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93 Cards in this Set

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formal fallacy
identified by examining the form or structure of the argument. only found in deductive arguments.

all A are B
all C are B
Therefor all A are C
informal fallacy
detected by examining the content of the argument.

ex:The brooklyn bridge is made of atoms
atoms are invisible
brooklyn bridge is invisible
Fallacy of Relevance
connection between premises and conclusion is emotional
Argumentum ad Baculum
(appeal to force [to the 'stick])
*fallacy of relevence
arguer poses a conclusion saying some harm will come to other person if they don't accept the conclusion.

ie: bullys taking lunch money or getting kicked in shin
Argumentum ad Misericordiam
(appeal to Pity)
*fallacy of relevence
arguer supports his conclusion by evoking pity from the reader.

ie: my family will die if you make me pay my taxes.
Argumentum ad Populum
(Appeal to the People)
*fallacy of relevence
arguer uses basic human desires to to get the reader to accept the conclusion.
-bandwagon, appeal to vanity, appeal to snobbery

direct: arouses mob mentality
indirect: appeals to reader's desire for security, love, respect
Argumentum ad Hominem
(argument against the person)
2 arguers
one advances a certain argument.
the other responds by directing his attention not to the argument but to the first arguer himself.

abusive: verbally abuses other arguer
circumstantial: presents other arguer as predisposed to argue this way
Accident
*fallacy of relevence
a general rule is applied to a specific case it was not intended to cover.
misapplied.
Straw Man
*fallacy of relevence
arguer distorts an opponents argument for the purpose of attacking it, demolishes the distorted argument, then concludes the opponents real argument has been demolished.
Ignoratio Elenchi
(Missing the Point)
*fallacy of relevance
form of irrelevance
premises support one particular conclusion, but then a different conclusion often vaguely related to the correct conclusion.

ie: crimes of theft and robbery have been increasing at an alarming rate lately. The conclusion is obvious: we must reinstate the death penalty immediately.
Red Herring
*fallacy of relevance
diverts attention of the reader by changing the subject to a different but subtly related one.
Fallacies of Weak Induction
connection between premises and conclusion is not strong enough to support the conclusion
Argumentum ad Verecundiam
(Appeal to Unqualified Authority)
*fallacy of weak induction
argument from authority and occurs when the cited authority lacks credibility
Argumentum ad Ignorantiam
Appeal to Ignorance
*fallacy of weak inducton
the premises state nothing has been proved one way or another and the conclusion then makes a definite assertion.

ie: people have been trying to disprove claimes of astrology and no one has succeeded. Therefore we must conclude that the claims of astrology are true.
Hasty Generalization (Converse Accident)
*fallacy of weak induction
argument that draws a conclusion about all members of a group from evidence that pertains to a selected sample

ie: on three separate occasions i drank a bottle of beer and it was flat. probably i would find every bottle of beer flat.
False Cause
*fallacy of weak induction
the link between premises and conclusion depends on some imagined casual connection that doesn't exist.
ie: the quality of education in our grade schools has been declining for years. Clearly our teachers arent doing their job these days.
Slipper Slope
*fallacy weak induction
the conclusion of an argument rests on an alleged chain reaction and there is no sufficient reason to think the chain reaction will actually take place.
Weak Analogy
*fallacy of weak induction
analogy is not strong enough to support the conclusion that is drawn.

A has a, b, c, and z
B has a , b , and c
therefore B has z also.
ie: Harper's new car is bright blue, has leather upholstery, and gets excellent gas mileage. Crowley's new car is also bright blue and has leather upholstery. therefore it probably gets good gas mileage.
Fallacies of Presumption
premises presume what they purport to prove.

includes: begging the question, complex question, false dichotomy, and suppressed evidence
Fallacies of Ambiguity
some form of ambiguity in either the premises or conclusion.
Fallacies of Grammatical Analogy
grammatically analogous to other arguments that are good in every respect
Begging the Question
*fallacy of presumption
inadequate premises proved adequate support for the conclusion by leaving out a fake key premises.
actual source of support for the conclusion is not apparent.

ie: murder is wrong therefore abortion is wrong
Complex Question
*fallacy of presumption
2 or more questions are asked in a single question and a single answer is given for both.

ie: have you stopped cheating on exams.
where did you hide the marijuana?
False Dichotomy
*fallacy of presumption
disjunctive (either, or) premises present tow unlikely alternatives as if they were the only ones available.
the arguer then eliminates the undesirable alternative leaving the desirable one for the conclusion.

ie: either you allow me to go to the concert or ill be miserable and i know you dont want me to be miserable so you better let me go to the concert.
Suppressed Evidence
*fallacy of presumption
premises ignore a certain piece of evidence that outweighs presented evidence.

ie:most dogs are friendly and dont pose a threat to people who try to pet them. therefore it is safe to pet this small dog coming up to us.
Equivocation
*fallacy of ambiguity
conclusion of an argument depends on the fact that a word or phrase is used in two differnt senses in the argument.

ie: a mouse is an animal. Therefore a large mouse is a large animal
Amphiboly
*fallacy of ambiguity
arguer misinterprets an ambiguous statement then draws a conclusion based on this faulty interpretation

ie:the tour said that standing in greenwich village you can see the empire state building. therefore the empire state building must be in greenwich village.
Composition
conclusion of an argument depends on the erroneous transference of an attribute from the parts of something onto the whole.
Division
*fallacy of grammatical analogy
EXACT REVERSE OF COMPOSITION

from whole to parts.

ie: the jigsaw puzzle, when assembled is a circular shape. therefore all of the pieces are circular shapes.
cognitive meaning
terminology that conveys meaning
emotive meaning
terminology that evokes or expresses meaning
value claim
claim that something good, bad, or right, wrong, than some other thing.
vague expression
boderline cases in which it is impossible to tell if the expression applies or doesnt apply.
ambiguous expression
more than one clearly distinct meaning in the context.
verbal disputes
disputes over meaning of language
factual disputes
disputes over disagreements about facts
intensional meaning
(intension)
qualities for the term

ie: cat= furry, having four legs, moving a certain way
extensional meaning
(extension)
members of the class

ie: cat= leapards, lynx, all cats of the universe
connotation
refers to subtle nuances of a word
denotation
refers to the word's direct and specific meaning
conventional connotation
attributes that the term commonly calls forth in mind
empty extension
the class has no members.
one time it had existing entities, but today there are non
increasing intension
each term in the series (except the first) connotes more attributes than the one before it.
decreasing intension
each term connotes less than the one before it.
stipulative definitions
assings a meaning to a word for the first time.
ie:coining a new word
lexical definition
meaning of a word already has in a language

ie: dictionary definition
precising definition
reduces the vagueness of the word.
theoretical definitions
assings a meaning to a word by suggesting a theory that gives certain characterization to the entities that the term denotes.
persuasive definitions
makes favorable or unfavorable attitude toward what is denoted by the definition. this is done by assigning an emotionally charged meaning to word.

ie: abortion means the ruthless murdering innocent human beings
extensional (denotative) definition
assigns a meaning to word by indicating the member so fthe class that the definition denotes.
demonstrative (ostensive) definitions
*extensional
definition is the meaning of pointing.
ie: chair means this and this -- as you point to several chairs
enumerative definitions
*extensional
assigns a meaning to a word by naming the members of the class the term denotes

ie: actress means a person such as Nicole Kidman, or Natalie Portman
definition by subclass
*extensional
assigns a meaning to a term by naming the members of the class the term denotes.

ie: tree means oak, pine, elm, spruce, maple
intensional definition
assigns meaning to a word by indicating the qualities or attributes
synonymous definition
*intensional
definition is a single word that connotes the same attributes as the defined.

ie: physician means doctor
intentional means willful
etymological definition
*intensional
assigns meaning to a word by disclosing the word's ancestry in both its own language and in other languages

ie: derives from and such
operational definition
*intensional
assigns a meaning to a word by specifying certain experimental procedures that determine whether or not the word applies to a certain thing

ie: one substance is hard than another if and only iff one scratches the other when the two are rubbed together.
definition by genus and difference
*intensional
identifies a genus term adn one or more difference words that, when combined, convey the meaning of the term being defined.
genus means a larger class species means a subclass of genus

ie: species: ice
means
difference: frozen
genus: water
or
species: daughter means
difference: female
genus: offspring
8 Rules for Lexical Definitions
1. conform to the standards of proper grammar
2. convey the essential meaning of the word being defined
3. should be neither too broad nor too narrow
4. avoid circularity
5. should nto be negative when it can be affirmative
6. avoid figurative, obscure, vague, and ambiguous language
7. avoid affective terminology
8. indicate the context to which the defined pertains
premise indicators
since, because, for, seeing that, given that, as, in that
conclusion indicators
therefore, thus, as a result, accordingly, so, entails that
inference
reasoning process expressed my an argument
proposition
information content of a statement
syllogisitic logic
arguments are good or bad and elements are terms
modal logic
involves concepts as possibility, necessity, belief, and doubt.
factual claim
1st condition for a passage to purport to prove something
inferential claim
2nd condition for a passage to purport to prove something
conditional statement
if then statement

**the if statement is the ANTECEDENT
**the then statement is the CONSEQUENT
sufficient condition
the occurrence of A is all that is needed for the occurrence of B

ie: being a dog is a sufficient condition for being an animal
necessary condition
If A cannot occur without the occurrence of B

ie: being an animal is a necessary condition for being a dog
deductive argument
impossible for the conclusion to be false given the premises are true

ie: the meerkat is a meber of the mongoose family
all members of the mongoose family are carnivores
therefore it necessarily follows that the meerkat is a carnivore
inductive argument
improbably the the conclusion is false given the premises are true

ie: the meerkat is closely related to the suricat
the suricat thrives on beetle larvae
therefore, probably the meerkat thrives on larvae
argument based on mathematics
*deductive
conclusion depends on purely arithmetic or geometric measurement
argument from definition
*deductive
conclusion depends merely on the definition of some word
categorical syllogism
*deductive
statements begin with 'all' 'no' or 'some'
hypothetical syllogism
*deductive
conditional statement for one or both premises
disjunctive syllogism
*deductive
either or statement

disjunctive statement
prediciton
*inductive
from knowledge of the past to make a claim about the future
argument from analogy
*inductive
depends on the existence of a similarity between two things
generalization
*inductive
knowledge of a selected sample to some claim about the whole group
argument from authority
*inductive
concludes something is true because the expert has said that it is
argument based on signs
*inductive
a sign to a claim about the thing that the sign symbolizes
casual inference
*inductive
knowledge of a cause to a claim about an effect
particular statement
makes a claim about one or more particular members of a class
general statement
makes a claim about all members of the class
VALID argument
*deductive
impossible for conclusion to be false given the premises are true
INVALID argument
*deductive
it is possible for the conclusion to be false given the premises are true
SOUND argument
*deductive
valid and has all true premesis
UNSOUND argument
*deductive
invalid, has one or more false premises, or both
STRONG argument
*inductive
improbably the conclusion is false given the premises are true
WEAK argument
*inductive
conclusion does not follow probably from the premises even though it is claimed to
COGENT argument
*inductive
strong and has all true premises
UNCOGENT argument
*inductive
weak, has one or more false premises or both