Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/305

Click to flip

305 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
pain reception
body receives pain message
pain perception
body able to feel the pain, point when person aware of pain
pain reaction
phys and behav responses occuring after pain perceived
acute pain
usually has identifiable cause
which type of pain generally resolves itself?
acute
which type of pain threatens recovery
acute
chronic pain
prolonged, varies in intensity
intractable pain
lasts until death,
what is intractable pain also called
phantom pain
chronic non cancer pain
usually unidentifiable cause, ongoing, doesnt respond to tx
ABC's of pain: A
ask about pain regularily
ABC's of pain: B
believe pt and family about pain and tx and relief measures that work
ABC's of pain: C
choose pain control options appropriate for situation
ABC's of pain: D
deliver interventions in a timely, logical and coordinated fashion
ABC's of pain E
empower pt and family
4 classifications of pain by location
superficial or cutaneous, deep visceral, referred, radiating
superficial or cutaneous pain
pain resulting from stimulation of skin, short and localized
ex: of superficial pain
needle stick
deep visceral
pain resulting from stim. of internal organs
what type of pain radiates
deep visceral
ex of deep visceral pain
crushing and burning pain
referred pain
common in visceral pain, pain felt in part of body serperate from source of pain
ex of referred pain
MI
radiating pain
sensation of pain extending from initial site of injury to another body part`
how does radiating pain feels
travels down and along body part
ex of radiating pain
low back pain
what do cts often fail to do when it comes to pain
report or discuss
who describes char of pain
ct
how do you assess pain location
have ct point
what is the most subjective char of pain
severity or intensity
VDS
verbal descriptor scale
what is a VDS
line with 3 to 6 work descriptors equally spaced
NRS
numerical rating scale
what is a NRS
asks ct to rate pain on a scale of 0 to 10
VAS
visual analog scale
what is a VAS scale
straight line without labeled subdivisions
who developed the FACES sacle
wong and baker
FACES scale
6 faces to help children to describe pain
Oucher pain scale
two scales, 0-100 and faces
when asking about quality of pain, do you provide words to help the ct?
no
concomitant symptoms
symptoms that often occur with pain
ex of concomitant symptoms
N/V, H/A dizziness
should pain therapy be individualized
yes
give an example of relaxation tech?
guided imagery
name some nonpharmacological pain relief measures
reduce pain recept and percept, anticipatory guidance, distraction, cutaneous stim, relax
should you know the ct's previous response to analgesics?
Yes
what do you do when more than one med is ordered
select the proper one
should you choose the right route for the med?
yes
should you assess the right time and interval for administering meds
yes
types of pharmacological pain therapy
analgesics, PCA, placebo effect, local anesthetics, epidural analgesia
PCA
patient controlled analgesia
should family and friends operate PCA
no
can a pt overdose on a PCA
not if it entered correctly
cutaneous stimulation ex
massage, warm bath, ice bag
most common method of pain relieft
analgesics
what drug is effective in treating mild to moderate pain
NSAIDS
what type of pain drugs are used for severe pain
opioid
examples of adjuvants
sedatives, anticonvulsants, steroids and antidepressants
placebos
meds that have no effect
local anesthesia
loss of sensation to a localized body part
how are local anesthetics usually administered
by injection
how are topical anesthetics obsorbed
through skin
epidural analgesia
form of local anesthesia
where is epidural analgesia administered
through spine
pediculosis
head lice
s/s of pediculosis
sever itching esp at night
tx of pediculosis
shampoo, pick/ cut hair, wash all cloths and bedding
erythema
redness
pallor
whiteness
cyanosis
bluish
tinea infection of scalp
capitus
ringworm
corporis
tinea infection of groin
cruris
another name for cruris
jock itch
athletes foot
pedi
tinea infection of nails
unguim
tx for tinea
antifungals topical or systemic
what type of tinea can take a year or more to clean up
toenail
what is tinea
fungus
when is tinea common
cts with suppressed immune systems, diabetes
name a med used for tinea
sporanox
boil
carbuncle
what type of infection is herpes
viral
two types of herpes
type one and two
where is type one herpes found
on face or mouth
where is type 2 herpes found
genital tract
what is the incubation period for type 2 herpes
2-20 days
tx of herpes
acyclovir cream or valtrex
is acyclovir cream systemic
yes
how are herpes passed
STD
is there a cure for herpes
no
do herpes always have symptoms
no
varicella zoster
chicken pox/shingles
is impetigo common
yes
impetigo is not contagious
no
what causes impetigo?
staph or strep
what does impetigo look like?
honey colored lesions can be crusty
who is most often affected by impetigo?
children
how do you treat impetgo?
rigorous topical hygiene, topical antibiotics
erysipela
localized cellulitis
what type of disease is psoriasis?
chronic
what is psoriasis?
overgrowth in epidermis
what is the key in psoriasis
immune system
what percentage of population is effected by psoriasis
20%
what race is most affected by psoriasis
caucasians
what does psoriasis look like?
silvery, whitish scaling
where is psoriasis common
scalp, elbows, knees, sacral-lumbar area
what is the cure for psoriasis?
none
ex of benign skin lesion
corn, callus, wart
3 types of malignant lesions
squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, malignant melanoma
what is the cause of squamous cell?
not known
tx for squamous cell
shave off
what does squamous cell carcinoma look like
indurated base with firm nodule
what is the cause of basal cell carcinoma
not known
what is the most common malignant tumor in people with light skin over 40
basal cell
does basal cell metastisize
rarely
what can happen if basal cell is untreated
deep skin injury
what type is traslucent and flat
basal cell
what is melanoma
tumor of melanocytes
where does melanoma occur
both sun exposed and non exposed areas
where does melanoma usually arise from
moles
is there a genetic link to melanoma?
yes
what is the most common form of cancer
melanoma
where does melanoma usually go when it metastisizes
brain, colon, liver
what areas of the body is melanoma most common in
head, neck and lower extremities
how do you dx a melanoma
excisional bx
is melanoma staged
yes
S/S melanoma A
asymmetry of borders
S/S melanoma: B
border irregularity
S/S melanoma: C
color, blue black or varigated
S/S melanoma: D
diameter 0.6 mm or larger
S/S melanoma : E
elevation
shave bx
excision
curettage
scraping or scooping of lesion
punch bx
use tool to grab and remove
crysurgery
rapid freezing
electrosurgery
electric current
name causes of melanoma
heredity, sun, tanning beds
what is an essential element of skin care
bathing
what may neutralize protection of skin
strong alkaline soaps
what hours should you avoid the sun
10-3
nutrition and manage. of melanoma
balanced, protein, vit. C iron zinc
hypertrophy
increase in cell size
hyperplasia
increase in number of cells
metaplasia
one adult cell type is substituted for another
dysplagis
cells vary from normal cells, or one mature type replaced by lessmature type
well differentiated
closely resembles normal cell but forms slow growing encapsulated tumor
which type of tumor is encapsulated
well-differentiated
undifferentiated
cells grow rapidly, the more undiff a cell the more cancerous
initiating agent
something that predisposes a cell to transformation
promoting agent
alters genetic information of cell
grade of cancer
classification of tumor cells
less differentiated
higher grade
staging of cancer
classification system based on the extent of the malignancy
T
size of tumor
N
whether lymph nodes are involved
M
absence or presenance of metastasis
cure
complete eradication of disease
control
prolong survival and contain cancer growths
palliation
relief of symptoms, no cure
cancer in situ
precancerous
stage 1 cancer
tumor limited to tissue of origin
stage 2 ca
limited local spread
stage 3 ca
extensive local and regional spread
stage 4 ca
widespread metastasis
what do you use to remember signs of CA
CAUTIONS
Signs of ca : C
changes in bowel or bladdar habits
signs of ca: A
a sore that does not heal
signs of ca: U
unusual bleeding or discharge
signs of ca: T
thickining or a lump in the breast or elsewhere
signs of ca: I
indigestion or difficulty in swallowing
signs of ca: O
obvious changes in a wart or a mole
signs of ca: N
nagging cough or hoarsness
primary function of stomach
reservoir
3 parts of stomach
fundus, body, antrium
function of gallbladder
store and concentrate bile
what happens with gastric acid secretions in the elderly
it declines
what in regaurds to the gallbladder does aging do
increase risk of bile stones
what happens with absorption in the SI with aging
poor, esp with carbs and calcium
what is the cause of chronic gastritis in the elderly
H. Pylori
red blood in stools
lower GI bleeding
black blood in stools
upper GI blood
Upper GI
Upper Gastrointestinal series
what does the upper GI entail
bisualization of esophagus, stomach, duodenum jejunum
does an upper GI use contrast medium
yes
what must the pt do with a upper GI
swallow barium
how long should a pt be NPO before an upper GI
6 hours
what is given after an upper GI
laxative
what can an upper GI detect
tumors, ulcers, inflammation, abnormal anatomy, malposition
What does a barium enema do?
outlines most of lower intestine
does a barium enema use contrast medium
yes
what does a barium enema detect
polyps, tumors, IBS
what goes first if an upper GI and BE are needed
barium
what is the prep for a BE
laxatives, enemas, clean bowel
how long must a pt be NPO before a BE
8 hours
what is given after a BE
laxatives
Ultrasonography uses
high-frequency sound waves transmitted through abdomen
what is ultrasound used for
see organ size, shape, position and dx bysts tumors and stones
how long must a pt be NPO before a ultrasound
8-12 hours
what is done after ultrasound
diet as tolerated
what is a CT used for?
asses GB, biliary ducts and pancreatic probs
what are some downsides to a CT
high cost and moderate radiation exp
what test is useful with obese cts
CT
how long must a pt be NPO before a CT
8-12
what is done after CT
diet as tolerated
is contrast medium used with a CT
yes or no
what is radionuclide imaging used for?
locate source of GI bleeding
what is the prep for radionuclide imaging
none
Schilling test evaluates?
B12 absorption
what develops with malabsorption of B12
pernicious anemia
how long must a pt be NPO before schilling test
8-12
what types of B12 do you give for a schilling test
radioactive and non-radioactive
how do you do a schilling test
collect urine for 24-48 hours ck output
what is in endoscopy
fiberoptic scope used to inspect, bx or remove polyps and stones
what test can be used to control BI bleeding
endoscopy
Esophagogastroduodenoscopy
Upper GI endoscopy
what is an EGD used for
ID upper GI bleeding, ulcers, and gastric forms
how long must a pt be NPO for before an EGD
8 hours
what does an RN monitor for after an EGD
dyspnea, pain, bleeding, dysphasia
when do you give foods or liquids after an EGD
when gag reflex comes back
what does a colonoscopy examine
colon
what is the worst part of a colonoscopy
prep
how long must a pt be NPO before a cscope
8 hours
can a pt drive after a cscope
NO
tests for GERD
24 hr ph and motility, esophageeal motility, barium swallow, endoscopy
two major types of hiatal hernia
sliding, paraesophageal
most common sx for hiatal hernia1
nissen fundoplication
aphthous stomatitis
canker sore
candidiiasis of mouth
thrush
causes of gastritis
damage to gastric muscosa
how many meals a day should a person with gastritis eat
4-6
what should you avoid with gastritis
alcohol, smoking, irritating foods
main thing to manage gastritic
remove causitive agent
type A gastritis
non erosive, decrease in gastiric secretions
Type B gastritis
most common, H[Pylori
tx of type A gastritis
manage symptoms, B12
tx of Type B gastritis
antibiotics, PPI , bismutsh
PUD
peptic ulcer disease
cause of PUD
NSAIDS and H pylori, smoking alcohol
S/S of PUD
vague burning usually 1-3 hours after meals,
pt has pain from 12-3 am relieved by food what do they have
PUD
most common PUD sx
anorexia and weight loss
what dx a PUD
upper GI, endos with bx, H pylori screensing
what heals a PU
meds in about 8 weeks, usually reoccurs
what do antacids do
neutralize HCl decrease irritation
Histamine receptor antagonists
block histamin and decrease HCL acid
ex of histamine receptor antagonists`
tagamet, zantac, pepsid, axid
Proton Pump Inhibitors
decreave HCL acid
ex of PPI
prilosec, prevacid, protonix, aciphex, nexium
main cause of ulcer relapse
H pylori
if ulcer is bleeding, obstruced or perforated what is the tx
sx
what is the number one procedure for ulcer complications
vagotomy
who usually dies from a PUD
People over 65
s/s perforation
sharp severe abd pain
NSG intervent for perforation
low fowlers, emotional support prep for OR
what must you use to hang TPN
filter
after mixing TPN how soon do you have to use it
within 24 hours
what must you check frequently with tpn
blood glucose
complications from TPN
sepsis,
number 1 concern with TPN
infection
what is required for delivery of TPN
central venous catheter
active movement
voluntary movement involving contraction of muscles wiht energy supplied by patient
ambulation
walking
antagonist
a muscle that opposes the action of another muscle
asthenia
weakness
contracture
shortened or distorted muscle
deltoid
triangular muscle in shoulder
diaphragm
largemuscle that seperates thoracic and abdominal cavities
facia
band of tissue enveloping muscles and certain organs
flaccid
limp
gastrocnemius
calf muscle
gluteus
buttock muscle
involuntary muscle
muscle not controlled by pt
ligament
strong band of fibrous tissue that holds bones to bones or suppors large organs
muscle
organ that by contracting produces movement
myodiastasis
separation of muscle
myoedema
swelling of muscle
myogelosis
hardening of muscle
myotasis
stretching of muscle
passive movement
movement involving contraciton of muscles with the energy supplied from outside source
pertoralis major and minor
chesk muscles
popliteus
muscle posterior to knee
posture
position of body
rigor mortis
rigidity of body after death
spasm
involuntary contraction of muscle
sphincter
ringlike band of muscle fibers that closes a natural orifice
synergist
muscle that acts together with another
tendon
strong, fibrous band of tissue that attaches muscle to bone
tone
slight, continuous contraction of muslce
voluntary muscle
muscle that is controlled by pt
anatomical, erect
normal standing position with the arms by the side and palms forward
lateral recumbent
lying on either side left or right
prone
lying facedown and flat
recumbent
lying down
supine
lying flat on back
abduction
drawing away from midline
adduction
drawing toward midline
circumduction
circular movement
extension
straightening
flexion
bending
hyperextension
extreme or excessive straightening
lateral rotation
turning away from midline
medial rotation
turning toward midline
pronation
act of turning palm or sole of foot back or down
supination
turning palm or sole of foot forward ro up