Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

16 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Muhammad Ali
;Turkish soldier and viceroy of Egypt (1805-1848)

;wrested control of Egypt from the weakening Ottoman Empire (1811)

;established a modern state, over which his family ruled until 1952.
1. A member of a group of elite, highly loyal supporters.
2. A soldier in an elite Turkish guard
3.organized in the 14th century and abolished in 1826.
1. a former kingdom in S Europe:

2. now, with revised boundaries, a constituent republic of Yugoslavia,

3.includes the autonomous provinces of Kosovo and Vojvodina
1. the name referring to a period of modernizing reforms
2. instituted under the Ottoman Empire from 1839 to 1876.
3.In 1839, under the rule of Sultan Abd al-Majid, the edict entitled Hatti-i Sharif of Gulhane laid out the fundamental principles of Tanzimat reform.
Crimean War
1. A war fought in the middle of the nineteenth century between Russia on one side and Turkey, Britain, and France on the other.
2. Russia was defeated,
3. the independence of Turkey was guaranteed.
1. immunity from the jurisdiction of a nation, granted to foreign diplomatic officials, foreign warships, etc.
2. the applicability or exercise of a sovereign's laws outside its territory.
3. Exemption from local legal jurisdiction, such as that granted to foreign diplomats.
Young Ottomans
1. The Young Ottomans (Yeni Osmanlilar) were a group of Ottoman nationalist intellectuals formed in 1865,
2. influenced by such Western thinkers as Montesquieu and Rousseau and the French Revolution.
3. They developed the concept of Ottomanism, aligned with these thinkers. They advocated a constitutional, parliamentary government.
1. A Slavophile is an intellectual movement originating from 19th century
2. wanted the Russian Empire to be developed upon values and institutions derived from its early history.
3. Slavophiles were especially opposed to Western European culture and its influences in Russia.
1. theory and movement intended to promote the political or cultural unity of all Slavs.
2. Advocated by various individuals from the 17th cent.,
3. it developed as an intellectual and cultural movement in the 19th cent.
Decembrist revolt
1. took place in Imperial Russia on December 14 (December 26 New Style), 1825.
2. Russian army officers led about 3,000 soldiers in a protest against Nicholas I's assumption of the throne
3. after his elder brother Constantine removed himself from the line of succession.
Opium War
1. lasted from 1839 to 1842 and 1856 to 1860,
2. the climax of a trade dispute between China under the Qing Dynasty and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
3. British smuggling of opium from British India into China and the Chinese government's efforts to enforce its drug laws erupted in conflict.
1. The carrier of a military unit's colours, standard, guidon or other banner of Scottish origin
3.a person who carries a flag or banner; standard-bearer.
Treaty of Nanking
1. The Treaty of Nanking (Treaty of Nanjing), signed 29 August, 1842,
2. was the unequal treaty
3. marked the end of the First Opium War between the British and Qing Empires of 1839-42.
treaty ports
1. Treaty ports were port cities in China, Japan and Korea opened to foreign trade by the Unequal Treaties.
2. The first five treaty ports in China were established at the conclusion of the First Opium War by the Treaty of Nanjing in 1842.
3. The second group was set up following the end of the Arrow War in 1860
most-favored-nation status
1. Most Favored Nation status is when a country enjoys all the lowered tariffs and reductions of trade barriers
2.all other members of the World Trade Organization receive.
3.Most Favored Nation status, and all receive the same trade benefits as all other members.
Taiping Rebellion
1. Large-scale rebellion against the Qing dynasty and the presence of foreigners in China.
2. The peasants, having suffered floods and famines in the late 1840s, were ripe for rebellion, which came under the leadership of Hong Xiuquan.
3. Hong's visions convinced him he was the younger brother of Jesus, and he saw it as his duty to free China from Manchu rule.