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63 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What makes up the peripheral nervous system
nerons of the crainial and spinal nerves.
How many lumbar and sacrel segments do cows and horses have
6 lumbar
5 sacral
what do spinal cord lesions from T2-T6 cause in horses, cattle, and pigs?
paresis of the pelvic limb.
What do leisons from T2-L3 cause? list 3
propreoception deficits
depressed limb sensation
What disease is characterized by increased volum of CSF.
What are some causes of hydrocephalus
genetics, vitamin A deficiency
What is occipitoatlantoaxial malformation and what breed is it commonly seen in
fusing of the joints in the cervicle vertebra. it is an inherited disorder seen in Arabians and miniatures.
What does HYPP stand for? and what breed is it associated with
HYperkalemic periodic paralysis. seen in quarter horses. Impressives genetic line.
What is stringhalt
brisk involentary flexion of the pelvic limb. cause is unknown but may be linked to diet.
What disease is characterized by head pressing
what kind of virus is Encephalomyelitis and what are the three names.
alphavirus ( eastern, western, venesualen)
What is EPM and what animal transmits the disease.
Equine protozoan myeloencephalitis. it is caused by sarcocystic neurona transmitted by opossums.
What type of virus is west nile and when was it first seen in America.
Flavivirus, forst reported in 1999.
What family of virus is rabies from. and what form is most common in horses
rhabidovirus, furious
what is a common tick borne disese seen in horses that attacks the nervous system
Louping ill. death can occur 1-3 days
What hormone stimulates maturation of the ovarian follicle and formation of the corpus luteum
leutinizing hormone
What are the three stages of estrus in horses
estrus - diestrus- anestrus
estrus cycles how long?
horse 21-23 days
goat 21
cow 21
sheep 14-19
sow 21
Where does gonadotropin come from
the hypothalumus - begins the estrus cycle
ICSH causes what
an increase in testosterone. maintains a constant level of testosterone
how long can sperm live in the mares tract
24-48 hours
what is the minimum age to breed a mare. and what should their BCS be
4 years, 6-7
list the three forms of breeding horses
pasture mating, artificial insemination, hand mating
what animal was AI first used in? and why
Cattle, increased milk production
What does winking of the vulva in horses indicate?
the mare is in heat
gestation periods:
horses 336 days
cows 279
sheep 145
pigs 114
llamas 350
give three reasons for the caslicks procedure
hold pregnancy, wind sucking, uterine infection
4 reproductive disorders of horses
vaginitis, mastitis, brucellosis, prolapse
what os the best way to detect pregnancy in a cow
palpation, detectable 1 month after concieved
Name of estrus cycle in cows
non seasonal polyestrus - they cycle year round
how long do cows enter anestrus
2- 4 weeks after calving
list common reproductive problems in cows
mastitis, pyometra, Bovine viral diarrhea, uterine prolapse, dystocia, milk fever
how do cow get milk fever
when they are fed large amounts of calcium prior to giving birth, this causes hypocalcemia
what is a common technique used to induce ovulation in pigs
by administering equine gonadotropin
What is lordosis
the act of sitting on a pig to determin if she is ready to mate.
How long does estrus last in pigs
40-60 hours ( ovulation 24 hours)
when do sows enter anestrus
while they are lactating
how many embryos must be in the pig to ensure a viable pregnancy
what are common reproductive problems in pigs
retained placenta, cesarians, uterine prolapse, mastitis, hypogalactia
what is hypogalactia
decreased milk production
What sheep has a year round estrus cycle, what sheep has a 6 month cycle
marino, suffox
what percentage of adult body weight sgould a llama be in order to breed
what kind of ovulator are llama
they are induced ovulators - they ovulate when they are bred.
How long is gestation in horses
305- 400 days
when are the majority of foals born
at night in the spring
when does stage one of foaling end? when should intervention occur
when the water breaks , if it lasts longer than 4 hours.
what is stage two? on average how long does it last?
the actual birth of the foal
15-20 minutes
what is the specific gravity of the colostrum
list malposition of the foal
only one foot present
the nose ndoes not appear
the nose appears w/out front feet
what diseases may occur if their is a retained placenta
toxemia, laminitis
how long after birth should a foal stand. when should the foal recieve first milk
2-4 hours, before 6 hours.
what dimensions should a stall be for foaling, and what is the best bedding
12x14, straw or shredded paper, sawdust can clog up the foals nose
what should not be fed to a pregnant mare
oats, corn and barley - deficient in calcium. fescu hay - reduce milk production
what extra vaccine should be given to the mare to prevent abortions
rhino vx
what is shaker foal syndrom
botuslism, can be prevented with a type b injection
how is lavender foal syndrom identified and what breed is it most common in
the color of the coat, arabians
what is the name of the arabian mare who the lavender foal syndrom is thought to be linked
Bint Hewla
what are some systems that the treadmill is used to evaluate
respiratory, muskoskeletal, cardiovascular
what is th eonly anesthetic gas used in sheep
what is triple drip made of
GG, ketamine, and xylazine
what device is used to support the horse after anesthesia to prevent injury
anderson sling
what cell has the least diagnostic value in the horse
what is the normal total wbc in the horse
6,000 - 10,000