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96 Cards in this Set

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What is stripped during site preparation

Toosoil- 4-6 inches and stockpiled for later use, growing medium

What needs to be done before final payment can be issued?

Final clean up, final inspection passed, mechanics lien affidavits must be submitted

Excavation side slopes are set at a

2:1

What is the correct application forstructural fill

Placed under buildings in 6" lifts rolled to 95% density not to exceed 3'

When do you begin to install pipes and storm sewerbasins

After cut and fill is complete- so outfalls can be connected to building drains. Suffiecnt soil cover is necessary to prevent crushing

What is the min soil cover for small pipes

30"

Electrical lines should be buried at

2'

What utility has the shallowest depth and is last to be installed

Irrigation 12-18"

When does finish grading happen

After major plantings and other activities that require hauling have been complete

Pavement structures consist of 2 courses, base and wearing. What is the base course?

Aggregate that extends beyond the pavement edge for drainage and support

A single aggregate course is typical for

Lightpedestrian pavement

How thick is the base?

4-6"

What course is needed in addition for pavement supporting vehicles

Sand on top of agg

What is a wearing surface

Pavement - concrete ext

How many courses for asphalt

2

Why do trees need grade stakes during early installation

In ensure that tree ball will align with with final topsoil

Tree pits should be how much larger than the Tree ball?

2-3' wider

The tree should sit how much higher than finished grade?

1-2"

At the end of cut and fill subgrades may be how much under the finished grade number

12-18"

Minimum dimension for 2 people walking side by side

5'

Minimum dim for width of a seat

1'-3"

Minimum for a public walkway

8'

Typical height of a small truck

5'-2"

Typical width of a car

6'

Length of a typical car

15'

Least effienct layout for parking

30 degree

Microclimates

Implementing gravity sewers will eliminate the need for

Pumping stations

Objects should not protrude above how many inches because it will not be picked up by a typhlo cane

27"

How do you design a seatwall to drain

Pitch it back 1%

What are expansive soils

Soils and soft rock that shrink and swell because of changes in the moisture content

When roads or structures are placed on expansive soils what 2 problems can occur

Cupping or downwarping

4 properties of expansive soils

1. Soft puffy appearance of clay soil when dry 2. Sticky when wet 3. Open cracks in dry clay 4. Highly plastic and weak when wet, but rock hard when dry

Ratio of a slope is expressed

Horizontal to the vertical 4:1

Max cross slope of a sidewalk

4%

Max mowed slope

3:1

Planted slopes and beds

10%

Roadway design is established by who

American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials AASHTO

Roadway design consists of two major phases

1. Alignment of road, horizontal and vertical direction 2. Grading the adjacent landscape to the road edge

Do side slope of a seals affect the rate of flow

No

Swale- if velocity exceeds ----' per second, gravel, crushed stone, or riprap should be used as erosion control

6'

convex

Mountain

Concave

U caved in

Culvert


A tunnel carrying a stream or open drain under a road

Bowel force mains move water

Under pressure

Risotto tread ration

2:1, 6" riser and 12" tread

What is the key cause of erosion

Water

Max crossslope for a parking lot

10%

To re- establish the same type of vegetation after clearing and grubbing, what can be done?

Site plant material can be chopped up and mixed with topsoil

Order of site preparation

1. Clear and grub 2. Topsoil stripping 3. Excavation and prep of subgrade

What % should fill forplanted areas be compacted?

Only enough to retain 30% minimum porosity

Fill material-

Should be laid down in 6-8" layers compacted and tested to conform with specs

Where can you find General soil data

Usda department of agriculture and Nrcs national resource conservation service

How do you test to depth of bedrock

Rod test- boring made by a power auger

Review cut and fill page 320-31

Look up

What is it called when rock is blasted and the particles create more space

Swell

Cut and fill - the average and method is used for

Estimate volumes of linear elements such as roads and highways

Cut and fill- what method is most used by landscape architects

Contour method- accurate for making final grading adjustments and cost

Does the average slope of the watershed affect the amount of runoff generated?

Yes- rainfall on a flatter surface sheds more slowly

Would you see less or more runoff with a complex surface

Less. Urbanization has a tendency to simplify surfaces = more runoff

What is the principle determinant of infiltration

Soil type

Water quality protection systems are usually designed to teat

1.25" rainfall or a 2 year storm

Where can you find info on rainfall data and flow data

Municipal and county engineering departments or NRCS

High water tables and barred limit infiltration. What strategies would work well in these aes

Constructed wetlands, wet ponds, and wet swales

How do you define a watershed boundry

Start at outlet and move uphill in both directions at right angles to the contours

Design performance criteria should include

Peak discharge, runoff volumes, watershed infiltration capacity, ground water recharge, and water quality

Spot elevations on corners of buildings are how much lower than the FFE

1/2"

Spot elevation on stairs should be where?

Top and bottom. 6"

Cross slope is generally what %

1%, no more than 2%

How deep should a swale be?

1'

Acre how many feet

43560 square feet

Water quality protection systems typically is designed to treat how much water?

1.25"

Where is it best to place impervious surfaces in a drainage pathway

At the top, more time for runoff to infiltrate on the way down

Why does the top one need to be connected to a sewer system and the bottom one does not?

The bottom image is on a high point out of the 100 year flood plain

The center for watershed protection reccomends a ----- setback of undisturbed trees on either side of a stream + a ------ setback of managed vegetation area

25 & 50-100

Major flood protection designs to what storm?

100 year

What is velocity

Distance traveled over a certain time. Feet per second

What is discharge

Volume traveling at said velocity. Cubic feet per second

Does time of concentration become shorter or longer with the introduction of more impervious surface

Shorter. More runoff, water moves quicker

A frequency of a storm is also called the

Return period

What is intensity?

The rate at which the rain falls

Side slopes for a trapidozoidal channel should be

2:1

Storm sewers are usually designed to what storm

10year

Water storage provide provides where in the watershed will reduce the amount of downseam flooding

Upper 1/3

Minimum cover over culverts

1'

Detention =

Drain. Within 72 hours

All ponds should have 2 types of outlets

1. Principal spillway outlet


2. Emergency spillway alternative release

What elevation is the emergency spillway set at

6" above the water surface of the principal spillway

What are 3 ways to remove sediment from water

Forebay, storage basin, outlet structure

Slopes of a detention pond should be what due to safety

4:1

In a dry detention pond where is the pipe located

Bottom of pond

What is another name for recharge trench

French drain

The infiltration rock should be fully invaded in what to prevent sediment plugging

Filter fabric

Infiltration beds are what

Gravel storage trenches

What are infiltration wells used for

Collect water from roof downspout connections. Page 330-48

Should you use porous pavment for parking lots?

No - contaminants from autos flow directly into recharge trench