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165 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
articulation
motor production....once articulators begin moving = articulation
Phonemics
distinctive units of sound
Phonotactics
rules for organizing sounds
prosody
the inonation contour of speech, including pauses and changes in stress in speech
Phonetics
information on how sounds are produced
(not /pap/ have to put [phap})
coarticulation
are consonants produced with two simultaneous places of articulation
Phonemics
distinctive units of sound
Whole Object Assumption
internal constrants
use knowledge how grammer works to illiminate possible meanings
Lexical Principal
Phonotactics
rules about how sounds are organized into words
Taxonomic assumption
catagorizing words
some words refer to the same kind of thing
Lexical Principal
prosody
the inonation contour of speech, including pauses and changes in stress in speech
Mutual exclusivity assumption
different words apply to different things (if it already has a name, new word must mean something else)
Lexical Principal
coarticulation
are consonants produced with two simultaneous places of articulation
Principal of conventionality
observe everone around them use a word a certain way
Pragmatic principle
Whole Object Assumption
internal constrants
use knowledge how grammer works to illiminate possible meanings
Lexical Principal
Taxonomic assumption
catagorizing words
some words refer to the same kind of thing
Lexical Principal
Principle of contrast
differ words have differ meanings (overides mutaul exclutivity)
Socio-pragmatic cue
communicative intent of partner
used to figure out word...a mother would not call milk another word after child has used milk
Socio-pragmatic cues
Mutual exclusivity assumption
different words apply to different things (if it already has a name, new word must mean something else)
Lexical Principal
Principal of conventionality
observe everone around them use a word a certain way
Pragmatic principle
Read social cues (eye gaze)
child can figure out what a mother is looking at and therefore talking about
Principle of contrast
differ words have differ meanings (overides mutaul exclutivity)
Socio-pragmatic cue
Input as a source of support
Talk about the "here and now"
Label what the child is looking at
Gestures (pointing)
communicative intent of partner
used to figure out word...a mother would not call milk another word after child has used milk
Socio-pragmatic cues
Syntactic bootstrapping
(hypothesis)
children find and use clues to the meaning of new words in the syntactic structure of the sentences in which new words are encountered
Read social cues (eye gaze)
child can figure out what a mother is looking at and therefore talking about
Mental Lexicon
phonological knowledge of word
grammatical knowledge of word
definition of the word
Input as a source of support
Talk about the "here and now"
Label what the child is looking at
Gestures (pointing)
Syntactic bootstrapping
(hypothesis)
children find and use clues to the meaning of new words in the syntactic structure of the sentences in which new words are encountered
Mental Lexicon
phonological knowledge of word
grammatical knowledge of word
definition of the word
Phonetics
The study of sounds of speech
Phoneme
distinctive units of sound
Phonotactics
knowledge of constrants of sequences of sounds
(g+z is not allowed)
prosody
the inonation contour of speech, including pauses and changes in stress in speech
coarticulation
producing two sounds simutaniously, blending sounds between words
"finish it"
Whole Object Assumption
internal constrants
use knowledge how grammer works to illiminate possible meanings
Lexical Principal
Taxonomic assumption
catagorizing words
some words refer to the same kind of thing
Lexical Principal
Mutual exclusivity assumption
different words apply to different things (if it already has a name, new word must mean something else)
Lexical Principal
Principal of conventionality
pbserve everone around them use a word a certain way
Pragmatic principle
Principle of contrast
differ words have differ meanings (overides mutaul exclutivity)
Socio-pragmatic cue
communicative intent of partner
used to figure out word...a mother would not call milk another word after child has used milk
Socio-pragmatic cues
Read social cues (eye gaze)
child can figure out what a mother is looking at and therefore talking about
Input as a source of support
Talk about the "here and now"
Label what the child is looking at
Gestures (pointing)
Syntactic bootstrapping
(hypothesis)
children find and use clues to the meaning of new words in the syntactic structure of the sentences in which new words are encountered
Mental Lexicon
phonological knowledge of word
grammatical knowledge of word
definition of the word
What is a word
sound sequences that symbolize meaning and that can stand alone
symbols
arbitrary
referance/nonreferential
things, ideas, concepts, uses
concepts vs. words
concepts: motion, causality, space, time
Words: through, kill, behind, before
Pinker's notion of Mentalese
language of thought
properties of first 10 words
large individual variation in first words

context bound words
contextually flexible nominal
non-nominal contextually flexable
context bound words
only say word in specific context (light)
contextally flexible nominal
knows light is everywhere
Nominal
a name references a particular thing
non nominal
refers to more, not just a name
verb, adj
Characteristics of first 50 words
usually between 15 - 24
general and specific nominals most common word type
45% are nouns
first 50 reflect experiance
Why more nouns?
easier to learn
more obvious
we give more imput (pointing)
overextention
overgeneralized
use word more broady than they should
underextentions
have a word but dont use it as often as you could
Pragmatic error
dont know the right word so they choose something else
retrieval error
know the word but they (accidentally) choose wrong word
catagory error
looks almost the same as a dog so it must be a dog
word spurt
increase in the rate at which children acquire new words
usually after 50 wrd mark
why the word spurt?
naming insight
phonological development
underlying cognivtive development
naming insight
everything has a label
phonological development
development in phonological skills system help to learn
5 months
some comprehension
respond to their name
8 months
comprehend a few phrases
(stop it, give me a hug, are you cute)
PROSODIC CONTUR (tone)
8 - 10 months
comprehend individual words
16 months
understand 92-321 words

noun bias not relevent yet; understand verbs before nouns
Individual differences
context
childs approach
extent of risk taking
social nature of child
how are new words learned
speech segmentation
prosodic cues
phonotactic cues
child directed speech
fast mapping
slow mapping
know the word
fine tuning of the definition of the word
fast mapping
the best guess for what a word means
mapping problem
have to figure out what a word refers to because of all the possible meanings of words
Lexical Principals
(built in)
whole object assumption
taxonomic assumption
mutual exclusivity assumption
whole object assumption
children assume a word refers to a whole object, not to a part or property of that object
(billboard with blue rabbit)
Taxonomic Assumption
child assumes that words label catagories of things of the same kind (taxonomic catagories)
mutual exclusivity assumption
child assumes that an object has one single name
pragmatic principles
principle of conventionality
principle of contrast
pricncipal of conventionality
child assumes that words are used by all speakers to express the same meaning
principal of contrast
child assumes that different words have different meanings
Socio-pragmatic cues
communicative intent of partner
read social cues (eye gaze)
Input as a source of support
here and now
label what child is looking at
gestures (pointing)
General Learning Process
attention
learning
children use general cognition to figure out word meaning
phonological bootstrapping
produce utterances in order to accomplish goals. gets children started in using language and is later replaced by a system with word meaning and grammatical structure
later lexical development
growth in vocabulary size
growth in knowledge of word formation
increasing ability and importance of being able to learn new words from context
readding and vocabulary development
Growth in vocabulary
vocab increases by 9000 words from 1st to 3rd grade
increases by 20000 words from 3rd to 5th grade
knowledge of word formation
compounding
derivational morphology
inflectional morphology
inflectional morphemes are added after derivational morphemes
compounding
creation of a single new word from the combination of two existing words
derivational morphology
process that creates new words by adding certain suffixes or prefixes to existing words
inflectional morphology
words and word endings that mark grammatical relations, such as articles, prepositions, auxiliary verbs, and noun and verb endings
phonological knowledge of adults
sounds of language
phonological structure of words
phonotactics
phonological rules
suprasegental phonology
phoneme
allophone
meaningfully different unit of speech
cannot make a meaningful distinction
phonetic feature
characteristic of the way speech sounds are produced that is used to describe differnces and similarities among speech sounds. p and b differ in feature of voicing
distictive feature
phonetic feature that creates a phonemic distinction between two speech sounds
phonological rules
a formal expression of a regularity that occurs in the phonology of a language or in the phonology of an individual
supersegmental phonology
prosody
stress patterns
pausing
prosody
innation contur of speech, including pauses and changes in stress and pitch
stress patterns
stong/weak syllables
prelinguistic stage
basic biological noises
cooing and laughter
vocal play
non-reduplicated babbling
reduplicated babbling
protowords and 1st words
cooing and laughter
6-8 wks (limbic system develops)
vowel sounds, excited by social interactions, first control of vocal tract movements, proto-syllables
Vocal Play
16 - 30 wks
expansion stage
increase the variety of vowels and consonants
sound sequences get longer
no real communicative intent
Reduplicated babble
canonical babble
existence of true syllables
syllables are ususally repeated
can be communicative but often is not
rhythm
non-reduplicated babble
Variegated babble
increase in the range of Cs and Vs used
combine different Cs and Vs
Prosody is noted
"Jargon"
Proto Words
consistent productions used by the child holding consistent meaning but with no simularities to the real word
serve a specific purpose
consistant
First Words
1 yr
end of prelinguistic period
aproximations of adult words
phonological knowledge of adults
sounds of language
phonological structure of words
phonotactics
phonological rules
suprasegental phonology
phoneme
allophone
meaningfully different unit of speech
cannot make a meaningful distinction
phonological knowledge of adults
sounds of language
phonological structure of words
phonotactics
phonological rules
suprasegental phonology
phonetic feature
characteristic of the way speech sounds are produced that is used to describe differnces and similarities among speech sounds. p and b differ in feature of voicing
phoneme
allophone
meaningfully different unit of speech
cannot make a meaningful distinction
distictive feature
phonetic feature that creates a phonemic distinction between two speech sounds
phonetic feature
characteristic of the way speech sounds are produced that is used to describe differnces and similarities among speech sounds. p and b differ in feature of voicing
phonological rules
a formal expression of a regularity that occurs in the phonology of a language or in the phonology of an individual
distictive feature
phonetic feature that creates a phonemic distinction between two speech sounds
supersegmental phonology
prosody
stress patterns
pausing
phonological rules
a formal expression of a regularity that occurs in the phonology of a language or in the phonology of an individual
prosody
innation contur of speech, including pauses and changes in stress and pitch
stress patterns
stong/weak syllables
supersegmental phonology
prosody
stress patterns
pausing
prelinguistic stage
basic biological noises
cooing and laughter
vocal play
non-reduplicated babbling
reduplicated babbling
protowords and 1st words
prosody
innation contur of speech, including pauses and changes in stress and pitch
cooing and laughter
6-8 wks (limbic system develops)
vowel sounds, excited by social interactions, first control of vocal tract movements, proto-syllables
stress patterns
stong/weak syllables
Vocal Play
16 - 30 wks
expansion stage
increase the variety of vowels and consonants
sound sequences get longer
no real communicative intent
prelinguistic stage
basic biological noises
cooing and laughter
vocal play
non-reduplicated babbling
reduplicated babbling
protowords and 1st words
Reduplicated babble
canonical babble
existence of true syllables
syllables are ususally repeated
can be communicative but often is not
rhythm
cooing and laughter
6-8 wks (limbic system develops)
vowel sounds, excited by social interactions, first control of vocal tract movements, proto-syllables
Vocal Play
16 - 30 wks
expansion stage
increase the variety of vowels and consonants
sound sequences get longer
no real communicative intent
non-reduplicated babble
Variegated babble
increase in the range of Cs and Vs used
combine different Cs and Vs
Prosody is noted
"Jargon"
Proto Words
consistent productions used by the child holding consistent meaning but with no simularities to the real word
serve a specific purpose
consistant
First Words
1 yr
end of prelinguistic period
aproximations of adult words
Reduplicated babble
canonical babble
existence of true syllables
syllables are ususally repeated
can be communicative but often is not
rhythm
non-reduplicated babble
Variegated babble
increase in the range of Cs and Vs used
combine different Cs and Vs
Prosody is noted
"Jargon"
Proto Words
consistent productions used by the child holding consistent meaning but with no simularities to the real word
serve a specific purpose
consistant
First Words
1 yr
end of prelinguistic period
aproximations of adult words
processes underlying speech sound development
physical growth/development
nervous system maturation
experiance
physical growth and development
vocal ract is smaller
tongue takes up alot of room in the oral cavity (limited range of motion)
sensory receptors (cannot feel where the tongue is)
nervous system maturation
limbic system (emotion) cooing begins
motor cortex develops (6-9mo)
differation intergration, refining
language organ matures(?)
linguistic structure
experiance
babies hear & watch speech
demonstrate features from native language (loose the sounds from other languages)
hear their own speech, get feed back about the tongue placement, etc.
phoneme boundry effect
(b and p are 16 sec apart)
phenomenon in which the same acoustic defference is perceptible if the two stimuli are on opposite sides of a phonemic boundary but is imperceptible if the tow stimuli are within the range of variation percieved as one phoneme
phonemic perception
(around 10 months)
when infants can seperate differances among phonemes
sound patterns
how sounds are combined

prosodic contour
9 months
prosodic bootstrapping
language learning children find clues to syntactc structure of language in the prosodic characteristics of speech they hear
phonological bootstrapping
languagelearning children find and use clues to the syntactiv structure of language in phonological properties of the speech they hear
speech sound development after prelinguistic stage
pre-representational
representaional phonology
phonetic inventory completion
advanced phonology
pre representational phonology
transition period
babble to speech
linking sound patterns with meaning
syllable and word chunks over segments
high frequency of bilabialss at the end of the transistional stage
phonological idiom
representational phonology
18 mon - 3 years
emergence of a phonological system
common phonological processes
phonological processes
whole word processes
unstressed syllable deletion
final consonant deletion
reduplication
consonant harmon
consonant cluster simplification
linguistic perception
1 - 3 years
includes auditory perception and representation and recongnition of specific sound patterns for a specific meaning
internal representation
typical of 2 year olds
percent consonants correct:
70% range = 43 -91%
Syllable shapes: CV, CVC, CVCV(C)
Phonetic Inventory:
initial: t, k, b, d, g, m, n, f, s, h, w
Final: n, s, r
Typical of a 3 year old
Intelligibility:
average 73% (utterances)
range 54 - 80%
phonological process
substitition of interdental frictives by other consonants
gliding and palatal fronting
cluster reduction
typical of 3 year old
syllable structure: V, VC, CV, CVC, CVCV, CCVC, CVCC, CCVCC, CCVCCC, CCCCVC
intelligibility 73%
percent consonants correct: 86.2%
phonetic inventory: p,b,t,d,k,g,m,n,s,f,h,'ch', 'th', w, j ,l
phonetic inventory compleation
3-7 yrs
early consonants /m/ /b/ /j/ /n/ /d/ /p/ /h/
middle consonants: /t/ "ng" /k/ /g/ /f/ /v/ "ch "j"
late consonatnts: "sh" /s/ /z/ "th" /l/ /r/ "zh"
perception after early childhood
phonetic signal effects
contextual effects
lexical familiararity
temporal coordination of speech production
complez sound sequences
increasing the fluency of complex sound sequencing and multisyllabic words
timing domanant
dont care how it sounds, rushing thru sentence
Articulaiton dominant
no timing, but get all of the correct sounds
phonological awareness
the ability to reconize and reflect on sounds that make up words
a pre-curser to literacy
behaviorist model
child vocalizes and is reinforced for making certain types of sounds
self-reinforcement when child relizes he has made sound
biological model
development of speech souds is controlled by the development of motor control

learn sounds when they have the physical capacity and motor control
cognitive model
childs responsability child gets underlying model of a whole word...later they break it down...incomplete underlying representaiton
Connectionist model
device consists of a network of interconnected nodes. typically such models are implemented as computer programs and the ability of the computer propgram to mimic human language developmetn is taken as evidence of the plausibiliy of a connectionist account of language aquisition
Structuralist model
discontinuity between babbling and speech production
phonological development has a universal order of acquisition which is innate
childe starts with a maximal contrast and then refines the system as new features are aquired (fill in the blanks)
generative phonology
underlying representation
surface representaion
distinctive features phonolgical rules
continutiey vs. discontinuity
natural phonology
phonological processes
child has to supress the processes that are not a part of that child's target language