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33 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
linguistic relativity
the view that structural differences among languages are reflected in the worldviews held by their speakers
speech community
all those who share a language vareity as well as specific rules for speaking and interpreting speech
communicative competence
the knowledge that enables a person communicate in any socioculturally authentic context
participant observation
the immersion of anthropological field-workers in the day-to-day activities of the people they are studying, usually for an extended period of time
emic
an analytical approach or description that emphasizes aspects of culture or language held to be significant and contrastive by members of the society being studied
etic
an analytical approach or description based on data that are verifiable objectively and applicable cross-culturally
speech situation/social situation
the context in which speaking takes place (for example: a fishing trip, family meal, beer party)
linguistic determinism
the assumption that the way individuals think is determined to a significant degree by the language they speak
informant/consultant
a person serving as a source of data for the analysis of language, speech behavior, or culture--usually a native speaker
speech act
the minimum unit of speech (for example: a greeting, an apology, self-introduction)
lover boy theory
historically, women chose sexual partners who spoke over those who couldn't or didn't do it well
spandrel theory
language was a side effect of humans developing larger brains.
spandrels = acccidental side effect of having arches but led to the opportunity for art. with the accidental space in our brains, it gave us the opportunity to develop speech. part of the brain which has language is next to the part where we can make tools and grasp objects.
sign
refers to something else, is tied to something else, is in the here and now, concrete referent, IE babies learn how to speak because crying
doesn't get them too far. has a time and space restriction
symbol
what language is made up of, abstract referent, categories, doesn't necessarily take place in the present, arbitrarily constructed, any types of sounds will do as long as they get the right response, conventional meaning, IE "chair" could refer to a specific chair or all chairs. have no time or space restriction
what others hear theory
exactly what is said doen't matter--the reaction matters
metacommunication
talking about our own communication
siginificant symbol
a symbol is significant if it triggers the same response in another as that in the person who develops or presents the symbol. the meaning of words or the order in whic you say them doesn't matter as long as your intentions are fulfilled
punctuating interaction sequences
a wife nags and a husband withdrawls. the wife thinks she must nag becasue he withdrawls. the husband thinks he must withdrawl because she nags. they are each "punctuating" (interpreting) the situation differently which leads to metacommunication
modern myths concerning languages
1) unwritten languages are "primitive"
2) languages of peoples whose societies are not urbanized and industrialized have "little grammar" or rules-- their languages is in a random fashion
3) vocabularies of "primitive" languages are too small and inadequate to account for the nuances for the physical and social universes of their speakers
4) not all languages are considered equal
how words affect behavior (example)- whorf
ppl aroung a sign that says "gasoline tanks" act differently than ppl around a sign that says "empty gasoline tank". these last ppl may throw cigarettes around the tanks even though they are still dangerous. the word "empty" signifies to these ppl a lack of hazard.
whorf
linguistic relativity, linguistic determinism. a language and the culture it serves mirror eachother.
language
refers to any one of the several thousand systems of oral communication used by different human societies
blending and duality of patterning
two things must have happened...
blending: producing a new call from two old ones (modern IE: brunch), opened a closed system bringing the development to the prelanguage stage. duality: the process by which the units of a limited set of signals on one level were combined to form a very large number of arrangements on another level, eliminated the increasing congestion of calls (modern IE: the sounds of breakfast and lunch can also form numerous other wods, but not the letters)
interaction situation
two or more people within eachother's microspace
copresence
each person is aware of the other, and aware that the other is aware
civil inattention
each person makes the decision that they will be civil and recognize eachother's existence, but not engage in focused interaction with seomone
content and relationship levels of interaction
there are two levels of communication when we talk to eachother: content and relationship. all communication implies commitment to others and defines the relationship. if we understand the identify of others, we can pretty easily predict future behavior. all relationship level messages contain at least one of these: -this is how i see u
-this is how i see u seeing me
-this is how i see me
-this is how i see our relationship
if these and the responses of these dont fit, the interaction wont happen or continue
unhealthy relationship
the relationship level becomes the focus (content becomes insignificant)
hockett and ascher
13 design-features. belief that all languages of the world share every one of them
16 design features
1) vocal auditory channel
2) broadcast transmission and directional reception
3) rapid fading
4) interchangeability
5) complete feedback
6) specialization
7) semanticity
8) arbitrariness
9) discreteness
10) displacement
11) openness (or productivity)
12) duality (of patterning)
13) cultural (or traditional) transmission
14) prevarication
15) reflexiveness
16) learnability
vocal auditory channel
among mammals, the use of the vocal-auditory channel for communication is extremely common. its beneficial also because it leaves the rest of ur body to carry on other activities
broadcast transmission and directional reception
speech sounds move from the source in all directions, the sender and receiver do not need to see eachother to communicate. using both ears to listen allows the reciever to determine the direction of sound
rapid fading
words dont last longer than they are spoken (unlike writing)... good for those who speak foolishly and bad for those who are wise