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32 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is speech?
means of transmitting information involving oral/aural symbols
What are phonemes?
smallest unit of sound that makes a meaningful difference in a language
What is language?
means of transmitting information involving symbols
What is a dialect?
subcategories of the parent language that uses similar rules
What is the ASHA definition of language?
complex and dynamic system of conventional symbols that's used in various modes for thought and communcation
What are the 5 parameters of rule governed language?
Phonologic, morphologic, syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic
What is communication?
process participants use to exchange information and ideas, needs and desires- active process of encoding, transmitting, and decoding the intended message- speech and language
What is communicative competence?
degree to which a speaker is successful in communicating, measured by the appropriateness and effectiveness of the message
What are paralinguistic codes?
intonation, stress/emphasis, speed/rate of delivery, pause/hesitation- superimposed on speech to signal attitude or emotion
What is intonation?
use of pitch- most complex- signals mood
What are suprasegmental devices?
they change the form and meaning of a sentence by acting across elements or segments of a sentence
What are nonlinguistic cues?
gestures, body posture, facial expression, eye contact, head/body movement, physical distance, or proxemics
What is grammar?
set of underlying rules that describes the relationship between symbols and form the structure of a language
What is linguistic competence?
language users underlying knowledge about the system of rules
What is linguistic performance?
linguistic knowledge in actual usage- where you deduce linguistic competence
What is syntax?
rules that govern the form or structure of a sentence- sentence organization
What is morphology?
the internal organization of words
What is a morpheme?
the smallest grammatical unit and is indivisible without violating the meaning or producing meaningless units - free/bound
What are free morphemes?
independent and can stand alone
What are bound morphemes?
grammatical markers that cannot function independently- must be attached to free morphemes or to other bound morphemes
What is phonology?
the aspect of language concerned with the rules governing the structure, distribution, and sequencing of speech sounds and the shape of syllables
What is semantics?
a system of rules governing the meaning or content of words and word combinations
What is world knowledge?
refers to an individual's autobiographical and experiential understanding and memory of particular events
What is word knowledge?
contains word and symbol definitions and is primarily verbal
What are semantic features?
aspects of the meaning that characterize the word - Mother- female and parent
What are selection restrictions?
based on semantic features and prohibit certain word combinations b/c they are meaningless or redundant- female/male mother
What are synonyms?
words with almost identical features
What are antonyms?
words that differ only in the opposite value of a single important feature
What is pragmatics?
the study of language in context and concentrates on language as a communication tool that is used to communicate rather than with the way language is structured
What is a speech act?
every speech utterance- must involve the appropriate persons and circumstances, be complete, and correctly executed by all participants and contain the appropriate intentions of all participants
What is the overall organizing aspect of language?
Pragmatics- it encompasses semantics, syntax, phonology, and morphology
What are emergentists?
linguists that emphasize the intimate relationship between semantics and syntax rather then the structural independence of each- stress the similarity and causal relationship between meaning and syntax suggesting that grammar grows out of semantics