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76 Cards in this Set

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Plural Noun Inflection
A change in the form of a word to reflect different grammatical functions of the word in a sentence. For Plural add an (s) or change the form of the word like speak to spoke.
Possessive Noun Inflection
A change in the form of a word to reflect different grammatical functions of the word in a sentence. For possessive add ('s)
Present Tense Verb inflection
expresses the time at which the action described by the verb takes place. The present would be "sing" for example.
Third person singular
An inflectional form of verbs that distinguishes between the person who speaks (first person), the person who is spoken to (second person), and the person who is spoken about (third person). third person singular: he/she/it walks.
Past Tense
expresses the time at which the action described by the verb takes place. The past tense would be "sang" for example
Past participle
The past participle usually ends in -ed; it indicates completed or past action: “The gas station has closed”; “The mayor had spoken.”
Present Participle
The present participle is formed by adding -ing to the infinitive; it indicates present action: “The girl is swimming”; “I am thinking.”
Comparative Adjective Inflection
A form of an adjective indicating a greater degree of the quality that the adjective describes. Better is the comparative form of good; faster is the comparative form of fast; bluer is the comparative form of blue; more charming is the comparative form of charming.
Superlative Adjective Inflection
The form of an adjective indicating the greatest degree of the quality that the adjective describes. Best is the superlative form of good; fastest is the superlative form of fast; most charming is the superlative form of charming. The usual superlative takes the ending -est.
Letters placed in front of a word to form a new word: “trimonthly,” “semimonthly,” “bilingual,” “multilingual,” “address,” “redress,” “predate,” “postdate.”
A letter or a group of letters added to the end of a word to change its meaning. examples of words with suffixes are: “willing,” “management,” “serviceable,” “harmonize,” and “joyful.”
Four Components of Word Recognition
1. Phonetic Analysis
2. Contextual Annalysis
3. Structural Analysis
4. Sight Words
Phonetic Analysis
Phonics. It is the porcess of associating speech sounds with the letters that represent them and the blending of these sounds to pronounce words not known at sight.
1. Analytic Phonics
2. Synthetic Phonics
Analytic Phonics
Starts with sight words and proceeds to an analysis of their parts (whole to part). Advocates often claim that the synthetic appraoch teaches phonics in isolation, sistorts the pronounciation of words and does not emphasize the role of meaning in reading.
Synthetic Phonics
Starts with word parts and proceeds to synthesize word parts to pronounce whoile words. (part to whole). Advocates dismiss analytic phonics as a sight word apporach and claim that analytic phonics does not teach phonics, but rather teaches children to memorize whole words.
Contextual Analysis
The search for the pronounciation and meaning of an unknown wor by examining its linguistic and visual context. The rivher the context, the more likely readers will determine the pronounciation and meaning of the unknown word.
Structural Analysis
The visual examination of words to discover component parts that can facilitate pronunciation and lead to a word's meaning. Strutural analysis involves the identification of roots, affixes, compunds, inflected and derived endings, syllable and contractions.
Inflected Forms
Change the form of the word to indicate differences in tense, number, person, degree, or ownership. There are eight inflectional forms in English.
1. Noun Inflection - plurals and possesives
2. Verb Inflections - present tense, thrid person singular, past tense, past participle (have, has, had) and present participle, (am, is, are)
3. Adjective inflections - Camparative (er) and Superlative(est)
Derived Forms
The addition of a prefix, suffix or both when added to a root word (unkind, kindness, unkindly)
Sight Words
Instantly recognized words and there is no need to analyze them phonetically, structurally or contextually. Sight words are stored in memory, learned from repeated exposure and identified by visual clues such as shape, length, unique features and letter combinations.
Grammatical instruction
The purpose of grammar instruction is to improve children's written and oral expression. Often it does not acheive this porpose because it is often taught in isolation from the context in which it is used. Isolated grammatical exercises have little impact on written or oral expression.
Formal pattens that speakers of language use automatically to convey meaning. Scietific study of language. Rules that govern how one ought to speak or write. THe grammar that is taught in schools. Grammatical terms and concepts used to teach prose style.
Three Grammatical Concepts
1. Parts of Speech
2. Usage
3. Writing Grammatical Sentences.
Parts of Speech
nouns, verbs, pronouns, adverbs, adjectives, prepositions, conjunctions, and interjections
Usage of Grammar
THe customary way in which language is used. The correct way to speak and write, typically called Standard English, actually is a "convenient abstraction, like the average man."
1. Home/ Street Language
2. School Language
Home/ Street Language
Usage in one linguistic community. It may represent the speech patterns of a dialect or biligual group of speakers of English. When home usage differs from school usage children need an opportunity to learn alternative usage patterns.
School Language
Can be described as an alternative form of language usage. It is essential that home and street language be recognized as legitimate language. We should not give children the impression that their native language patterns are inferior. THere are simply alternative ways of using language; home and street language, school language. Each has its place in communication; each is appropriate for certain purposes.
* Writing Grammatical Sentences
Grammar is mostly concerned with the structures and patterns of sentences. A sentence can be defined as complete thought, yet a complete thought may also define a word, paragraph, or essay.
1. Four Sentence Types
2. Three sentence Structures
3. Combining Sentences
Four Sentence Types
1. Statement
2. Question
3. Command or request
4. Exclamation
Three Sentence Structures
1. Simple Sentences have complete subject and predicate.
2. Compund senteces - Join two or more independent clauses, both of which have a subject and predicate.
3. Complex sentence - one independent or main clause and one or more subordinate clauses.
COmbining Sentences
Often conveys meaning more economically and economy aids clarity. Often results in better writing and more mature syntactic structures
Punctuation and Capitalization
Careful use of punctuation and capitalization is essential to effective, readable writing. Children taught punctuation in context of daily writing fared significantly better than the children who were taught punctuation in isolated drills.
Transcription, a mechanical task, that once learned can be done without much conscious thought.
* 1. Legibility- most important goal of handwriting instruction.
2. Fluency - is attained when children have learned to form letters without conscious attention to them.
3. Historically - handwriting instruction emphasized the beauty of script. Legibility and fluency are the practical goals of handwriting instruction today.
Manuscript Handwriting
Usually taught in first grade. Often called Print
Cursive Handwriting
Usually tauught in the end or second, beginning of third grade. Letters are joined in connecteing strokes. It is thought to be the permanent replacemnt of manuscript handwriting. During the transition from manuscript to cursive, children typically produce a mix of manuscript and cursive forms.
Six Characteristics of Handwriting
1. Slant - needs to be consistent in manner
2. Size and proportion - appropriate sizing of letters to meet the development growth of students.
3. Spacing - specific amount of space between letters and words
4. Alignment - letters should consistently touch the base of the line.
5. Line Quality - letters should show and unwavering line of even thickness.
6. Forming letters - requires attention to the shape and characteristics that distinguich one letter from another
Four Types of Assessment
1. Formative Assessment
2. Summative Assessment
3. Research Assessment
4. Diagnostic Assessment
Formative Assessment
Aimed at improving instruction and learning. It is an ongoing, everyday process. It is accurate and timely assessment that enables teachers and children to make informed decisions regarding programs, projects, instruction and the environment needed to support teaching and learning. It is best carried out in the classroom by teachers and children.
Summative Assessment
Designed to assess the state or quality of an enterprise or instituation, or to report its progress to an outside audience. It's purpose is not to improve instruction, but rather to guide administrative decisio making. No Child Left Behind Act
Research Assessment
Intended to inform and reform instruciton in valid and reliable ways and to determine the conditions under which literacy instruction works best.
Diagnostic Assessment
Principles of Assessment
1. Standardized Testing
2. Authentic Assessment
3. Purposeful Assessment
4. Assessment and Curricular Goals
5. ASsessment and Instruction
6. Culture and Language
Standardized Testing
Required at the local, state, and national levels. 3, 5, 8, and 11 in PA.Standardized testing is most useful when combined with teacher's assessment of children's strengths and needs, which includes daily observations, informal testing, checklist, curricular adjustments and students self-assessment. Assess teacher and school district performance as well.
Authentic Assessment
The most valid assessment because it observes real-life literacy behaviors. PRoblematic becayse you need real-life situations to assess.
Purposeful Assessment
Teachers must always assess with a purpose asking themselves, "why am I assigning this?" "How will I use the information I gather?" etc.
Assessment and Curricular Goals
Assessment must match curricular goals. Teachers must ask themselves "What do i expect my students to learn?" A teacher who can answer that question haas a good sense of their curricular goals.
Assessment and Instruction
Assessemnt adoes not occur at a given point and the cease, the best assessment extends into and through instructional time and space. Observations derived from daily performance can be and often are more reliable and valid than test performance.
Culture and Laguage
Children come with diverse cultural, linguistic, physical, mental, and gender experiences. Sensitivity to and awareness of these differences are crucial if we intend to help all children achieve their potential. Differences are not weaknesses, but rather strengths that can enrich classrooms.
Philosophy of assessment
Instructional decisions are influenced by beliefs as well as observations.
1. Synthetic Approach - Supports a part to whole strategy and the chosen activities support this concept (workbooks, worksheets, testbooks, timed tests)
2. Analytic Approach - Supports a whole to part strategy and the chosen activities support this concept (read alouds, journal writings, projects, children's literature)
Assessment of Writing
1. Observing Children.
2. Writing Performance Checklist
3. Portfolio Assessment
4. Holistic Assessment
5. Analytic Assessment
6. Peer Assessment
7. Self-Assessment
Observing Children as Assessment
Instructive and Enjoyable. Children are purposeful and rational; rarely do they behave randomly or irrationaly. Reason and purpose underlie their behavior, including their bad behavior.
Writing Performance Checklist
Can be used to assess performance in development of writing process stages, writing skill, general writing knowledge, topic selection and writing conventions.
Portfolio Assessment
Organized collections of products and processes of reading and writing choosen to represent the owner's best work. They provide souce materials for teacher assessment and studnet self-assessment and document achievement, growth, effort, and interests over time.
Holistic Assessment
Requires that writing is assessed as a whoile rater than in detail. The goal is to reach an overall impression that is consistent with reliable and valid assessment. The details regarding writing strengths and needs are not counted, corrected or commented upon, though notice may be taken for future decisions.
Analytic Assessment
Provides a mire detail-oriented option. Specific writing features, anaylized in terms of their absence or presence, strengths or needs, high or low quality. It recognizes that the whole is greater than the parts and has similarities to Holistic Assessment
Peer Assessment
Enables students to help athers and in the process, help themselves become better writers. Peer assessment improves organization, sentence revision, theme writing, and critical thinking. Peer assessment helps children develop standards for judging the quality of their own writing and broadens the audience for writing.
The most important form of assessment. It is the ability to improve one's own reading and writing through self directed awareness and one's own learning
Assessment of Reading
1. Reading Performance Checklist
2. Interest Inventory Assessment
3. Informal Reading Inventory Assessment
Reading Performance Checlist
Completed once every four weeks to determine word recognition, comprehension, and strategy use. Teachers are able to judge the consistency of a child's performace on key indicators of reading.
Interest Inventory Assessment
To determine Student interest. Interest influences comprehension. Finding out the interests of students enables teachers to make informed decisions about books selections, topics, and preferences of reading.
Informal Reading Inventory Assessment
Not Stadnardized. Informal instruments that consist of a series of narrative and expository reading passages representing different levels of difficulty. Four levels of reading achievement are assessed, 1) independent, 2)instructional, 3)Frsutration, and 4) listening capacity. Three types of inventories, 1) freestanding commercially published inventories, 2)inventories based on specific basal reading programs, and 3)teacher-made inventories
The Value of Literature
1) Extends Knowledge
2)Promotes Intellectual and Emotional Thought
3) Literature Humanizes
Literature Extends Knowledge
Through the use of literature children extend their knowledge of the world. Shared literacy knowledge instantly connects past with present and present with future
Literature Promotes Intellectual and Emotional Thought
Through literature, students learn to explore possibilities and consider options for themselves and humankind. They come to find themeselves, imagine others, value differences and search for justice. They gain connectedness and seek vision
Literature Humanizes
Literature depicts the human condition in all of its beauty and tawdriness. It explores life's humanizing themes: love, bravery, sacrifice, friendship, loyality, family, hardship, courage, coping, kindness, compasion. And dehumanizing themes: pverty, cruelty, hate, prejuduice, evil, dishimesty.
Children's Literature
Literature specifically intended for children, however, through historical circumstances, certain books not originally intended for children have become classics of children's literature
most over looked subject because it's uncertain as the interpretation of the poems
The ability to use some type of "mark" or "marks" to indicate literacy understanding.
Composing Processess
1)Recurring Principle
2)Generatice Principle
3)Linear Principle
4)Flxibility Principle
5)Contrastive Principle
6)Sign Principle
Recurring Principle
Displaying an awareness that writing has meaning and the ability to make the same "mark" reapeatedly
Generative Principle
Realizing that "real writing" is made up of a variety of marks that are used repeatedly in many orders and directions
Linear Principle
An awareness that "adult writing" is ordered and written horizontally
Flexibility Principle
After all of the other principles are learned and students turn their attention to individual letters and work
Contrastive Principle
When students realize the flexibility of writing and initiate constrats between letters, such as recognizing that "I" is like "T" but has two horizontal lines instead of one
Sign Principle
Discovering that others should be able to read what they have written
Four Main Elements of Handwriting
1)Size - Lowercase and Uppercase
2) Slant - Consistency
3) Spacing - Small and consistant between letters, larger and consistent between words
4)Distinction - of letters to develop recognition & to enhance spelling