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123 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
equilibrium
the main source of development, consisting of achieving a balance between the child's present understanding and the child's new experience
sociocultural theory
the theory associated with Vygotsky that emphasizes the influence of culture on development
zone of proximal development
for vygotsky, the gap between what children can accomplish independently and what they can accomplish when interacting with others who are more competent
synaptic pruning
process in which nonfunctional synapses die off
concrete operational
coordinated mental actions that fit into a logical system in a way that creates greater unity of thinking
decentration
the cognitive ability to pull away from focusing on just one feature of an object in order to consider multiple features
egocentrism
"to center oneself"
to consider the world entirely in terms of one's own point of view
transductive reasoning
reasoning of young children that does not follow the procedures of either deductive or inductive reasoning
conservation of number
recognizing the one-to-one correspondence between sets of objects of equal number
conservation of volume
understanding that the amount of liquid in a container remains the same despite being poured into a differently shaped container
identity
a mental operation in which the child realizes that a change limited to outward appearance does not change the substances involved
"they were equal to start with and nothing was added so they're the same"
compensation
a mental operation in which the child realizes that changes in one aspect of a problem are compared with and compensated for by changed in another aspect
"the liquid is higher, but the glass is thinner"
reversibility
a mental operation in which the child realizes that one operation can be negated, or reversed, by the effects of another
"if you pour it back, you'll see that it is the same"
metacognition
the ability to think about one's own thought process
memory span
the number of randomly presented items of information that can be repeated immediately after they are presented
memory strategies
specific actions used deliberately to enhance remembering
rehearsal
the process of repeating to oneself the material that one is trying to memorize
organizational strategies
a memory strategy in which materials to be remembered are mentally grouped into meaningful categories
elaboration
a memory strategy that involves making connections between two or more things to be remembered
metamemory
the ability to think about one's memory process
intelligence quotient (IQ)
the ratio of mental age to chronological age
Flynn effect
the steady increase over the past 100 years in IQ test performance, believed to support the environment hypothesis of intelligence
home child care
child care provided in the child's own home, primarily by a grandmother or other family member, while the parents are at work
family child care
child care provided in someone else's home, that of either a relative or stranger
child-care center
an organized child-care facility supervised by licensed professionals
education
a form of socialization in which adults engage in deliberate teaching of the young to ensure that they acquire specialized knowledge and skills
apprenticeship
a form of activity combining instruction and productive labor that is intermediate between the implicit socialization of family and community life and the explicit instruction of formal education
emergent literacy
knowledge, skills, and attitudes that provide the building blocks for learning to read and write
emergent numeracy
knowledge, skills, and attitudes that provide building blocks for learning how to do math
decoding
the process of establishing letter-sound correspondences when reading
bottom-up processing
an approach to education that start with teaching basic skills and, once they have ben mastered, moves on to more complex tasks
top-down processing
an approach to education that focuses on using skills to accomplish specific, meaningful tasks
instructional discourse
a distinctive way of talking and thinking that is typical in school but rarely encountered in everyday interactions in the community or home
reciprocal teaching
a method of teaching reading in which teachers and children take turns reading text in a manner that integrates decoding and comprehension skills
realistic mathematics instruction
an approach to mathematics education that focuses on developing the student's understanding of how math can be used to solve real-world problems
playworld practice
used in several European countries, and based on theories regarding the importance of play in intellectual development, it involved students performing and discussing various themes in children's literature
specific learning disabilities
a term used to refer to the academic difficulties of children who fare poorly in school despite having normal intelligence
academic motivation
the ability to try hard and persist at school tasks in the face of difficulties
mastery orientation
a way that children approach school tasks in which they are motivated to learn, to try hard, and to improve their performance
performance orientation
a way of approaching school tasks in which students are motivated by their level of performance, ability, and incentives for trying
entity model of intelligence
the belief that intelligence is a quality of which each person has a certain fixed amount
incremental model of intelligence
the belief that intelligence is something that can grow over time as one learns
school-cuttoff strategy
a means of assessing the impact of education while controlling for age by comparing children who are almost the same age but begin schooling a year apart because of school rules that set a specific cutoff birthday date for starting school
autonomous morality
the second and final stage of Piaget's theory of moral development in which right and wrong are defined according to internal motives and intentions rather than objective consequences
prosocial moral reasoning
the thinking that is involved in deciding whether to share with, help, or take care of other people when doing so may prove costly to oneself
objective view of responsibility
an understanding that responsibility depends on objective consequences alone
subjective view of responsibility
an understanding that responsibility depends on both intentions and consequences
social structures
complex organizations of relationships between individuals
dominant children
in reference to social hierarchies, those children who control "resources" such as toys, play spaces, and decisions about group activities
social repair mechanisms
strategies that allow friend to remain friends even when serious differences temporarily drive them apart
coregulation
a form of indirect social control in which parents and children cooperate to reinforce the children's understandings of right and wrong, what is safe and unsafe, when they are not under direct adult control
social comparison
the process of defining oneself in relation to one's peers
industry versus inferiority
according to erikson's theory, the stage during which children judge themselves to be industrious and successfully meeting the new challenges posed by adults at home and school, or inferior and incapable of meeting such challenges
self-esteem
one's evaluation of one's own self worth
puberty
the series of biological developments that transforms individuals from a state of physical immaturity into one in which they are biologically mature and capable of sexual reproduction
primary sex characteristics
the organs directly involved in reproduction
secondary sex characteristics
the anatomical and physiological signs that outwardly distinguish males from females
menarche
the first menstrual period
secular trend
observed in industrialized countries, a pattern in which the average age of puberty declines across decades
emtional tone
the degree to which a person experiences a sense of well-being versus depression and anxiety
formal operations
in piaget's terms, a kind mental operation in which all possible combinations are considered in solving a problem
hypothetical-deducive reasoning
the ability to formulate and evaluate the logical implications of a set of premises, even if it is imaginary or contradicts the real world
sociocognitive conflict
cognitive conflict that is related in social experience
morality of justice
a morality that emphasizes issues of rightness, fairness, and equality
morality of care
a morality that stresses relationships, compassion, and social obligations
sensation thinking
desire to participate in highly arousing activities, especially common in early and mid-adolescence
intimacy
a sense of close connection between two individuals, resulting from shared feelings, thoughts, and activities
autonomy
the ability to asset one's own needs in a relationship
homophobia
a fear of homosexuality
homophily
the degree to which friends are similar to each other
deviancy training
positive reactions to discussions of rule breaking
identity development
the process through which individuals achieve a sense of who they are and their moral and political beliefs, their career preferences, and their relationship to their culture and community
me-self
includes all of the things that people know about themselves
i-self
the part of the system that reflects on, guides, and directs the self
saturated self
a self full to the brim with multiple "me's" that have emerged as a consequence of needing to conform to social roles and relationships that demand different, and sometimes contradictory, selves
exploration
the process through which adolescents actively examine their possible future roles and paths
commitment
individuals' sense of allegiance to the goals, values, beliefs and occupation they have chosen
sexual identity
an individual's understanding of himself or herself as heterosexual, homosexual, or bisexual
sexual minority youth
adolescent who develop identities as gays, lesbians, or bisexuals
interdependent sense to self
the sense of self encouraged by collectivist cultures, characterized by an orientation to fitting into in the group, promoting group goals, and developing the ability to understand the thoughts of others
internalizing problems
disturbances in emotion or mood such as depression, worry, guilt, and anxiety; more common in girls
externalizing problems
social and behavioral problems such as aggression and delinquency; more common in boys
emerging adulthood
according to some developmentalists, a stage that in industrial societies comes between adolescence and adulthood, reflecting new challenges faced by people of about 18-25
epistemic development
changes in the individuals' reasoning about the nature of knowledge
objectivist theory of knowledge
the view of knowledge as involving an accumulation of objective facts and definite answers
subjectivist theory of knowledge
the view that there is no absolute truth, as truth shifts and changes depending on perspective
evaluativist theory of knowledge
the view that truth can shift and change but is nevertheless subject to particular standards of evaluation
Analytic (triarchic theory of knowledge)
the abilities we use to analyze, judge, evaluate, compare and contrast
Creative (triarchic theory of knowledge)
the abilities we use to create, invent, discover, and imagine or suppose
Practical (triarchic theory of knowledge)
the abilities to apply knowledge by putting it into practice
innatist hypothesis of intelligence
born generally smarted than others
environmental hypothesis of intelligence
intelligence is both specific-distinct and separate abilities and heavily dependent on experience
polygenic
traits that are shaped by several or many genes acting in combination in a given set of environmental conditions
explicit instrution
deliberate teaching of knowledge and skills
socioemotional competency
the ability to behave appropriately in social situations that evoke strong emotions
locus of control
extent to which individuals believe that they can control events that effects them (internal vs. external)
brain development
between the ages 6 and 8
onset of middle childhood permits frontal lobe to coordinate more complex enabling children to better control their attention
alpha/theta electrical activity
<5 years: more theta waves: characteristics of adult sleep states
5-7 years: same amount: characteristics of engaged attentions
>7 years: more alpha waves: engaged attention
3 common errors in development
egocentrism
appearance/reality confusions
transductive reasoning
conservation
Piaget's term for the understanding that some properties of an object or substance remain the same even when its appearance is altered in some superficial way
logical necessity
"it has to be this way"
co-construction
the shaping of environments through interactions between children and their caregivers, siblings, neighbors and friends
scaffolding
the process of reliance upon guidance until the child can master tasks independently nd build upon development
heteronomous morality
right and wrong are defined according to objective consequences
preoperational stage
between infancy and childhood
unable to decenter their thinking to think through consequences of action
preconventional (level 1)
seeing right and wrong terms of external consequences for the individual following or not following the rules
heteronomous:egocentric
instrumental: recognizing people have different perspectives and interests
Concentional (level 2)
moral reasoning shifts from external consequences to society's standards and rules
"good child": relationship with other people, more important and than self interest
"law and order": upholding the law
Popularity methods
nomination procedure:children name their friends or name children that they would like to site near, play/work with
rating procedure: children rank every child in the group according to a specific criterion
sociograms
representation of each child's relationship to all others in one group
pure victims
children chronologically harassed, teased, and bullied at school
AKA passive or low-agressive victims
passive:"unassertive" expression of negative sentiments, feelings of anger and resentfulness; act agreeable but doesn't follow through
pure bullies
"proactive": distinguished from reactive aggressions (unplanned, impulsive)
"instrumental": done in order to attain a particular goal
Hostile Attribution Bias
tendency to perceive uncertain actions by others as aggressive
tanner scales
physical measurement of development based on external primary and secondary characteristics
semenarche
the first ejaculation
thelarche
beginning of development of breasts
andrenarche
increase production of androgens (testosterone)
"second-order operations"
aka formal operations
seeing the relations between relations
manipulating variables
hold one variable of system constant while systematically searching mentally through all the other variables
fundamental characteristics to a friendship
reciprocity: give-and-take of close relationships
commitment: loyalty and trust between friends
equality: equal distribution of power
identity diffusion
gone through a period of decision making about their choice of occupation, political commitment, religious beliefs, etc and are actively pursuing their goals
no exploration
no commitment
foreclosure
committed to occupational and idealogical positions, but they show no signs of having gone through exploration (they take over patterns of parents identity)
no exploration
yes commitment
moratorium
actively engaged in exploration
no commitment
identity achievement
likely to take a cynical attitude toward issues confronting them
yes exploration
yes commitment