity; the senator contributed to Nixon’s downfall.
“New Isolationism”
Cambodia was taken over by the cruel Pol Pot, who committed genocide by killing over 2 million people over a span of a few years. The War Powers Act of November 1973 required the president to report all committance of U.S. troops to foreign exchanges within 48 hours.
There was also a domestic feeling that discouraged U.S. troops in other countries, but Nixon fended off all efforts at this. This feeling was called….
The Warren Court
During the 1960s. Marshall was famous for pursuing cases that dealt with controversial issues of civil rights and the status of racism in America. His presence in this Supreme Court drew more attention to the area of civil and individual rights.
The Arab Oil Embargo
Furious at American intervention in the Middle Eastern conflicts, the Arab nations began to downsize the exportation of petroleum products to western nations. Consequently, the western world which relied heavily on petroleum was forced to seek other resources of fuel and energy.
Six Day War 1967
Israel’s decisive triumph in this small war had left the Arabs humiliated and eager to reclaim the militarily strategic Golan Heights which was taken from Syria. Aided by massive U.S. shipments of highly sophisticated weaponry, the Israelis stopped the assault and counterattacked.
Gerald Ford
He was the first president to be solely elected by a vote from Congress. He entered the office in August of 1974 when Nixon resigned. He pardoned Nixon of all crimes that he may have committed. The Vietnam War ended in 1975, in which Ford evacuated nerely 500,000 Americans and South Vietnamese from Vietnam. He closed the war.
Kent State University Killings
In 1972, the invasion of Cambodia spread the war throughout Indochina which sparked massive American protests on college campuses. There were universities that were sites of protest in which student protesters were killed. In April of 1970, police fired into an angry crowd of college students at a university. Four students were killed and many others were wounded. The students were protesting against Nixon ordering US troops to seize Cambodia without consulting Congress.
SALT (Strategic Arms Limitation Talks)
A pact that served to freeze the numbers of long-range nuclear missles for five years in 1972. This treaty between Nixon (U.S.), China, and the Soviet Union served to slow the arms race that had been going on between these nations since World War II.
Détente
A period of relaxed tension between the communist powers of the Soviet Union and China and the U.S. set up by Richard Nixon that established better relations between these countries to ease the Cold War. The evacuation of American troops from Vietnam helped Nixon and Kissinger reduce Chinese-American tensions. During this time the Anti-ballistic Missile treaty as well as the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks were set up to prevent nuclear war. This dramatic development marked a significant change in American foreign policy by developing a cordial attitude towards the communists.
“Star Wars”
SDI (Strategic Defense Initiative) was a proposed system of space based lasers and other high-tech defenses against nuclear attack, popularly dubbed this. It was proposed by Reagan in 1983 in an effort to ward off the perceived threat of a Soviet strike as U.S.-Soviet relations worsened. Many argued it would escalate the conflict. The system carried a huge price tag, and was fiercely debated until the end of the Reagan administration. The system was never used.
Anwar Sadat
President of Egypt; Jimmy Carter invited him and Israel's Menachem Begin to a conference at Camp David; the two signed an agreement that served as a step toward peace between Egypt and Israel.
Menachem Begin
Jimmy Carter invited Israel’s prime minister along with the president of egympt, Sadat, to a conference at Camp David; the two signed an agreement that served as a step toward peace between Egypt and Israel. It represented peace and harmony in the modern world.
Jimmy Carter
He was a Democratic, dark-horse candidate who won the 1976 presidential election. He was a humanitarian, and got Israel and Egypt to sign a peace treaty in 1978 at Camp David.
Ronald Reagan
He was first elected president in 1980 and elected again in 1984. He ran on a campaign based on the common man and "populist" ideas. He served as governor of California from 1966-1974, and he participated in the McCarthy Communist scare. Iran released hostages on his Inauguration Day in 1980. While president, he developed Reagannomics, the trickle down effect of government incentives. He cut out many welfare and public works programs. He used the Strategic Defense Initiative to avoid conflict. His meetings with Gorbachev were the first steps to ending the Cold War. He was also responsible for the Iran-contra Affair which bought hostages with guns.
New Federalism
This principle proposed to reverse the flow of power and resources from the states and communities to the state capital. The president proposed a revenue sharing bill that transferred some federal revenues to the states and prominent cities.
Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
He became Shah in 1941, when the allies of WWII forced the abdication of his father. Communist and Nationalist movements created unrest and tension during the early years of his reign. The Shah distributed royal lands to poverty-stricken farmers. He is known for both social and economic reform in Iran. With the abundance of oil-drinking machines, he became a powerful world leader, and the main military power in the Middle East. Muslims and the Ayatollah forced the Shah and his family into exile in 1979, where he died in Cairo on July 27, 1980.
Iranian Hostage Situation of 1979
Called Carter's and America's bed of nails; captured Americans languished in cruel captivity; American nightly television news cast showed scenes of Iranians burning the American flag; Carter tried to apply economic sanctions and the pressure of world opinion against Iranians. Carter then called for rescue mission; rescue attempt failed; The stalemate with Iran went on through the rest of Carter's term hurting his bid for reelection.
Election of 1980
This election included candidates such as Republican Ronald Reagan, Democratic nominee Jimmy Carter, and John B. Anderson as the Independent candidate. The biggest issue at the time was American foreign policy, and Ronald Reagan had a greater hand in that issue. Ronald Reagan became the President of the United States with the promise of ameliorating the American economy against the forces of "stagflation."
Reagan revolution
Reagan promulgated a program to restore U.S. prominence and honor globally, and fight economic problems. He advocated a more laissez faire policy through a lessening of government activism, taxes, spending, and restrictions on business.