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109 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Abscess
Collection of pus
Acetone
Keytone bodies
Albuminuria
Protien in the urine
Antidiuretic hormone
A hormone excreted by the pituitary gland which helps to reabsorb water into the bloodstream
Anuria
No urination
Arteriole
Small artery
Azontemia
An abonormal blood condition of nitrogen / waste
Bacteriuria
Bacteria in the urine
Bowman capsule
Enclosing structure surrounding each glomerulus
Caliceal
Hernia of the calyx
Caliectasis
Dilation of the renal calyx
Singular: Calyx (calix);
Plural: Calyces (calices)
1. Any cuplike organ or cavit
2. A cuplike extension of the renal pelvis that encloses the papilla of a renal pyramid; urine from the papillary duct is emptied into it
Catheter
Tube for injecting or removing fluids
Cortex
Outer region; the renal cortex is the outer region of the kidney
Cortical
Pertaining to the cortex
Creatinine
Waste product of muscle metabolism; nitrogenous waste excreted in urine
Creatinine clearance test
A test which measures the efficiency of the kidneys in removing creatinine from the blood
Cystectomy
Removal of the urinary bladder
Cystitis
Inflammation of the urinary bladder
Cystoscopy
Visual examination, using an instrument, of the urinary bladder
Cystostomy
New opening into the urinary bladder
Diabetes insipidus
Inadequate secretion or resistance of the kidney to the action of antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
Diabetes mellitus
Inadequate secretion or improper utilization of insulin
Diuresis
Increased formation and secretion of urine
Dysuria
Painful or difficult urination
Edema
Swelling caused by fluid in tissue spaces
Electrolyte
A chemical element that carries an electical charge when dissolved in water
Enuresis
Bed-wetting, a condition of being "in-urine"
Erythropoietin
A a hormone secreted in the kidney/s to increase red blood cells (RBCs)
Essential Hypertension
Kidney disease which is caused by high blood pressure, where the high blood pressure cause is unknown. The result can be arteriolar damage which can cause stroke, myocardial infarction, heart failure or renal failure
Filtration
Passive process whereby some substances, but not all, pass through a filter or other material. In the kidney, blood pressure forces materials through the filter (glomerulus)
Glomerular
Pertaining to a glomerulus; clustered
Glomerulonephritis
Inflammation of the kidney glomerulus
Glomerulus; glomeruli
Tiny ball of capillaries (microscopic blood vessels) in cortex of kidney
Glycosuria
Sugar in the urine
Hematuria
Blood in the urine
Hemodialysis
Artificial kidney machine which receives waste filled blood from the patient's bloodstream, filters it, and returns the dialyzed blood to the patient's body
Hilum
Depression or hollow i that part of an organ where blood vessels and nerves enter and leave
Hydronephrosis
Abnormal condition of water in the kidney
Interstitial nephritis
Inflammation of the reneal interstitium (connective tissue that lies between the renal tubules)
Filtration
Passive process whereby some substances, but not all, pass through a filter or other material. In the kidney, blood pressure forces materials through the filter (glomerulus)
Glomerular
Pertaining to a glomerulus; clustered
Glomerulonephritis
Inflammation of the kidney glomerulus
Glomerulus; glomeruli
Tiny ball of capillaries (microscopic blood vessels) in cortex of kidney
Glycosuria
Sugar in the urine
Hematuria
Blood in the urine
Hemodialysis
Artificial kidney machine which receives waste filled blood from the patient's bloodstream, filters it, and returns the dialyzed blood to the patient's body
Hilum
Depression or hollow i that part of an organ where blood vessels and nerves enter and leave
Hydronephrosis
Abnormal condition of water in the kidney
Interstitial nephritis
Inflammation of the reneal interstitium (connective tissue that lies between the renal tubules)
Ketonuria
Keytone bodies in the urine
Ketosis
Acid build-up in blood and tissue
Lithotripsy
Soundwaves or shock waves used to crush stones in the bladder, urethra or renal renal area.
Meatal stenosis
Pertaining to constriction or narrowing of the urinary meatus opening / canal
Meatotomy
New opening into the urinary meatus opening / canal
Meatus
Urinary opening / canal whereby urine leaves the body
Medulla
Inner region; the renal medulla is the inner region of the kidney
Medullary
Pertaining to the medulla
Micturition
Urination; the act of voiding
Nephrolithiasis
Kidney stones (renal calculi)
Nephrolithotomy
Renal incision for removal of kidney stones
Nephron
Combination of glomerulus and renal tubule where filtration, reabsorption, and secretion take place in the kidney
Nephropathy
Disease of the kidney
Nephroptosis
Sagging or dropping of the kidney
Nephrosclerosis
Hardening of the kidney
Nephrostomy
New opening into the kidney
Nephrotic syndrome
A group of clinical signs and symptoms caused by excessive protein loss in the urine
Nitrogenous waste
Substance containing nitrogen and excreted in urine
Nocturia
Urination at night
Oliguria
Scanty urine
Paranephric
Pertaining to above the kidney
Perivesical
Pertaining to surrounding the urinary bladder
Phenylketonuria
A congenital, autosomal recessive disease marked by failure to metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine to tyrosine. It results in severe neurological deficits in infancy if left untreated (PKU)
Polycystic kidney disease
A disease whereby multiple fluid-filled sacs (cysts) are within and on the kidneys
Polydipsia
Pertaining to much thirst (a sign of diabetes insipidus or mellitus)
Potassium
A electrolyte important to body processes.
Pyelogram
X-ray record of the renal pelvis
Pyelolithotomy
Surgical incision of the renal pelvis in order to remove stones
Pyelonephritis
Inflammation of the renal pelvis and renal medulla
Nephrolithotomy
Renal incision for removal of kidney stones
Nephron
Combination of glomerulus and renal tubule where filtration, reabsorption, and secretion take place in the kidney
Nephropathy
Disease of the kidney
Nephroptosis
Sagging or dropping of the kidney
Nephrosclerosis
Hardening of the kidney
Nephrostomy
New opening into the kidney
Nephrotic syndrome
A group of clinical signs and symptoms caused by excessive protein loss in the urine
Nitrogenous waste
Substance containing nitrogen and excreted in urine
Nocturia
Urination at night
Oliguria
Scanty urine
Paranephric
Pertaining to above the kidney
Peritoneal dialysis
Uses a peritoneal catheter (tube) to introduce fluid into the peritoneal (abdominal) cavity
Perivesical
Pertaining to surrounding the bladder
Phenylketonuria
Substances that accumulate in the urine of infants born lacking the important enzyme phenalalanine hydroxylase. Normally, this enzyme changes the amino acid phenylalanine to another amino acid, tyrosine.
Polycycstic Kidney Disease
Multiple fluid-filled sacs (cysts) within and on the kidney
Polydipsia
Pertaining to excessive thirst (a sign of diabetes isipidus and mellitus)
Polyuria
Excessive amount of urination
Potassium
An electrolyte important to body processes. The kidney regulates the balance of potassium in the blood.
Pyelogram
X-Ray Record of the renal pelvis
Pyelolithotomy
Surgical incision into the Renal pelvis inorder to remove stones
Pyelonephritis
Inflammation of the renal pelvis and renal medulla
Pyuria
Pus in the urine
Reabsorption
The process whereby the renal tubules return materials necesary to the body back to the bloodstream
Renal angiography
X-Ray examination (with contrast) of the vascular system (blood vessels) of the kidney
Renal angioplasty
Dilation of narrowed areas in renal arties
Renal artery
Blood vessel that carries blood to the kidney
Renal calculi
Kidney stones
Renal failure
Failure of the kidney to excrete wastes and maintain its filtration function
Renal hypertension
High blood pressure resulting from kidney disease
Renal ischemia
Stopping of blood flow to the renal area