Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

77 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Onsets and Rimes
onsets are the constants that come in the beginning of the word (bl in blend) rimes are constants that come at the end of a word (end in blend)
A structural element added to the beginning or ending of a vowel in order to alter the meaning, pronunciation or function (ex. prefix or suffix)
Alphabetic principle
The idea that letters represent individual sounds; therefore, words may be read by saying the sounds represented by the letters and the words may be spelled by writing the letters that represent the sounds
English as a Second Language (ESL)
An instrutional program that teachies English to students whose native language is not English
Bilingual Education
Instruction that involves presenting reading and other subject area matierials in the child's native language while gradually introducing english orally
Alphabetic Recogntion
The ablilty to name the lettes of the alphabet
Emergent literacy
Childrens reading and writing development before formal insruction in classroom settings
Balanced Approach to Reading
The use of different strategies and approaches to teach reading
Choral Reading
Oral reading, often of poetry involving more than one reader
Two adjacent vowels in which each vowel is heard in the pronunciation
Non standard dialect
grammatical variations in language most often associated with a cultural group
Basal Reader
A collection of stories that match the instructional level of children
Vowel diagraph
two adjacent vowels that represent one speech sound
Consonant Blend or Cluster
Two or three letters in the same syllable that are blended or heard when pronounced (ex. tr in tree)
Consonant Diagraph
A combination of two or more letters that represent a sound that is different form the speech sound that the letters represent individually (ex ch in chop)
In formal speaking activity involving two or more persons taking turns talking about a subject
Focused conversations about a specific topic
one person asking another individual questions and recording the person's responses
A discussion involving varying viewpoints on a central topic where sides are supported
Associating printed letters with the speech sounds the letters make
the smallest meaningful unit of language (ex cat)
the smallest unit of sound in a language that distinguishes one word from another (ex cat vs hat)
A printed letter symbol used to represent a speech sound (phoneme)
A linguistic change or variation in speech pronunciation that is different from the standard original pronunciation
Skills such as word analysis that enable a reader to identify words
The actual understanding or comprehension of what has been read
A description of the type of text being read (ex poetry , biography, mystery, fantasy)
Graphophonemic knowledge
Written words are made up of systematic letter patterns that represent sounds in pronounced words
Evaluative comprehension
Level of comprehension that requires children to compare information and ideas presented in the text with their own experiences, background and values
literal comprehension
level of comprehension that requires children to respond to questions and statements that relate directly to stated text
Sound/Symbol relationship
Homographs (homonyms)
Words spelled the same but having different pronunciatons and meanings (ex red bow, bow to the queen)
Homophones (synonyms)
Words that sound the same but have different spellings and meanings (red hair, she had read the book)
Figurative sayings that have special meanings (cat got your tongue)
Inferential comprehension
Level of comprehension that requires children to respond to questions and statements based on ideas and information directly stated in the text along with the use of their intuition, backgroundand experiences to reach a conclusion or hypothesis
Informal reading inventory
a series of graded paragraphs followed by a comprehension analysis used to determine a childs different instructional or functional level of reading
Invented spelling
Temporary spelling patterns young children use to approximate the spelling of words
Language experience approach
an instructional method that incorpatates children's experiences and background as a means of developing instructional reading stories
Language interference
the use of sounds, syntax, and vocabulary of two languages simultaneously as a child participates in literary activities
Logographic awareness
the first stage children experience when learning about words. Words are learned as whole units are sometimes embedded in a logo such as a stop sign or arches in a modonald's sign
comparison of two unalike things without using like or as
the concept that identifies and describes the differences between the skills of listening and speaking form the skills of reading and writing
Oral reports
individual or group reports delivered orallly to an audience
correct spelling
Phonic analysis
the process of applying knowledge of letter sound relationships to decoding texts. teachers ask for this when they instruct children to sound out a word
phonic awareness
the knowledge or understanding that speech consists of a series of sounds and that individual words can be divided into phonemes
The way a word is defined
A collection of student generated products that show growth, progress or improvement over time
Running record
An informal assessment hat provides a record of a child's oral reading development and behavior
Semantic feature analysis
constructing a grid for a concept (ex. mammals) where examples of the concept are listed verticalyly (ex. cow, bat, squirrel) and features are listed horizantally (ex. fur, swims, flies) Students then decide which feature matches each word
Semantic or Concept map (word cluster
writing a word or concept in the cneter circle of a cluster, drawing rays , writing information about the word of concept and making connections between the word or concept and the related unit of study or detals of readings
Support for the learner as he or she enters a phase of readiness for a new skill
Schwa sound
in many words that have more than one syllable one of the syllables recieves less or diminshed strss, the sound of the vowel in the syllable tht recieves the diminished stress has a softening vowel sound that is identified as a schwa sound and often prunounced as the "uh" sound. the word 'about' contains the schwa sound
The recognition of the sounds heard in a word
the way a word is defined
Sight vocabulary
any words a reader can recognize instantly without having to se a word recognition strategy. many teachers have children personalize a word bank of the sight words they can read
comparision between two things using the words like or as
divisions of speech within words
patterns of phrases, clauses and sentences
Animal or human characters made from a variety of matierials to be held or slipped over the hand and used in dramatic play
the sentence structure
Textless books (wordless books)
a picture book with few or no words in which the illustrations convey the story
Show and tell
a traditional informal speaking activity in which a child brings something form home that is special to him or her and tells the class about it
Thematic units
instructionally generated learning activities that center on a topic of interest such as a variety of content areas discussing (ex butterflies)
Reader,s theatre
the oral presentataion of drama by two or more readers using a printed script. normally used to create motivation and oral fluency
Trade books
childrens literature sources that teachers sometimes use in instructional settings instead of textbooks
Word analysis
an inclusive term that refers to all methods of word recognition. Phonics, pictures, sight words, structural analysis
Word sorts
sorting a collection of words taken from a word wall or other sources into two or more categories
Word wall
a list of words children are learning or know posted on a poster or wall in classroom in a highly visible location
Zone of proximal development
children learn within there instructional level or just beyond their instructional level with scaffolding form an adult or from a capable peer
Convergent Questions
Questions with only one answer (ex. yes or no)
Divergent questions
Questions with more than one answer
Pre-k to kindergarden. students scribble to present written language . Do not understand that using letters create words
Kindergarden to grade 1. Students aware of some alphabet sounds. they begin to realize letters of the alphabet stand for sounds they hear in a word
students understand sounds of the alphabet and begin to use invented spelling
students begin to spell words they sound
students begin to spell words more correctly constistently