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254 Cards in this Set

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Concrete
Conventional proportion description=Cement: find aggregate: course aggregate. Generally a 1:2:3. Weight when wet: 150 pounds/square foot. Mix determined by desired compressive strength after 28 days.
Concrete Aggregate
Must be inert (no organic materials, clay, silt or salt) dimensionally stable (not susceptible to breaking down). Need a spectrum of sizes to fill all gaps. 2 classes of size. Fine aggregate: sand to 1/4", coarse aggregate: 1/4" to 2". Max size is < 1/5th the wall thickness or 1/3rd the slab thickness.
Concrete Water
Must be pretty pure, not acid or base. More water = Less Strength. Colder water = Slower Process. Generally 6-7 gallons of water/bag of cement. Calculations should include any water on aggregates.
Concrete Admixtures
Additives that can increase workability, resistance to freezing and weathering, chemicals and curing rate.
Gas forming agents
Concrete additive to increase workability and strengthen the bond of the concrete to the reinforcing
Pozzolanic Admixture
Concrete admixture used to reduce permeability if water and resist sulfates.
Lime
Concrete admixture to increase workability of mortar for re
masonry
Retarders
Concrete admixture to slow hardening so it remains workable longer. Good for use with exposed aggregate paving and during hot weather when temperatures cause initial set too rapidly.
Air-entraining Agent
A concrete admixture that induce air into concrete, increases resistance to freezing and plasticity, reduce compression strength and weight. Best around 7%.
Concrete Curing
Chemical process (hydration) stops when all water evaporates away. Colder water = slower hydration. frozen water = no hydration Hydration builds the concrete's strength 40 to 50°F minimum temperature for curing.
Reinforced Pavement
Minimum concrete thickness of 4" to permit 2" minimum coverage of steel with concrete. Used for walls, foundations, structural slabs, colns. Factors = location or rebar: tensile areas. Bonding: Steel must be clean and all rust, dirt, oil removed. Proximity to surface: minimum of 1.2", 2" preferred. Exposed surfaces: reinforce faces where lots of temperature changes happen, faces of retaining walls.
Reinforcing Bars
For reinforcing concrete. Sizes are multiples of 1/8": ex. #4=1/2" because 4 x 1/8" = 1/2". Generally made of intermediate grade new billit steel.
Fabric Reinforcement
Concrete reinforcement. Welded wire mesh. That's for concrete slabs around columns. Generally for temperature reinforcement; must stand up to longitudinal forces and bending forces. Size expressed in spacing of wires and gauge of wire: 6 x 6 or 6" on center both ways and 6/6 or both wires gauge 6.
Non-reinforced Pavement
Minimum concrete thickness of 3" but 5" is preferred. Used for pavement, footings.
Multiple course pavement
Thicker first poor, shredded level and surface left rough. While it is still green (for a better bond), 2nd, thinner wearing course, generally a finer mix, is bored
Jointing
Concrete pavement have a tendency to crack through the line of lease to dimension. This tendency should be a determinant in locating joints. Consider aesthetics when placing joints. Two types: control joints and expansion joints.
Tooled Joint
Type of control joint carved into wet concrete, rounded bottom.
Dowell Joints
Type of control joint in concrete spanned by a dowel.
Keyed Joints
Type of Control joint in concrete where edges of slabs are shaped to fit together to prevent vertical movement.
Thickened Joint
In concrete where slabs angle down and thicken at joint to be better anchored in subgrade.
Construction Joint
Plan ahead so construction ends when they need an expansion joint anyway.
Control (Contraction) Joint
Maximum spacing for non-reinforced walks 10"-0" on center, recommended minimum depth 3/4" or 1/5 of the total concrete thickness.
Concrete Gradient
Concrete can be installed at flatter gradient than other pavements due to the high degree of accuracy with which formwork can be controlled. Minimum slopes of 1% are recommended for surface drainage, lower minimum slopes of 1/2% may be used with apparent surface warping is not desired.
Concrete subgrade preparation
All unsuitable material (i.e. any material containing vegetables organic matter; such as Peat Muck, organic silt, topsoil or sod) should be removed prior to installation of the pavement.
Soil Pumping
Lateral or vertical displacement of subgrade causing weakening of soil structure. Minimize disturbance of subgrade with equipment to minimize.
Bleeder Stubs
Concrete subgrade underdrain storm water manhole.
Weeps
Concrete subgrade extension of foundation course at regular intervals to allow movement through impervious soils to swale.
Anti-adhering Agent
Used in concrete forming to prevent sticking to forms.
Strike-off (screed)
Removing excess beyond concrete forms, bringing to grade.
Bull Floating or Darbying
Level ridges and fill voids left by straightedge during striking off.
Concrete Edging
Stone tool rounds and straightened edges to prevent chipping, compact edges.
Concrete Floating
Method of finishing concrete, removes imperfections left by previous operations, embeds large aggregate just below surface and compacts concrete and consolidates mortar at surface for further finishing. Introduce surface pattern, if this is the final finish.
Trowling
Method of finishing concrete. Creating smooth hard surface from steel magnesium or aluminum tool.
Brooming
Method of finishing concrete. Texture, non-slip surface, but can impede drainage.
Dry Shake
Concrete surface color after preliminary floating and edging.
Seeding
Exposed aggregate finish. After bull floating and/or darbying spread aggregate evenly and embed by tamping with wood float or darby. After hardening, wet and brush to expose agg.
Concrete Embossing
Stamping patterns into surface prior to hardening.
Moist Curing
Wet coverings or sprinklers to offset loss of surface moisture of new concrete while interior has a chance to dry out. Popular effective method. Don't let water pour down surface; weaken material.
Sealing on Curing Concrete
Plastic sheeting, waterproof paper, or compounds placed on curing concrete to even out water loss.
Cold Weather Concrete Curing
Heating the mix, insulating blankets, high early strength concrete mix. 40-50° minimum must be maintained through mixing, pouring, curing. Most strength develops during first 28 days.
Slump Test
Concrete test. Consistency in plasticity. 12" high open-ended truncated cone filled with mix, removed. Measure change in height.
Compression Test
Predicts strength of concrete pour. Compression strength of sample pour from the same batch as pour. Concrete poured into a cylindrical form.
Untreated Soil Mix
Flexible pavement. Surfaces resting on untreated soil mixes, like stone pebbles or crushed rock combined with fine material; generally placed on loose and compacted to 6" depth with a 3/8" to 1/2" cross slope.
Sandy-clay Stabilized Surfaces
Controlled mix of local soil and minerals, generally thicker, finished depth to 8", economical and suitable for traffic to 500 vehicles a day. Also excellent base for certain pavements.
Soil stabilization surfaces
Unsatisfactory subgrade soils can be altered by admixtures to create suitable subbase, bases and sometimes surface courses, there are several methods. 2 most common: Soil cement and lime stabilization.
Asphalt Prime Coat
Low viscosity liquid asphalt to an absorbent surface to prepare an untreated base for an asphalt surface, plugging voids, hardening top and binding it to overlying asphalt course.
Asphalt Tack Coat
Light application of liquid to existing asphalt or concrete surface. Asphalt and emulsion diluted with water is preferred type for ensuring a bond between the surface being treated and overlying course.
Featherrock
From lava, light-weight, inexpensive, easy to shape, chemically neutral, not used structurally, insulating, pervious to moisture.
Granite
Impervious to salts and chemicals, not vulnerable to freeze-thaw, dense and durable, lots of colors and finishes, expensive, so generally only used as been veneer, paver for texture color toughness, curbing material, set with mechanical fasteners when used as veneer, low maintenance, difficult to cut.
Sandstone
Sedimentary, variety of colors, weathers, veneer, paver, dry stonewall, variety of forms (cut, split, rubble), pervious to moisture.
Limestone
Sedimentary abrasion resistant, easily worked, variety of colors, finishes, grains, sometimes weathers, higher maintenance, pervious.
Marble
Impervious, low maintenance, used as veneer, decorative mulch (chips).
Common Brick
Can be hollow (between 25% and 40%).
Type S Mortar
High tensile bond strength, reasonably high compressive strength for reinforced masonry, or non-reinforced if max flexible strength is required and mortar is only bonding agent between facing and backing, like a ceramic veneer.
Type M Mortar
High compressive strength and greater durability the other mortar types, for reinforced masonry below grade and in contact with earth, as in foundations, retaining walls, walks, sewers and manholes.
Type N Mortar
Medium strength for general use in general masonry above grade.
Efflorescence
The white coating on bricks, caused by magnesium or calcium salt in mortar or brick in both. Damage face.
Lumber
Cellulose material with variable characteristics. Failures: warping, checking, splitting or twisting.
Laminated Timbers
Can build curves into the wood, can increase spans without making it thicker.
Surface Treatment of Wood
Dipping, spraying or manual application of chemicals after all cuts and holes have been made. Not great for wood totally exposed to the elements.
Pressure Treated Wood
Chemicals injected under pressure into the wood's cell walls. Which chemical depends on water exposed, subterranean or above grade. Some won't take a stain or paint e.g., petroleum carriers. Some may leach out of buried. Some discolor wood. Creosote.
Plywood
Pine and Douglasfir, generally. Redwood in Cedar for siding. Glue comes in interior and exterior grades. A given thickness may be made up of different numbers and layers. E.g.: 1/2" could be three, four or five plies which influence the strength with the greater number of plies the greater the strength.
Grade A Plywood
Smooth surfaces
Featherrock
From lava, light-weight, inexpensive, easy to shape, chemically neutral, not used structurally, insulating, pervious to moisture.
Grade B Plywood
Solid surface, up to 1" knots tight, slightly rough, but no skips.
Grade C Plywood
Splits 1/2" by 12 panel length, knots 1" open, tight knots to 1-1/2" and up to 1", pitch pockets (open)
Grade D Plywood
Many controlled combinations of splits, knots, plugs, patches and holes.
Grade N Plywood
Smooth surface, intended for natural finish.
Grade AAX Plywood
Would have 2 smooth sides with exterior glue.
Conventional Wood Construction
A structural framing system generally used for housing construction and not preferred for expose to nature. Two types: platform and balloon frame construction.
Plank and Beam
Structural construction method for flooring material supported by beams and uses fewer, larger timber space farther apart than conventional. Preferred for exterior use because large Timbers is more weather resistant and of a better scale. Less labor equals less cost, no cross bracing is required, less cumbersome looking, adaptable: I Commenitz drainage with sloping and weatherproofing or by spacing planks 1/4" apart.
Post and Beam
Would construction method. Overhead support system for shelter or shade. Loadbearing capacity: regional character, wwpa span computer can help. Rafter Stan: dependent upon joist spacing, elasticity, type, roof pitch and deflection, total load rafter size and spacing. Maximum overhead beam span: size, modules of elasticity, stiffness, strength, types of wood, live in dead lad, deflection and beam size and spacing. Post sizing. Load is transferred to post through beams, post sizes are determined by calculating load areas and sizing posts for the load.
Footings
Are used to keep untreated wooden posts out of the ground, prevent decay and post shrinkage by distributing the load to a larger area of soil. Footing should be below free thaw and should be in undisturbed soil. Special consideration for hurricane and earthquakes are required in California and Florida. General footing should be centered and have a width and depth two times the thickness of the foundation wall.
Connections
Post structural members. Various metal base anchors, plates, clip angles and bearing plates are available for securing post to slaves of concrete footing.
Granite
Impervious to salts and chemicals, not vulnerable to freeze-thaw, dense and durable, lots of colors and finishes, expensive, so generally only used as been veneer, paver for texture color toughness, curbing material, set with mechanical fasteners when used as veneer, low maintenance, difficult to cut.
Sandstone
Sedimentary, variety of colors, weathers, veneer, paver, dry stonewall, variety of forms (cut, split, rubble), pervious to moisture.
Limestone
Sedimentary abrasion resistant, easily worked, variety of colors, finishes, grains, sometimes weathers, higher maintenance, pervious.
Marble
Impervious, low maintenance, used as veneer, decorative mulch (chips).
Common Brick
Can be hollow (between 25% and 40%).
Facing Brick
Solid or hollow
Paving Brick
Solid. High compressive strength, variety of sizes and shapes, low permeability, wide range of tensile strength (also dependent on installation). Specification: spec type, great, quality, finish, sand mold, and size (example, facing brick grade MW, texture: extruded, 4" x 8" x 2"). For consistent color, require all brick from the same firing.
Mortar
Choose it based on type of strength needed. Same ingredients as concrete plus hydrated lime. Comes in types: N, S, D, and O.
Asphalt Tack Coat
Light application of liquid to existing asphalt or concrete surface. Asphalt and emulsion diluted with water is preferred type for ensuring a bond between the surface being treated and overlying course.
Type N Mortar
Medium strength for general use in general masonry above grade.
Type S Mortar
High tensile bond strength, reasonably high compressive strength for reinforced masonry, or non-reinforced if max flexible strength is required and mortar is only bonding agent between facing and backing, like a ceramic veneer.
Type M Mortar
High compressive strength and greater durability the other mortar types, for reinforced masonry below grade and in contact with earth, as in foundations, retaining walls, walks, sewers and manholes.
Efflorescence
The white coating on bricks, caused by magnesium or calcium salt in mortar or brick in both. Damage face.
Lumber
Cellulose material with variable characteristics. Failures: warping, checking, splitting or twisting.
Laminated Timbers
Can build curves into the wood, can increase spans without making it thicker.
Surface Treatment of Wood
Dipping, spraying or manual application of chemicals after all cuts and holes have been made. Not great for wood totally exposed to the elements.
Pressure Treated Wood
Chemicals injected under pressure into the wood's cell walls. Which chemical depends on water exposed, subterranean or above grade. Some won't take a stain or paint e.g., petroleum carriers. Some may leach out of buried. Some discolor wood. Creosote.
Plywood
Pine and Douglasfir, generally. Redwood in Cedar for siding. Glue comes in interior and exterior grades. A given thickness may be made up of different numbers and layers. E.g.: 1/2" could be three, four or five plies which influence the strength with the greater number of plies the greater the strength.
Grade A Plywood
Smooth surfaces
Featherrock
From lava, light-weight, inexpensive, easy to shape, chemically neutral, not used structurally, insulating, pervious to moisture.
Grade B Plywood
Solid surface, up to 1" knots tight, slightly rough, but no skips.
Grade C Plywood
Splits 1/2" by 12 panel length, knots 1" open, tight knots to 1-1/2" and up to 1", pitch pockets (open)
Grade D Plywood
Many controlled combinations of splits, knots, plugs, patches and holes.
Grade N Plywood
Smooth surface, intended for natural finish.
Grade AAX Plywood
Would have 2 smooth sides with exterior glue.
Conventional Wood Construction
A structural framing system generally used for housing construction and not preferred for expose to nature. Two types: platform and balloon frame construction.
Plank and Beam
Structural construction method for flooring material supported by beams and uses fewer, larger timber space farther apart than conventional. Preferred for exterior use because large Timbers is more weather resistant and of a better scale. Less labor equals less cost, no cross bracing is required, less cumbersome looking, adaptable: I Commenitz drainage with sloping and weatherproofing or by spacing planks 1/4" apart.
Post and Beam
Would construction method. Overhead support system for shelter or shade. Loadbearing capacity: regional character, wwpa span computer can help. Rafter Stan: dependent upon joist spacing, elasticity, type, roof pitch and deflection, total load rafter size and spacing. Maximum overhead beam span: size, modules of elasticity, stiffness, strength, types of wood, live in dead lad, deflection and beam size and spacing. Post sizing. Load is transferred to post through beams, post sizes are determined by calculating load areas and sizing posts for the load.
Footings
Are used to keep untreated wooden posts out of the ground, prevent decay and post shrinkage by distributing the load to a larger area of soil. Footing should be below free thaw and should be in undisturbed soil. Special consideration for hurricane and earthquakes are required in California and Florida. General footing should be centered and have a width and depth two times the thickness of the foundation wall.
Connections
Post structural members. Various metal base anchors, plates, clip angles and bearing plates are available for securing post to slaves of concrete footing.
Granite
Impervious to salts and chemicals, not vulnerable to freeze-thaw, dense and durable, lots of colors and finishes, expensive, so generally only used as been veneer, paver for texture color toughness, curbing material, set with mechanical fasteners when used as veneer, low maintenance, difficult to cut.
Sandstone
Sedimentary, variety of colors, weathers, veneer, paver, dry stonewall, variety of forms (cut, split, rubble), pervious to moisture.
Limestone
Sedimentary abrasion resistant, easily worked, variety of colors, finishes, grains, sometimes weathers, higher maintenance, pervious.
Marble
Impervious, low maintenance, used as veneer, decorative mulch (chips).
Common Brick
Can be hollow (between 25% and 40%).
Facing Brick
Solid or hollow
Paving Brick
Solid. High compressive strength, variety of sizes and shapes, low permeability, wide range of tensile strength (also dependent on installation). Specification: spec type, great, quality, finish, sand mold, and size (example, facing brick grade MW, texture: extruded, 4" x 8" x 2"). For consistent color, require all brick from the same firing.
Mortar
Choose it based on type of strength needed. Same ingredients as concrete plus hydrated lime. Comes in types: N, S, D, and O.
Asphalt Tack Coat
Light application of liquid to existing asphalt or concrete surface. Asphalt and emulsion diluted with water is preferred type for ensuring a bond between the surface being treated and overlying course.
Type N Mortar
Medium strength for general use in general masonry above grade.
Type S Mortar
High tensile bond strength, reasonably high compressive strength for reinforced masonry, or non-reinforced if max flexible strength is required and mortar is only bonding agent between facing and backing, like a ceramic veneer.
Type M Mortar
High compressive strength and greater durability the other mortar types, for reinforced masonry below grade and in contact with earth, as in foundations, retaining walls, walks, sewers and manholes.
Efflorescence
The white coating on bricks, caused by magnesium or calcium salt in mortar or brick in both. Damage face.
Lumber
Cellulose material with variable characteristics. Failures: warping, checking, splitting or twisting.
Laminated Timbers
Can build curves into the wood, can increase spans without making it thicker.
Surface Treatment of Wood
Dipping, spraying or manual application of chemicals after all cuts and holes have been made. Not great for wood totally exposed to the elements.
Pressure Treated Wood
Chemicals injected under pressure into the wood's cell walls. Which chemical depends on water exposed, subterranean or above grade. Some won't take a stain or paint e.g., petroleum carriers. Some may leach out of buried. Some discolor wood. Creosote.
Plywood
Pine and Douglasfir, generally. Redwood in Cedar for siding. Glue comes in interior and exterior grades. A given thickness may be made up of different numbers and layers. E.g.: 1/2" could be three, four or five plies which influence the strength with the greater number of plies the greater the strength.
Grade A Plywood
Smooth surfaces
Featherrock
From lava, light-weight, inexpensive, easy to shape, chemically neutral, not used structurally, insulating, pervious to moisture.
Grade B Plywood
Solid surface, up to 1" knots tight, slightly rough, but no skips.
Grade C Plywood
Splits 1/2" by 12 panel length, knots 1" open, tight knots to 1-1/2" and up to 1", pitch pockets (open)
Grade D Plywood
Many controlled combinations of splits, knots, plugs, patches and holes.
Grade N Plywood
Smooth surface, intended for natural finish.
Grade AAX Plywood
Would have 2 smooth sides with exterior glue.
Conventional Wood Construction
A structural framing system generally used for housing construction and not preferred for expose to nature. Two types: platform and balloon frame construction.
Plank and Beam
Structural construction method for flooring material supported by beams and uses fewer, larger timber space farther apart than conventional. Preferred for exterior use because large Timbers is more weather resistant and of a better scale. Less labor equals less cost, no cross bracing is required, less cumbersome looking, adaptable: I Commenitz drainage with sloping and weatherproofing or by spacing planks 1/4" apart.
Post and Beam
Would construction method. Overhead support system for shelter or shade. Loadbearing capacity: regional character, wwpa span computer can help. Rafter Stan: dependent upon joist spacing, elasticity, type, roof pitch and deflection, total load rafter size and spacing. Maximum overhead beam span: size, modules of elasticity, stiffness, strength, types of wood, live in dead lad, deflection and beam size and spacing. Post sizing. Load is transferred to post through beams, post sizes are determined by calculating load areas and sizing posts for the load.
Footings
Are used to keep untreated wooden posts out of the ground, prevent decay and post shrinkage by distributing the load to a larger area of soil. Footing should be below free thaw and should be in undisturbed soil. Special consideration for hurricane and earthquakes are required in California and Florida. General footing should be centered and have a width and depth two times the thickness of the foundation wall.
Connections
Post structural members. Various metal base anchors, plates, clip angles and bearing plates are available for securing post to slaves of concrete footing.
Granite
Impervious to salts and chemicals, not vulnerable to freeze-thaw, dense and durable, lots of colors and finishes, expensive, so generally only used as been veneer, paver for texture color toughness, curbing material, set with mechanical fasteners when used as veneer, low maintenance, difficult to cut.
Spacing
Depends on loading (live and dead), beam spacing, and sizing, joist spacing and sizing and decking size and spacing. Span, spacing and connections are inseparable variables influenced by the above and species grade.
Sandstone
Sedimentary, variety of colors, weathers, veneer, paver, dry stonewall, variety of forms (cut, split, rubble), pervious to moisture.
Limestone
Sedimentary abrasion resistant, easily worked, variety of colors, finishes, grains, sometimes weathers, higher maintenance, pervious.
Marble
Impervious, low maintenance, used as veneer, decorative mulch (chips).
Common Brick
Can be hollow (between 25% and 40%).
Facing Brick
Solid or hollow
Paving Brick
Solid. High compressive strength, variety of sizes and shapes, low permeability, wide range of tensile strength (also dependent on installation). Specification: spec type, great, quality, finish, sand mold, and size (example, facing brick grade MW, texture: extruded, 4" x 8" x 2"). For consistent color, require all brick from the same firing.
Mortar
Choose it based on type of strength needed. Same ingredients as concrete plus hydrated lime. Comes in types: N, S, D, and O.
Asphalt Tack Coat
Light application of liquid to existing asphalt or concrete surface. Asphalt and emulsion diluted with water is preferred type for ensuring a bond between the surface being treated and overlying course.
Type N Mortar
Medium strength for general use in general masonry above grade.
Type S Mortar
High tensile bond strength, reasonably high compressive strength for reinforced masonry, or non-reinforced if max flexible strength is required and mortar is only bonding agent between facing and backing, like a ceramic veneer.
Type M Mortar
High compressive strength and greater durability the other mortar types, for reinforced masonry below grade and in contact with earth, as in foundations, retaining walls, walks, sewers and manholes.
Efflorescence
The white coating on bricks, caused by magnesium or calcium salt in mortar or brick in both. Damage face.
Lumber
Cellulose material with variable characteristics. Failures: warping, checking, splitting or twisting.
Laminated Timbers
Can build curves into the wood, can increase spans without making it thicker.
Surface Treatment of Wood
Dipping, spraying or manual application of chemicals after all cuts and holes have been made. Not great for wood totally exposed to the elements.
Pressure Treated Wood
Chemicals injected under pressure into the wood's cell walls. Which chemical depends on water exposed, subterranean or above grade. Some won't take a stain or paint e.g., petroleum carriers. Some may leach out of buried. Some discolor wood. Creosote.
Plywood
Pine and Douglasfir, generally. Redwood in Cedar for siding. Glue comes in interior and exterior grades. A given thickness may be made up of different numbers and layers. E.g.: 1/2" could be three, four or five plies which influence the strength with the greater number of plies the greater the strength.
Grade A Plywood
Smooth surfaces
Featherrock
From lava, light-weight, inexpensive, easy to shape, chemically neutral, not used structurally, insulating, pervious to moisture.
Grade B Plywood
Solid surface, up to 1" knots tight, slightly rough, but no skips.
Grade C Plywood
Splits 1/2" by 12 panel length, knots 1" open, tight knots to 1-1/2" and up to 1", pitch pockets (open)
Grade D Plywood
Many controlled combinations of splits, knots, plugs, patches and holes.
Grade N Plywood
Smooth surface, intended for natural finish.
Grade AAX Plywood
Would have 2 smooth sides with exterior glue.
Conventional Wood Construction
A structural framing system generally used for housing construction and not preferred for expose to nature. Two types: platform and balloon frame construction.
Plank and Beam
Structural construction method for flooring material supported by beams and uses fewer, larger timber space farther apart than conventional. Preferred for exterior use because large Timbers is more weather resistant and of a better scale. Less labor equals less cost, no cross bracing is required, less cumbersome looking, adaptable: I Commenitz drainage with sloping and weatherproofing or by spacing planks 1/4" apart.
Post and Beam
Would construction method. Overhead support system for shelter or shade. Loadbearing capacity: regional character, wwpa span computer can help. Rafter Stan: dependent upon joist spacing, elasticity, type, roof pitch and deflection, total load rafter size and spacing. Maximum overhead beam span: size, modules of elasticity, stiffness, strength, types of wood, live in dead lad, deflection and beam size and spacing. Post sizing. Load is transferred to post through beams, post sizes are determined by calculating load areas and sizing posts for the load.
Footings
Are used to keep untreated wooden posts out of the ground, prevent decay and post shrinkage by distributing the load to a larger area of soil. Footing should be below free thaw and should be in undisturbed soil. Special consideration for hurricane and earthquakes are required in California and Florida. General footing should be centered and have a width and depth two times the thickness of the foundation wall.
Connections
Post structural members. Various metal base anchors, plates, clip angles and bearing plates are available for securing post to slaves of concrete footing.
Granite
Impervious to salts and chemicals, not vulnerable to freeze-thaw, dense and durable, lots of colors and finishes, expensive, so generally only used as been veneer, paver for texture color toughness, curbing material, set with mechanical fasteners when used as veneer, low maintenance, difficult to cut.
Spacing
Depends on loading (live and dead), beam spacing, and sizing, joist spacing and sizing and decking size and spacing. Span, spacing and connections are inseparable variables influenced by the above and species grade.
Joists
Function: Secondary beams provide rigidity and a fastening surface for above. Placement: on-edge atop a beam or hung between two beams. With thin members (2") the tendency to twist or fall flat increases with length requiring the use of blocking or bridging.
Blocking
Blocks are boards the same height as the joists they support, exactly the length of the space between the joists. They are inserted between the joists and aligned with each other. They help prevent twisting.
Sandstone
Sedimentary, variety of colors, weathers, veneer, paver, dry stonewall, variety of forms (cut, split, rubble), pervious to moisture.
Limestone
Sedimentary abrasion resistant, easily worked, variety of colors, finishes, grains, sometimes weathers, higher maintenance, pervious.
Marble
Impervious, low maintenance, used as veneer, decorative mulch (chips).
Common Brick
Can be hollow (between 25% and 40%).
Facing Brick
Solid or hollow
Paving Brick
Solid. High compressive strength, variety of sizes and shapes, low permeability, wide range of tensile strength (also dependent on installation). Specification: spec type, great, quality, finish, sand mold, and size (example, facing brick grade MW, texture: extruded, 4" x 8" x 2"). For consistent color, require all brick from the same firing.
Mortar
Choose it based on type of strength needed. Same ingredients as concrete plus hydrated lime. Comes in types: N, S, D, and O.
Asphalt Tack Coat
Light application of liquid to existing asphalt or concrete surface. Asphalt and emulsion diluted with water is preferred type for ensuring a bond between the surface being treated and overlying course.
Type N Mortar
Medium strength for general use in general masonry above grade.
Type S Mortar
High tensile bond strength, reasonably high compressive strength for reinforced masonry, or non-reinforced if max flexible strength is required and mortar is only bonding agent between facing and backing, like a ceramic veneer.
Type M Mortar
High compressive strength and greater durability the other mortar types, for reinforced masonry below grade and in contact with earth, as in foundations, retaining walls, walks, sewers and manholes.
Efflorescence
The white coating on bricks, caused by magnesium or calcium salt in mortar or brick in both. Damage face.
Lumber
Cellulose material with variable characteristics. Failures: warping, checking, splitting or twisting.
Laminated Timbers
Can build curves into the wood, can increase spans without making it thicker.
Surface Treatment of Wood
Dipping, spraying or manual application of chemicals after all cuts and holes have been made. Not great for wood totally exposed to the elements.
Pressure Treated Wood
Chemicals injected under pressure into the wood's cell walls. Which chemical depends on water exposed, subterranean or above grade. Some won't take a stain or paint e.g., petroleum carriers. Some may leach out of buried. Some discolor wood. Creosote.
Plywood
Pine and Douglasfir, generally. Redwood in Cedar for siding. Glue comes in interior and exterior grades. A given thickness may be made up of different numbers and layers. E.g.: 1/2" could be three, four or five plies which influence the strength with the greater number of plies the greater the strength.
Grade A Plywood
Smooth surfaces
Featherrock
From lava, light-weight, inexpensive, easy to shape, chemically neutral, not used structurally, insulating, pervious to moisture.
Grade B Plywood
Solid surface, up to 1" knots tight, slightly rough, but no skips.
Grade C Plywood
Splits 1/2" by 12 panel length, knots 1" open, tight knots to 1-1/2" and up to 1", pitch pockets (open)
Grade D Plywood
Many controlled combinations of splits, knots, plugs, patches and holes.
Grade N Plywood
Smooth surface, intended for natural finish.
Grade AAX Plywood
Would have 2 smooth sides with exterior glue.
Conventional Wood Construction
A structural framing system generally used for housing construction and not preferred for expose to nature. Two types: platform and balloon frame construction.
Plank and Beam
Structural construction method for flooring material supported by beams and uses fewer, larger timber space farther apart than conventional. Preferred for exterior use because large Timbers is more weather resistant and of a better scale. Less labor equals less cost, no cross bracing is required, less cumbersome looking, adaptable: I Commenitz drainage with sloping and weatherproofing or by spacing planks 1/4" apart.
Post and Beam
Would construction method. Overhead support system for shelter or shade. Loadbearing capacity: regional character, wwpa span computer can help. Rafter Stan: dependent upon joist spacing, elasticity, type, roof pitch and deflection, total load rafter size and spacing. Maximum overhead beam span: size, modules of elasticity, stiffness, strength, types of wood, live in dead lad, deflection and beam size and spacing. Post sizing. Load is transferred to post through beams, post sizes are determined by calculating load areas and sizing posts for the load.
Footings
Are used to keep untreated wooden posts out of the ground, prevent decay and post shrinkage by distributing the load to a larger area of soil. Footing should be below free thaw and should be in undisturbed soil. Special consideration for hurricane and earthquakes are required in California and Florida. General footing should be centered and have a width and depth two times the thickness of the foundation wall.
Connections
Post structural members. Various metal base anchors, plates, clip angles and bearing plates are available for securing post to slaves of concrete footing.
Granite
Impervious to salts and chemicals, not vulnerable to freeze-thaw, dense and durable, lots of colors and finishes, expensive, so generally only used as been veneer, paver for texture color toughness, curbing material, set with mechanical fasteners when used as veneer, low maintenance, difficult to cut.
Spacing
Depends on loading (live and dead), beam spacing, and sizing, joist spacing and sizing and decking size and spacing. Span, spacing and connections are inseparable variables influenced by the above and species grade.
Joists
Function: Secondary beams provide rigidity and a fastening surface for above. Placement: on-edge atop a beam or hung between two beams. With thin members (2") the tendency to twist or fall flat increases with length requiring the use of blocking or bridging.
Blocking
Blocks are boards the same height as the joists they support, exactly the length of the space between the joists. They are inserted between the joists and aligned with each other. They help prevent twisting.
Bridging
Bridging takes smaller pieces of wood, two in each space
Between joists. One goes from the top of joist 1 to the bottom of joist two to the bottom of joist 1. Similar arrangements happen in a line between all the joists in a line. It also prevents twisting.
Bracing
Bracing uses diagonal members to the depth of the connection between columns or posts. Length of diagonal must be increased as the height of post or load is increased. Back be designed as compressive members (rigid) or tension members (cables). Rigid sheathing can be substituted between posts for bracing. Acts on the principle of a truss.
Sandstone
Sedimentary, variety of colors, weathers, veneer, paver, dry stonewall, variety of forms (cut, split, rubble), pervious to moisture.
Limestone
Sedimentary abrasion resistant, easily worked, variety of colors, finishes, grains, sometimes weathers, higher maintenance, pervious.
Marble
Impervious, low maintenance, used as veneer, decorative mulch (chips).
Common Brick
Can be hollow (between 25% and 40%).
Facing Brick
Solid or hollow
Paving Brick
Solid. High compressive strength, variety of sizes and shapes, low permeability, wide range of tensile strength (also dependent on installation). Specification: spec type, great, quality, finish, sand mold, and size (example, facing brick grade MW, texture: extruded, 4" x 8" x 2"). For consistent color, require all brick from the same firing.
Mortar
Choose it based on type of strength needed. Same ingredients as concrete plus hydrated lime. Comes in types: N, S, D, and O.
Asphalt Tack Coat
Light application of liquid to existing asphalt or concrete surface. Asphalt and emulsion diluted with water is preferred type for ensuring a bond between the surface being treated and overlying course.
Type N Mortar
Medium strength for general use in general masonry above grade.
Type S Mortar
High tensile bond strength, reasonably high compressive strength for reinforced masonry, or non-reinforced if max flexible strength is required and mortar is only bonding agent between facing and backing, like a ceramic veneer.
Type M Mortar
High compressive strength and greater durability the other mortar types, for reinforced masonry below grade and in contact with earth, as in foundations, retaining walls, walks, sewers and manholes.
Efflorescence
The white coating on bricks, caused by magnesium or calcium salt in mortar or brick in both. Damage face.
Lumber
Cellulose material with variable characteristics. Failures: warping, checking, splitting or twisting.
Laminated Timbers
Can build curves into the wood, can increase spans without making it thicker.
Surface Treatment of Wood
Dipping, spraying or manual application of chemicals after all cuts and holes have been made. Not great for wood totally exposed to the elements.
Pressure Treated Wood
Chemicals injected under pressure into the wood's cell walls. Which chemical depends on water exposed, subterranean or above grade. Some won't take a stain or paint e.g., petroleum carriers. Some may leach out of buried. Some discolor wood. Creosote.
Plywood
Pine and Douglasfir, generally. Redwood in Cedar for siding. Glue comes in interior and exterior grades. A given thickness may be made up of different numbers and layers. E.g.: 1/2" could be three, four or five plies which influence the strength with the greater number of plies the greater the strength.
Grade A Plywood
Smooth surfaces
Featherrock
From lava, light-weight, inexpensive, easy to shape, chemically neutral, not used structurally, insulating, pervious to moisture.
Grade B Plywood
Solid surface, up to 1" knots tight, slightly rough, but no skips.
Grade C Plywood
Splits 1/2" by 12 panel length, knots 1" open, tight knots to 1-1/2" and up to 1", pitch pockets (open)
Grade D Plywood
Many controlled combinations of splits, knots, plugs, patches and holes.
Grade N Plywood
Smooth surface, intended for natural finish.
Grade AAX Plywood
Would have 2 smooth sides with exterior glue.
Conventional Wood Construction
A structural framing system generally used for housing construction and not preferred for expose to nature. Two types: platform and balloon frame construction.
Plank and Beam
Structural construction method for flooring material supported by beams and uses fewer, larger timber space farther apart than conventional. Preferred for exterior use because large Timbers is more weather resistant and of a better scale. Less labor equals less cost, no cross bracing is required, less cumbersome looking, adaptable: I Commenitz drainage with sloping and weatherproofing or by spacing planks 1/4" apart.
Post and Beam
Would construction method. Overhead support system for shelter or shade. Loadbearing capacity: regional character, wwpa span computer can help. Rafter Stan: dependent upon joist spacing, elasticity, type, roof pitch and deflection, total load rafter size and spacing. Maximum overhead beam span: size, modules of elasticity, stiffness, strength, types of wood, live in dead lad, deflection and beam size and spacing. Post sizing. Load is transferred to post through beams, post sizes are determined by calculating load areas and sizing posts for the load.
Footings
Are used to keep untreated wooden posts out of the ground, prevent decay and post shrinkage by distributing the load to a larger area of soil. Footing should be below free thaw and should be in undisturbed soil. Special consideration for hurricane and earthquakes are required in California and Florida. General footing should be centered and have a width and depth two times the thickness of the foundation wall.
Connections
Post structural members. Various metal base anchors, plates, clip angles and bearing plates are available for securing post to slaves of concrete footing.
Granite
Impervious to salts and chemicals, not vulnerable to freeze-thaw, dense and durable, lots of colors and finishes, expensive, so generally only used as been veneer, paver for texture color toughness, curbing material, set with mechanical fasteners when used as veneer, low maintenance, difficult to cut.
Spacing
Depends on loading (live and dead), beam spacing, and sizing, joist spacing and sizing and decking size and spacing. Span, spacing and connections are inseparable variables influenced by the above and species grade.
Joists
Function: Secondary beams provide rigidity and a fastening surface for above. Placement: on-edge atop a beam or hung between two beams. With thin members (2") the tendency to twist or fall flat increases with length requiring the use of blocking or bridging.
Blocking
Blocks are boards the same height as the joists they support, exactly the length of the space between the joists. They are inserted between the joists and aligned with each other. They help prevent twisting.
Bridging
Bridging takes smaller pieces of wood, two in each space
Between joists. One goes from the top of joist 1 to the bottom of joist two to the bottom of joist 1. Similar arrangements happen in a line between all the joists in a line. It also prevents twisting.
Bracing
Bracing uses diagonal members to the depth of the connection between columns or posts. Length of diagonal must be increased as the height of post or load is increased. Back be designed as compressive members (rigid) or tension members (cables). Rigid sheathing can be substituted between posts for bracing. Acts on the principle of a truss.
Steel
Plates beams, tubing, bars, caries in strength, resistant to oxidation and cost dependent upon process. Ability to hold paint, east of welding, drilling vary.
Stainless Steel
Specialties, sheets and coils. More expensive and specialized. Resistant to oxidation and corrosion.
Aluminum
Sheet, cool, tubing, bars and special light, light poles, very expensive, less strength. Specialized welding and must be coated to protect from oxygen.
Brass
Bar shock, specialties, and copper: piping, wire, sheets, coils, specialties. Resistant to corrosion.
Cast Iron
Piping specialties. Drainage structures, frames, grates, covers, backwater valves, traps, hoods and steps. Long life and high strength.
Sandstone
Sedimentary, variety of colors, weathers, veneer, paver, dry stonewall, variety of forms (cut, split, rubble), pervious to moisture.
Limestone
Sedimentary abrasion resistant, easily worked, variety of colors, finishes, grains, sometimes weathers, higher maintenance, pervious.
Marble
Impervious, low maintenance, used as veneer, decorative mulch (chips).
Common Brick
Can be hollow (between 25% and 40%).
Facing Brick
Solid or hollow
Brass
Bar shock, specialties, and copper: piping, wire, sheets, coils, specialties. Resistant to corrosion.
Mortar
Choose it based on type of strength needed. Same ingredients as concrete plus hydrated lime. Comes in types: N, S, D, and O.
Galvanizing cadmium
Zinc coating for steel, applied by dipping in solution with an electric charge or cold applied. Varies in smoothness and finish. Long lasting if not damaged. Needs special treatment to hold paint. Chain link , guide railing, special nails as bolts, hangers, water pipes.
Cadmium, Nickel, Chrome
Metallic coating that may or may not be more expensive in certain locations in relation to galvanizing. Not as durable in wet or corrosive atmospheres. Cadmium is used on nuts and bolts and hardware items.
Painting Metal
Shortens lifespan, dependent upon quality of material, application and surface preparation, poor resistance to chipping, high maintenance. On steel a fish oil base paint is often used to provide rust resisting qualities. Electro-chemically applied sometimes equals more pertanent. Weathering steel (cortex) is good with base paint because if paint surface breaks, metal underneath is already oxidized.