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60 Cards in this Set

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What is the typical height of a riser
4 min.-7"
typical tread length and riser height?
tread: 10-18" long
riser: usually 6" high
how far must a railing extend at the top and bottom of a set of stairs?
1' at top; 1'+1 tread length at bottom of stairs.
What is the width req'd to determine stair railing placement?
One handrail for every 2.5' (30in) of a width of stair; ie. 3' wide stairs require one rail on one side only. a 6' wide stair requires 3 rails, one on each side and one in the middle.
What is the required height of handrail of a ramp?
34-38" above riser
What height must a hand rail maintain above a ramp?
34-38" and must extend past the ramp 1' at both top and bottom. when meeting an existing walk a 1' level distance is included ramp length for extension of hand rail so it does not stick out.
What are the main features that need to be considered when designing a retention basin?
1. Maximize flow length b/n inlet and outlet. suggested width to length ration of 3:1
2. The pond should expand gradually in the direction of flow.
3. Pool depth should be b/n 4-8', with a level safety bench provided at least 10' wide by 1'deep
considerations for detention basin design?
1. maximize flow length from inlet to outlet
2. side slopes of basin should be LESS than 3:1, with the floor having a min slope of of 2% (think swale)
3. An access way of at least 10' wide with a slope of 5:1 or less should be provided for maintenance equipment.
Soils with a high silt and fine sand content have a __________ erodibility potential.
high
Soils with increased clay and organic content have __________ erodibility potential.
Lower
What amount is typically added to cut and fill calculations to compensate for shrinkage factor?
5-10%
List methods of fastening or connecting metal to:
1. Masonry
2. Concrete
3. Metal
1. grout and galvanized surface
2. grout and galvanized surface
3. make sure of galvanized surfaces to prevent corrosion
List 4 ways to reduce water penetration in concrete.
1. Keep water:cement ratio to less than 0.5 by weight
2. carefully treat all joints and cracks to prevent leaks
3. add chemical and admixtures to reduce water penetration
4. apply waterproof surface seal or compound.
Three reasons for controlling the setting time of concrete are:
1. reduce the setting time when below freezing
2. increase working time when temps are hot
3. control bleeding, or the movement of water to the surface of freshly placed concrete.
What three factors are controlled by the water:cement ratio?
Strength, durability and water tightness
The compressive strength of concrete is ___________ proportional to the ratio of water to cement.
Inversely. Too much water makes it weak and porous after curing. too little water makes concrete dense and unworkable. Best ratio of water:cement is usually 0.45 to 0.6
What are several uses/benefits of steel reinforcement of concrete?
1. absorb tensile, shearing and sometimes compressive stresses
2. ties vertical and horizontal elements
3. reinforces the edges around openings
4. minimizes shrinkage and cracking
5. controls thermal expansion and contraction
What is the best temperature range for curing concrete?
50F-85F (10-29C)
How long should concrete be protected from freezing weather during installation?
1-2 weeks
What are the three common types of concrete seal/glaze?
1. Sealer and curing compound-applied on damp concrete or used on fresh concrete as a non-fugitive curing compound that will provide continuous protection.
2. Glazier-sealer: a compound that brings out the natural color of slate, brick, stone and concrete, while providing moisture and chloride protection.
3. Deck coating: allows water to evaporate, but still protects. UV resistant. Do not apply until concrete is thoroughly dry.
What are the standard nominal dimensions of a brick?
4" wide, 2 2/3" high, 8" long (includes manufactured width of unit plus a mortared joint (3/8-1/2"))
3 courses = 8 inches.
List 3 mortar joint types with good weatherability.
concave or rooded and set in slightly ("("), V-shaped (<), and grapevine ({)
List four mortar joint types with Fair weatherability.
Flush and rodded (concave not set in); weathered (\), ruled (small V inset); flush or plain cut.
List 5 mortar joint types with poor weatherability.
Beaded (}), Raked (inset flat); struck (/); extruded (convex protruding); scintled (rough extruded)
What does brick grading designate?
the durability of a brick unit when exposed to weathering in one of 3 U.S. weathering regions. Brick is graded according to its compressive strength, max water absorption and max saturation coefficient.
What is SW brick?
suitable for exposure to severe weathering.
What is MW and NW brick?
MW: suitable for exposure to moderate weathering.
NW: suitable for negligible weathering as in back up or interior masonry.
What are the two grades of concrete block?
N: loadbearing CMU suitable for use both above and below grade in walls exposed to moisture or weather.
S: loadbearing CMU limited to use in above grade, in exterior walls with weather-protective coatings, or in walls not exposed to moisture or weather.
What is the difference between Type I and II CMU?
Type I is manufactured to a specified limit of moisture content to minimize shrinkage that can cause cracking. Type II has no specified MC.
How do air content, flow and time affect the bond strength of mortar?
1. as the air content is increased, bond strength decreases.
2. as the flow increases, the bond strength increases.
3. as the lapsed time between the spreading of the mortar and the laying of units increases, the bond strength decreases.
What are the three components of mortar?
cementitious material. clean well-graded sand, and water.
What determines the compressive strength of mortar?
the amount of portland cement in the mix.
How can corrosive situations be prevented when aluminum is used?
by applying bituminous or zinc chromate prime on metal.
What is steel?
various Iron based alloys having a carbon content less than that of cast iron and more than wrought iron. Qualities: strength, hardness and elasticity.
*Because steel is normally subject to corrosion, steel must be painted, galvanized or chemically treated for protection against oxidation.
What is alloy steel?
carbon steel to which various elements, such as chromium, cobalt, copper, manganese, etc. have been added in a sufficient amount to obtain a particular physical or chemical property.
What is Stainless Steel?
ntains a min of 12% chromium, sometimes with nickel, manganese, or molybdenum as additional alloying elements, so as to be highly corrosion resistant.
What are 3 non-ferrous metals usually used in construction?
Aluminum, copper and lead.
The portland cement mortar that should NOT be specified for use in exterior locations exposed to freezing temperatures is?
Type O.
An application of emulsified asphalt that is used to provide a bond between two asphalt concrete courses is called?
A tack coat.
Adding water to a mortar mix improves its ?
tensile bond strength
Which admixture might be added to a portland cement concrete mixture when it is being poured for an exposed aggregate walkway on a hot day?
a retardant.
An application of a cutback asphalt to an aggregate base course to prepare the base for subsequent courses of asphalt concrete paving is termed a ______ coat.
Prime
A brick masonry patter in which every other brick in the wall is a header is termed?
Flemish bond
What is a wythe?
a continuous section of masonry that is one unit in thickness.
What is a structural bond?
a masonry pattern in which the individual units or wythes are interlocked to cause the entire assembly to function as single structural unit.
What is the term for a piece of brick?
a bat.
List the four items that should always be addressed on a construction detail.
Materials, finishes, fasteners and dimensions
What CSI divisions are used for earthwork and exterior improvement?
31 and 32
True or False? typically grouts are high in tensile strength, but low in compressive strength.
True
How do you calculate board feet?
(# of pieces)x(width in inches)x(height in inches)x(length in feet)/(all divided by 12)
What is cutback asphalt?
Asphalt cement which has been liquified by blending with petroleum solvents. Upon exposure to the atmosphere, the solvents evaporate, leaving the asphalt cement to perform its function of cementing and waterproofing. There are 4 types.
What are the 4 types of cutback asphalt?
Rapid Curing (RC)- asphalt cement and a naptha or gasoline type solvent of high volatility
Medium Curing (MC)- Asphalt cement and a kerosene type solvent of medium volatility
Slow Curing (SC)- Asphalt cement and an oil of low volatility
Road Oil- a heavy petroleum oil, very slow curing
What is a tack coat?
A light application of an emulsified asphalt used to ensure a bond between two asphalt pavement courses.
What is emulsified asphalt?
An emulsion of asphalt cement and water. When applied, the water evaporates, leaving the asphalt to perform it's function.
What is a prime coat?
An application of low viscosity cutback asphalt to an absorbent surface such as crushed stone or gravel. It is used to prepare the base course for an asphalt pavement. The asphalt penetrates into the base, plugs the voids, hardens the top and helps bind the base material to the overlying asphalt pavement.
What is the difference between Primer Meridian, Baseline and Principal Meridian?
Prime Meridians are north-south lines (lines of longitude), at which longitude is defined to be 0°. The Prime Meridian starts at the North Pole and extends south to the South Pole. Baselines are lines that extend east-west. Principal meridians are the true north-south lines that run through the initial point of the area that is being covered.
http://www.landsurveyors.com/resources/land-surveying-measurement/
What is the surveying definition of a township?
Each 24-mile tract is divided up into 16 townships. Townships are roughly 6 miles x 6 miles. each township is now divided into 36 sections, a piece of land roughly 1 square mile x 1 square mile, or approximately 640 acres. This process is also used in defining corners and running lines from the southeast corner of the township. Each of the 36 sections is then divided into 16 forties. These forties are further subdivided, and subdivided, and subdivided.
How many acres is a square mile?
640
What are the three functions of a precast pavement base course?
1. support the expected traffic load
2. provide drainage
3. provide ground swell protection
What are the three types of setting beds?
1. rigid: mortar or grout used to bond the pavers to the base course. Type M mortar usually used for exterior pavements because of its high compressive strength and durability. 1/2-2" deep. Only use over rigid bases to prevent cracking.
2. semi-flexible: mixture of asphalt cement and sand. May be used over either rigid or semi-flexible beds. Tack coat on top of asphalt layer under pavers
3.flexible: 1-2 inch depth of bedding sand or stone dust. may be used over any base course system, but only used with a flexible jointing system.